Skip to main content

Full text of "Conquest of the country northwest of the River Ohio 1778-1783: and ..., Volume 2"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 

Conquest of the country northwest 
of the River Ohio 1778-1783 

William Hayden English 



ilarbarb College Hftrarp 


One haJf the income from this Legacy, which was re- 
ceived in 1880 under the will of 

of WaJlham, MassachusetU, iato be expended for books 
for the College Library. The other half of the income 
is devoted to scholarships in Harvard University for the 
benefit of descendants of 

who died at Watertown, MassachosettA, in 1686. In the 
absence of such descendants, other persons arc eligible 
to the scholarships. The will requires that this announce- 
ment shall be made in every book added to the Library 
under its provisions. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Taken from a miniature In pouession of Jeffenon K. Clark, Esq , of St. Louis, Mo. 

Digitized by 






1778— 1783 










President Indiann Historical Society 




Digitized by 


Copyright 1895 



Digitized by 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Vol. II. 


Portrait of Gborob Rogers Clark (Frontispiece Vol. 2) 588 

Illustrations (half title) 591 

Hamilton and Lamothb Sent in Irons to Williamsburo 616 

Fac-simile Letter of Thomas Jefferson Declining to Release Gover- 
nor Hamilton from Captivity 644 

Portrait of Little Turtle 695 

Signature of John Baley 701 

Signature of Richard Harrison 701 

Signature of Edward Worthington 701 

Signature of Thomas Quick 701 

Signature of Robert George. 701 

Signature of John Gibson 710 

Clark's Forces Leaving Pittsburgh, 1781 719 

Lochry's Defeat. 728 

Signature of Phillibert 739 

Signature of Pierre Gamelin 739 

Signature of L. E. Denline 740 

Signature of Le Grand 740 

Monument to Fourteen Soldiers Killed by Indians in 1783 751 

Death of Colonel John Floyd 752 

Fort Nelson 755 

Map of Northwest Territory and the Thirteen Original States 767 

The Seal of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the 

River Ohio 773 

Death of Joseph Rogers 773 

• Map of Northwest Territory with Notes of Some Historical Dates 
AND Places 776 


Digitized by 




Signature op Benjamin Habrison, Governor op Virginia 783 

Clark Driving the Indians prom Council Chamber 793 

Signature op Samuel Hopkins 803 

Portrait op John Rice Jones 808 

Signature op John Rice Jones 808 

Portrait op General Clark in His Old Age Copied from Oil Paint- 
ing in Vincennes University 817 

Patent Issued by the State op Virginia por the Land in Clark's 

Grant 834 

Oppicial Map op Clark's Grant 85i 

Signature op Walker Daniel 855 

Signature op William Croguan 856 

Signature op John Edwards 856 

Signature op John Campbell 856 

Signature op James F. Moore 857 

Signature op Richard Taylor 857 

Signature op Robert Breckenridge 857 

Signature op Alexander Breckenridge 858 

Signature op George Rogers Clark (after he was paralyzed) 858 

Portrait op Joseph Bartholomew 859 

Portrait op Andrew P. Hay 8(K) 

Signature op Abram Bowman 862 

Ruins op Clark's Old Mill 863 

Supposed Chimney op Fort Finney 863 

Governor Posey's Old Residence at Jeppersonville. 864 

Portrait op Marston G. Clark 8(56 

Signature op Marston G.Clark 866 

Clark's Residence in Clarksville 868 

Sword op General Clark (2 plates) 874, 875 

Presentation op Sword to General Clark 885 

House Where General Clark Died— Residence op His Sister, Lucy 

Croghan 889 

Diagram op the Clark Graves 900 

Graves op General Clark and Others op the Clark Family, Cave 

Hill. 902 

Clark Statue and Pedestal in Monument Place, Indianapolis 906 

Portrait op Jacob Burnett 909 

Portrait op Reuben T. Durrett 911 

Portrait of John Fiske 912 

Digitized by 




Portrait op John B. Dillon 912 

Portrait op John Reynolds 912 

Portrait op Henry Pi rtle 913 

Portrait op Jambs A. Garpield 914 

Portrait op Theodore Roosevelt 914 

Portrait op John W. Daniel. 915 

Portrait op George F. Hoar. 915 

Portrait op Lewis Collins 916 

Portrait op Lyman P. Draper 916 

Portrait op Samuel Merrill. 917 

Portrait op Burk A. Hinsdale 918 

Portrait op Jacob P. Dunn 918 

Portrait op John Randolph 918 

Portrait op James Parton 919 

Portrait op Daniel W. Voorhees 920 

Portrait op David Turpie 920 

Portrait op John Sherman 921 

The Bewildered Guide. 924 

Signature op John Sanders 927 

Signature op Daniel Boone 927 

Novel Pioneer Money 928 

Virginia Currency Payable in Tobacco 930 

Signature op Richard Brashear. 935 

Signature op Buckner Pittman 937 

Signature op John Paul 941 

Signature op General Charles Scott 948 

Signature op Attorney-General Harry Innes 948 

Signature op Honorable J. Brown, op Kentucky 948 

Robert J. Todd's Commission as Major 948 

Portrait op Levi L. Todd, Senior ; 950 

Portrait op Doctor Robert N. Todd 950 

Signature op William Whitley 952 

Signature op Abram Chapline 958 

Signature op James Bigger 967 

Signature op Shadrach Bond, Senior 9<i7 

Signature op Valentine T. Dalton 967 

Signature op Peter Priest 967 

Signature of Isaac Van Metre. 967 

Signature op Isaac Yates 1>67 

Digitized by 




SiGNATURB OP Jambs Whitecotton 967 

Portrait op Gborgb Rogers Clark in His Old Age 968 

Portrait op Bland Ballard 973 

Bland Ballard's Escape prom the Indians 975 

Signature op Isaac Bowman 979 

Signature op John Bowman 979 

Signature op Richard Rue 985 

Richard Rue Running the Gauntlet 986 

Portrait op Joseph Holman 988 

Portrait op George Holman 988 

Portrait op Lucy Croghan, Sister op General Clark 990 

Portrait op General Clark's Sister, Ann Gwathmky 990 

Portrait op Eleanor Elting Temple, General Jonathan Clark's 

Daughter 990 

Signature op General Jonathan Clark 991 

Signature op Sarah Clark 991 

Signature op William Aylett Booth 997 

Signature op Rebecca Booth.. 997 

Signature op William Booth 997 

Portrait op Samuel Gwathmey 997 

Signature of John Gwathmey 998 

Signature op Captain Edmund Clark 1001 

Portrait of Major George Croghan 1005 

Medal Voted to Major Croghan by Congress (two plates) 1005 

Croghan Monument, Fremont, Ohio 1007 

Signature op Richard Clough Anderson 1008 

Signature op Governor Charlbs»Anderson 1009 

Signature op Governor William Clark 1012 

Portrait op Governor William Clark 1014 

Fac-simile op the Entry op Judge William Clark's Death on the 

Records op St. Xavier's Church, Vincennes 1017 

Portrait op Jefferson K. Clark, Son op William Clark 1019 

Big Knives (Finis) 1019 

Clark's Statue, Indianapolis 1021 

Digitized by 



Contente of 

Digitized by 



Vol. II. 





Hamilton's version of their treatment at Vincennes — Who the prisoners were — 
Captains Williams and Rogers with twenty-five men convey the prisoners to 
Virginia — Instructed by Colonel Clark to see that prisoners be provided with 
all necessaries — Hamilton's account of the journey, and description of condi- 
tion of the Americans — Governor Henry's letter announcing the capture of 
Vincennes — Hamilton put in irons and confined in a dungeon in retaliation 
for cruelties inflicted on American prisoners — He bitterly denounces treat- 
ment of himself and colleagues — Governor of Virginia acted on advice of 
the executive council — He explains and justifies his action — Correspondence 
between General Washington and Governor Jefferson on the subject — Se- 
verity of treatment finally relaxed— Fac -simile of a letter of Jefferson in re- 
lation to Hamilton — Release on parole offered prisoners — Accepted by some — 
Declined at first by Hamilton, but finally accepted — Important letters, etc., 
on the subject — Leaves Virginia for New York — Recites troubles encountered 
on the way — Reaches British comrades in New York in wretched condition — 
Is at last exchanged and sails for England — His subsequent career.... 605-662 



Fort near mouth of Ohio determined upon — Develops his plans in a general 
order — Also in a letter to Governor John Todd — Letter of Todd to Governor 
Jefferson approving Clark's plans — Clark proceeds to mouth of Ohio early 


Digitized by 



in lySo-^Builds Fort Jefferson a few miles below — Intended for a settlement 
and garrison combined — Besieged by Indians — Heroic defense — Captain 
George Owens and his descendants — Garrison finally relieved — Indians with- 
draw from its vicinity — Perilous journey made by Clark from Fort Jefferson 
to Harrisburg — British and Indians invade Kentucky — Clark's campaign 
against the Indians at old Chillicothe and Piqua — Distressing particulars of 
death of Joseph Rogers — Clark returns to Kentucky — Deplorable condition 
of affairs there, at Fort Jefferson and the Illinois — Official letters on the sub- 
ject — Sketch of George Slaughter and Silas Harlan — Fort Jefferson finally 
abandoned 663-696 



Council of war to consider an expedition against the British at Detroit, or "the 
Floridians on the Mississippi" — Early action delay ed^C lark visits Virginia 
and aids in driving out the British — Secures Governor Jefferson's approval of 
an expedition against Detroit — Is commissioned brigadier-general thereof — 
Letter from General Washington approving the expedition, promising military 
stores and Continental troops — Letters of Jefferson and others on the subject 
— Colonel Gibson's regiment promised to Clark — Promises not fulfilled and 
expectations not realized — Country weary of war — Troops and army supplies 
hard to secure — Draft made but unsatisfactory — C4othing scarce — Paper 
money nearly worthless — Letters of Clark upon the discouraging situation — 
Bears up bravely under disappointments — Starts from Pittsburgh with but 
four hundred of the two thousand men expected — Events of voyage to falls of 
the Ohio— Colonel Lochry's command fails to join Clark at the appointed 
time and place — Follows on and is disastrously defeated — Distress of Colonel 
Clark at the defeat of Lochry and failure of campaij^n against Detroit — 
Colonel Crockett's letter defending Colonel Clark's conduct 697-734 




Memorial of the people of Vincennes — Letter of Captain Baley, commandant 
of the post there — Colonel John Floyd writes of the situation in Kentucky — 

Digitized by 



Colonel Floyd killed by Indians — Colonel Slaughter and others write gloomily 
of the situation — Clark immediately engages in putting matters into better 
shape — Ascertains strength of the Kentucky militia — Builds Fort Nelson — 
Suggests to the governor of Virginia a system of armed boats on the Ohio 
— Uses a gun -boat between the falls and the Licking — Indian depredations 
continue — Disastrous battle of Blue Licks in August, 17S2 — Rising of the 
people to carry the war into the enemy's country — General Clark marches, 
at the head of a thousand men, against the Indian towns on the Little Miami 
and destroys them — Indians amazed at unexpected development of the strength 
of the Americans and never afterwards invade Kentucky in force — An appro- 
priate ending of the successful part of General Clark's military career. 




Negotiations ended in treaty of peace of 1783 — These negotiations called atten- 
tion more particularly to the great benefit General Clark's services had been 
to the country — He had captured from the enemy a vast territory, and being 
in possession it was included in the boundaries of the new government — But 
for this the boundary might have been the Ohio river, or the Alleghany 
mountains — Importance of the conquest — Triumph of Clark and his sol- 
diers — Seal of the Northwest Territory — Importance of that territory. 




Virginia, exhausted by the war, failed, for a time, to sufficiently provide for Clark's 
troops — He is finally retired from service — Letter of governor of Virginia to 
Clark — Letter from Clark to the governor, disclosing his financial distress — 
Asks, in vain, for a portion of what is due him — Similaritj' of treatment of 
Clark and Vigo— Letter from Vigo to Clark — Comments on the treatment of 
Clark — Retires to Kentucky neglected, disappointed and distressed — Injurious 
effect on his health and habits — Remains in comparative obscurity until made 
a commissioner in 1785 to treat with certain Indian tribes — Some incidents at 
the treaty 779-794 

Digitized by 







General Clark placed in command — The situation communicated to the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia by Clark and John May — Officers, Kentucky military dis- 
trict, meet in council — Right to impress military supplies declared — Expedi- 
tion marches by land to Vincennes — Provisions forwarded by water, delayed 
and spoiled — Expedition delayed at Vincennes — March in demoralized con- 
dition — A portion revolt before reaching enemy and return — Clark over- 
whelmed with grief — French inhabitants no longer friendly — Clark determines 
to garrison Vincennes — Is driven by necessity to impress supplies for his 
troops — Takes some Spanish property — Commissary appointed — Regular 
accounts kept of property taken — His conduct misrepresented — Virginia and 
congress, without waiting for his explanations, condemn it — This action hasty 
and inconsiderate — Opinions of disinterested persons — Clark returns to the 
falls full of disappointment — Finally meditates an expedition in the interest 
of the French against the Spaniards on the Mississippi — Accepts French 
commission — Issues a proclamation — Expedition abandoned — Effect of the 
movement beneficial in hastening free navigation of the Mississippi — Opinion 
of Governor Shelby and others 795-824 







Clarksville, Indiana, and vicinity — George Rogers Clark*s connection therewith 
— Is stricken with paralysis at that place — Amputation of his leg — Virginia 
presents him a sword and pension — The subject of sword presentations to 
him considered — He lingers long in a feeble, and finally helpless, condition — 

Digitized by 



Dies at his sister's house in Kentucky in 1818 — His will — Controversy in 
relation thereto, and other events connected with his illness and death. 



Burial place of George Rogers Clark — Location of the graves of the Clark 
family in Cave Hill Cemetery — Inscriptions on the grave-stones — Visit of the 
author to these graves — Reflections upon there being no monument to honor 
General Clark's memory — Steps taken to secure one in connection with the 
great Indiana soldiers' monument at Indianapolis — Successful eflforts in that 
direction — Description of the monument — Abortive movements of Ken- 
tucky and the United States to erect a monument — Opinions of eminent 
men of George Rogers Clark and his services to his country 897-922 



John Sanders — Major Thomas Quick — Captain Richard Brashear — Lieutenant 
Richard Harrison — Lieutenant John Gerault — Lieutenant Michael Perault — 
General Robert Todd — Captain Levi Todd — Ebenezer and John Severns — 
Edward Bulger — Captain Abram Chapline — James Curry, Levi Teall and 
Joseph Anderson — Colonel William Whitley — John Paul — Buckner Pittman. 





The region of the falls always a favorite place of resort — Abundance offish and 
game — Battlefield and burying ground of some unknown race near Clarks- 
ville — Ancient stone fortifications at the mouth of Fourteen-mile creek — Other 
forts and stations — Bland Ballard's escape — Lieutenant Isaac Bowman — 
Richard Rue 969-988 




Digitized by 


Conqueet ot tbe 

Volume II 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 






Hamilton's version of their treatment at Vincennes — Who the prisoners were — 
Captains Williams and Rogers with twenty-five men convey the prisoners to 
Virginia — Instructed by Colonel Clark to see that they are provided with 
all necessaries — Hamilton's account of the journey, and description of condi- 
tion of the Americans — Governor Henry's letter announcing the capture of 
Vincennes — Hamilton put in irons atid confined in a dungeon in retaliation 
for cruelties inflicted on American prisoners — He bitterly denounces treat- 
ment of himself and colleagues — Governor of Virginia acted on advice of 
the executive council — He explains and justifies his action — Correspondence 
between" General Washington and Governor Jefferson on the subject — Se- 
verity of treatment finally relaxed — Fac-simile of a letter of Jefferson in re- 
lation to Hamilton — Release on parole offered prisoners — Accepted by some — 
Declined at first by Hamilton, but finally accepted — Important letters, etc., 
on the subject — Leaves Virginia for New York — Recites troubles encountered 
on the way — Reaches British comrades in New York in wretched condition- 
Is at last exchanged and sails for England — His subsequent career. 

{HE capture of the British boats on the Wabash river, 
with all the stores and valuable papers intended for 
Hamilton, as narrated in Chapter XH, added to his al- 
ready overwhelming humiliation. The night after signing 
the agreement to surrender Fort Sackville he says he spent 
*Mn assorting papers and preparing for the disagreeable 
ceremony of the next day. Mortification, disappointment 
and indignation had their turns." It was but the begin- 


Digitized by 



ning of the unfortunate lieutenant-governor's trials and 
sorrows according to the narrative of his numerous and 
long-continued troubles as given in his report to his su- 
perior officers, to which reference has already been fre- 
quently made. There is no doubt this account was col- 
ored and in some respects exaggerated to suit his side of 
the case, but, at the same time, it is evident that he was 
very forcibly made to realize what it is to be in an enemy's 
hands as a prisoner of war, towards whom special resent- 
ment is felt. He was certainly not allowed to sleep on a 
bed of roses. 

He realized what was in store for some of his comrades, 
and possibly for himself, at the very beginning. ^'The 
evening of the day we capitulated," says he, ^^ Colonel 
Clark ordered neck-iron fetters and handcuffs to be made 
which, in our hearing, he declared were designed for those 
officers who had been employed as partisans with the Indians. 
I took him aside and reminded him that these prisoners were 
prisoners of war included in the capitulation which he had 
so lately set his hand to. He said his resolution was formed; 
that he had made a vow never to spare man, woman or 
child of the Indians, or those who were employed with 
them. I observed to him that these persons, having obeyed 
my orders, were not to be blamed for the execution of 
them; that I had never known that they had acted contrary 
to those orders, by encouraging the cruelty of the savages; 
on the contrary, and that if he was determined to pass by 
the consideration of his faith and that of the public, pledged 
for the performance of the articles of capitulation, I desired 
he might throw me into prison, or lay me in irons, rather 
than the others. He smiled contemptuously, turned away 

Digitized by 



and ordered three of these persons to the guard till the 
irons should be made. The scalps of the slaughtered In- 
dians were hung up by our tents; a young man of the name 
of Rainbault was brought into the fort with a halter about 
his neck, and only for the interposition of the volunteers 
from the Illinois, some of whom were his relations, would 
infallibly been hanged without any crime laid to his charge 
but his having been with a scouting party. He was half 
strangled before he was taken from the tree. Our soldiers 
told us that some of the rebels had sworn solemnly to de- 
stroy Major Hay and myself the first opportunity. As we 
could not guard against any attempt in the situation we 
then found ourselves, we thought it best to appear unac- 
quainted with any such resolution, but we were twice in 
the night obliged to fly for security to Colonel Clark's quar- 
ters in the fort, two men that were intoxicated, and whose 
names had been given us, attempting to shoot us in our 
tent. The attempt was proved but no punishment ensued. 
We were kept in the dark as to the day of our departure, 
though I had repeatedly asked it, that we might have bread 
baked and prepare what was necessary." 

He was not kept in suspense as to the time of his depart- 
ure very long, for, on the 7th of March, according to Bow- 
man's journal, " Captain Williams and Lieutenant Rogers, 
with twenty-five men, set off for the falls of Ohio, to 
conduct the following prisoners, viz. : Lieutenant-Governor 
Henry Hamilton, Major John Hay, Captain William 
Lamothe, Monsieur Dejean (grand judge of Detroit) , Lieu- 
tenant John Schieffelin, Doctor I. McBeth, Francis Ma- 

Digitized by 



sonville, Mr. L. F. Bellefeuille (French interpreter) , with 
eighteen privates." 

Clark's memoir says: ''On the 7th of March, Captains 
Williams and Rogers set out by water with a party of 
twenty-five men, to conduct the British officers to Ken- 
tucky ; and, farther to weaken the prisoners, eighteen priv- 
ates were also sent. After their arrival at the falls of the 
Ohio, Captain Rogers had instructions to superintend their 
route to Williamsburg, to furnish them with all the neces- 
sary supplies on their way, and to await the orders of the 
governor." By weakening the prisoners. Colonel Clark, 
of course, meant to lessen the number he had to look after 
and take care of. 

These prisoners seem to have been turned over temporar- 
ily by Captain Williams to Captain Ilarrod, presumably at 
the falls of the Ohio, who executed the following receipt for 
the same: ^^ Received of Captain Williams, the within 
mentioned prisoners, in number twenty-six, March the 
31st, 1779. Wm. Herrod, captain." In addition to the 
names of the eight officers, above mentioned by Bowman, 
the list, accompanying the receipt, gives the names of 
Sergeant James Parkinson and Corporal Abel Leazenby, 
and sixteen privates, as follows : Robert Br3^ant, George 
Spittal, John Fraser, John Sutherland, Thomas Keppel, 
John Wall, Christ Macgra (McCrow), John Brebin (Bre- 
bonne) , William Ta)4or, Patrick Mackinlie, Reuben Vesey , 
Amos Ainsley, Benjamin Pickering, John Home, William 
Perry and Belser Givine (?).* 

*The given names were not mentioned in the receipt, but have since been 
added. The list contains twenty-six names. 

Digitized by 



Captain John Rogers, a kinsman of Clark, as already 
stated, seems to have been charged with the duty of seeing 
that the prisoners were conveyed from the falls of the Ohio 
to the capital of Virginia. The following instructions were 
issued to him by Colonel Clark : ^' You are to accompany 
Captain Williams to the falls of the Ohio and to accompany 
the prisoners from thence to Williamsburg. They will be 
guarded and conducted by the Kentucky militia. You are 
to be careful that they want no necessaries if possible to 
procure them. You will draw bills on the treasury for the 
expenses of your journey, and render a just account thereof 
to His Excellenc}^, the governor.'' 

As evidence in contradiction of the charge made by 
Hamilton that Clark treated the British prisoners cruelly, 
it will be observed that special instructions were given the 
officer in charge to ''be careful that they want no neces- 
saries, if possible to procure them.'' 

The account given by Hamilton of the departure and 
journey is that ''on the 8th day of March, we were put 
into a heavy oak boat, being twenty-seven in number, with 
our provision of flour and pork at common rations, and 
fourteen gallons of spirits for us, and our guard, which 
consisted of twenty-three persons, including two officers. 
We had before us three hundred and sixty miles of water 
carriage, and eight hundred and forty to march to the 
place of our destination, Williamsburg, Virginia. The 
loth, in the afternoon, we reached the Ohio, whose waters 
were out in an uncommon and astonishing degree. The 
depth above the banks eighteen feet, with such a swift 
current as made it very fatiguing to row, which we all did, 

Digitized by 



in turn, while our guards were distributed in four light 
boats. At night we were obliged to lie in our boat, making 
it fast to a tree, for the flood extended as far in the woods 
as the eye could reach. We made a miserable shift with our 
mast and oars to throw a cover over head, to keep out the 
rain, and lay like swine close jammed together, having 
not room to extend ourselves. We presently found the 
discipline of our guards such as would have enabled us to 
seize their arms and escape to the Natchez. This was agi- 
tated among us, but the idea was given up on the per- 
suasion that our companions left in the hands of the rebels 
at St. Vincennes would be sufferers for it. 

^' We fell in with four Delaware Indians, who were hunt- 
ing, having only their bows and arrows ; our escort obliged 
them to accompany us part of the way, but they disappeared 
one day, and we were given to understand that they were 
quietly knocked in the head. 

''Arrived at the falls of the Ohio the 30th of March. 
Here we found a number of settlers who live in log houses 
in eternal apprehension from the Indians. It is remark- 
able that the party from St. Vincennes had been so vigilant 
that the news of Fort Sackville falling into our hands the 
17th of December was only known on the 27th of March. 
Colonel Clark had promised to send fifteen horses to this 
place for our use on the march, but that never was per- 
formed. He had apprised us that there was but little 
chance of escaping with our lives, the people on the frontiers 
were so exasperated by the inroads of the Indians, and in 
this we found he had told us the truth, being often threat- 
ened upon the march and waylaid at different times. Our 

Digitized by 



guards, however, behaved very well, protected us and 
hunted for us, else we must have starved, for our rations 
were long since expended and our allowance of bear's flesh 
and Indian meal was frequently very scanty. The people 
at the fort are in a wretched state — obliged to enclose their 
cattle every night within the fort, and carry their rifle to 
the field when they go to plow or cut wood. On our long 
march we had frequently hunger and thirst to encounter, 
as well as fatigue. At length we gained the settled country-, 
and at Lynches ferry, on the James river, were put into 
canoes and continued our progress by water." 

The news of Clark's wonderful success and the approach 
of the British prisoners was now spreading all over the 
country, creating great excitement and enthusiasm, espe- 
cially in Virginia. Governor Patrick Henry wrote ^Mn 
haste " from Williamsburg to Richard Henry Lee on the 
19th of May, that " Governor Hamilton, of Detroit, is a 
prisoner, with the judge of that countrj^, several captains, 
lieutenants and all the British who accompanied Hamilton 
in his conquest of the Wabash. Our brave Colonel Clark 
(sent out from our militia) with one hundred Virginians 
besieged the governor in a strong fort with several hun- 
dreds, and with small arms alone fairly took the whole 
corps prisoners and sent them into our interior countr)\ 
This is a most gallant action, and I trust will secure our 
frontiers in great measure. The goods taken by Clark 
are said to be of immense amount, and I hope will influence 
the Indians to espouse our interests. Detroit now totters: 
and if Clark had a few of Mcintosh's forces the place 
would be ours directly. I've late sent the French there 

Digitized by 



all the state papers, translated into their language, by the 
hands of a priest who I believe has been very active. I 
can not give you the other particulars of Clark's success, 
his messenger to me being killed and the letters being torn 
by the Indians. 

^' Adieu, my dear sir. May you continue your labors 
for the public good, which has been so much forwarded 
by you for so long a time. 

" Yrs in haste, 

^^P. Henry."* 

^^On the 20th of May," says Hamilton, ^^ being on 
shore to get refreshments, we were agreebly surprised to 
find ourselves at Brigadier (Alexander) Hamilton's quar- 
ters, who endeavored by his kindness and hospitality to 
make us forget our hardships. The same evening, halting 
at the house of a rebel, Colonel Lewis, we had the good 
fortune to see two officers of the convention army. Cap)- 
tain Freeman, aid-de-camp to General Reidevel (Riedsel), 
was so obliging as to be the bearer of a letter to General 
Phillips, as also one for your excellency containing the 
capitulation and some returns. On the 26th a rebel cap- 
tain with a guard marched us from Beaverdam to Rich- 
mond, from thence to Chesterfield, where we remained 
until the 15th of June (1779)." 

The time had now arrived when Hamilton and his prin- 
cipal officers were subjected to much harsher treatment than 
they had before encountered. This proceeded from sev- 
eral causes, which, no doubt, seem less forcible to us now 
than they did to the Americans of that day. At the time 

♦Life of Patrick Henry by his grandson, Vol. 2, p. 31. 

Digitized by 



of the surrender of Burgoyne many thousand British pris- 
oners had been sent into Virginia, where they were treated 
with great liberality and kindness, largely on account of 
the influence exercised in their behalf by Thomas Jefferson, 
afterwards governor of that state, and president of the 
United States. 

Instead of this clemency inspiring a like liberal treatment 
of Americans held as prisoners by the British, it is a matter 
of well authenticated history that they were, in many in- 
stances, treated with unwonted neglect and cruelty. 
Especially was this true of the great number of American 
prisoners forced into prison ships in New York harbor, 
then in possession of the British, and elsewhere, who were 
treated with absolute barbarity. General Heath, in his 
memoir, said that the American prisoners in New York 
were '' crowded in prisons and sugar-houses; they fell sick 
and died in the most shocking manner. It was common, 
on a morning, for the cartman to come and take away the 
bodies for burial by cart loads." Another writer says 
*^from ten to twenty died daily, and their remains were 
thrown into pits without a single rite of burial. In the old 
provost, where oflScers chiefly were incarcerated, so closely 
were they packed that when their bones ached at night 
from lying on the hard planks, and they wished to turn, 
it was done by the word of command, and the whole hu- 
man mass turned at once. In Wallabout bay, across the 
river, the hulk of the Jersey, an old sixty-four gun ship, 
unseaworthy, with masts and rigging gone, was a scene of 
human suffering which even now, at the end of a century, 
chills the hand that would draw a pen picture, however in- 

Digitized by 



adequate. No warmth in winter, no screen from the 
scorching summer sun, no physician, no clergyman soothed 
or consoled the dying in that center of contagious disease, 
which was never cleansed, and constantly replenished with 
new victims. It is estimated that eleven thousand of its 
dead were buried on the Brooklyn shore. Many a New 
York citizen tried to alleviate the horrors of the prisons and 
prison-ships, for there were several of the latter, but mili- 
tary law prevailed; no communication with prisoners was 
allowed, and aid conveyed to them by stealth only doomed 
the benefactor to a similar fate."* 

The American commissioner of prisons, Elias Boudinot, 
it is said, made the astounding statement which seems al- 
most incredible, ^^that in one prison-ship alone, called the 
Jersey, which was anchored near New York, eleven thousand 
American prisoners died in eighteen months; almost the 
whole of them from the barbarous treatment of being sti- 
fled in a crowded hold with infected air, and poisoned with 
unwholesome food." Joel Barlow, who was quite promi- 
nent in his day, and at one time United States Minister to 
France, recorded in his book, called the Columbiad, that 
Mr. Boudinot made the above statement to him, and Mr. 
Barlow adds, that the cruelties exercised by the British 
armies on American prisoners during the first years of the 
war were unexampled among civilized nations.f 

Of like character were the atrocities perpetrated upon 
American women and children, and unarmed men on the 
frontiers, by ungovernable savages, organized, encouraged, 

*Mrs. Lamb's History of the City of New York, p. 208. 

tBarlo\v*s Columbiad, note 37, p. 171, Vol. 2, edition of 1809, Philadelphia. 

Digitized by 



and rewarded, in some instances, by British officers. Fore- 
most among these officers was said to have been Hamilton, 
now thrown, by the fortunes of war, into the hands of this 
same Thomas Jefferson, who had only a short time before 
been chosen governor of Virginia. Smarting under the 
apparent ingratitude of the British, and the cruelties in- 
flicted on the western frontiers, and on the American pris- 
oners in the east. Governor Jefferson decided it to be a duty 
he owed his country to treat Hamilton and a few of his 
immediate officers with a return of severity; not only be- 
cause, as he avers, they deserved it, but also because by 
retaliation he hoped to force the British to a greater len- 
iency in the treatment of prisoners. His justification of 
this action has been fully written by Mr. Jefferson him- 
self, and the author prefers in this account to use 
mainly the words of the distinguished parties them- 

To that end will first be given the continuation of Gov- 
ernor Hamilton's grievances. He says that at Chester- 
field an officer met the party, ^'having a written order 
under the hand of the governor of the province, Thomas 
Jefferson, for taking me in irons to Williamsburg. I was 
accordingly handcuffed, put upon a horse, and, my servant 
not being suffered to go with me, my valise was fastened 
behind me. Captain Lamothe was ordered to accompany 
me, being in like manner handcuffed. The fatigues of 
the march heated my blood to a violent degree. I had 
several large boils on my legs; my handcuffs were too tight 
but were eased at a smith's shop on the road; thus, some- 

Digitized by 



times riding and sometimes walking, we arrived the 
second evening at Williamsburg, having come sixty miles. 
We were conducted to the J)alace where we remained about 
half an hour in the street at the governor's door, in wet 
clothes, wear}^, hungry, and thirsty, but had not even a 
cup of water offered us. During this time a considerable 
mob gathered about us, which accompanied us to jail. On 
our arrival there we were put into a cell, not ten feet square, 
where wefound five criminals and Mr.De]ean,whd was also 
handcuffed. This poor man could not refrain from tears 
on seeing our equipment. We had the floor for a bed, the 
five felons were as happy as rum could make them, and so 
we were left to our repose for that night. The next day 
we three were taken out about eleven o'clock, and before a 
number of people our handcuffs taken off and fetters put 
on in exchange. I was honored with the largest, which 
weighed eighteen pounds eight ounces.'' 

While the fetters were being put on Hamilton, he em- 
braced the o<x:asion to pour out a torrent of abuse of the 
Americans, which, while probably natural, was not calcu- 
lated to excite sympathy in his behalf, with the men who had 
him in charge. ^^ When our fetters were properly fixed," he 
continues, *^ we were remanded to our dungeon from which 
the five felons were removed. The light we received was 
from a gate, which faced the court of twenty feet square, 
with walls thirty feet high. The prison having been built 
sixty years, it may be conceived we were subject to one 
very offensive inconvenience, in the heat of summer almost 
suffocating; our door was only opened to give us water. 
We were not allowed any candle, and from the first to the 

Digitized by 











I— • 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



last of our confinement, we never could find that the gov- 
ernor or council had ordered provision of any kind to be 
made for us except water, with which we were really very 
well supplied. The variety of vermin to which we were 
a prey, bad air, chagrin, and want of exercise began to 
produce their effect on my companions." 

His account shows that, in some respects, the order as to 
his treatment was not very rigorously enforced, for he pro- 
cured pen, ink and paper from the jailer, and proceeded 
to write furiously to the Virginia authorities. These com- 
munications, it seems, remained unanswered. He com- 
plains that the jailer searched his papers, but it appears not 
to have been a search of a very rigid character, as he says 
he was successful in keeping his journal, and other useful 
papers, concealed. 

He continues: ^'August 31st, Major Hay, with the 
other prisoners from Chesterfield, arrived at Williams- 
burg. The soldiers were confined in the debtor's room, the 
officers, five in number, were put into the dungeons with 
us, which made the heat intolerable. At eleven at night 
we were obliged to alarm the prisoners in the next cell, 
who passed the word to the guard for the jailer, our surgeon 
being on the point of suffocating, an asthma to which he 
was subject having seized him at this time, with that vio- 
lence that he lost his pulse for ten minutes. We had tried by 
wafting a blanket to draw some air through the gate, but this 
was insufficient, and if he had not had presence enough 
of mind to open a vein, he would probably have expired, 
for the state of the air was such that a candle, with which 
we had lately been indulged, would barely live, if held 

near the top of the cell. The jailer took Mr. McBeath out 

Digitized by 



and suffered him to sleep in his own room, and I must de- 
clare, in justice to him, that in several points he showed 
more feeling by far than his employers. The door of our 
cell continuing shut for several days, the poor prisoners, 
young and old, men and women, offered to be locked up and 
debarred the use of the court if we might be allowed that 
liberty which at length we had.'' 

Having now given Hamilton's version of his grievances 
let us hear the version of the other side. Governor Jef- 
ferson appears not to have acted hastily in the matter, or 
entirely on his own volition. He was advised by the exec- 
utive council of Virginia, and the reason for their action as 
set out, at some length, in their proceedings, is here given: 

^^In Council, June i8, 1779. 

**The board proceeded to the consideration of the letters 
of Colonel Clark, and other papers relating to Henry 
Hamilton, Esq., who has acted for some years past as 
lieutenant-governor of the settlement at and about Detroit, 
and commandant of the British garrison there, under Sir 
Guy Carleton, as governor-in-chief; Philip Dejean, justice 
of the peace for Detroit, and William Lamothe, captain of 
volunteers, prisoners of war, taken in the county of Illinois. * 

^^They find that Governor Hamilton has executed the 
task of inciting the Indians to perpetrate their accustomed 
cruelties on the citizens of the United States, without dis- 
tinction of age, sex or condition, with an eagerness and. 
avidity which evince that the general nature of his charge [ 
harmonized with his particular disposition. They should: 
have been satisfied, from the other testimony adduced, that 
these enormities were committed by savages acting under 

Digitized by 



his commission; but the number of proclamations which, at 
different times, were left in houses, the inhabitants of which 
were killed or carried away by the Indians, one of which 
proclamations is in possession of the board, under the hand 
and seal of Governor Hamilton, puts this fact beyond a 
doubt. At the time of his captivity, it appears he had sent 
considerable bodies of Indians against the frontier settle- 
ments of these states, and had actually appointed a great 
council of Indians to meet him at Tennessee, to concert 
the operations of this present campaign. 

'' They find that his treatment of our citizens and soldiers, 
taken and carried within the limits of his command, has 
been cruel and inhuman; that in the case of John Dodge, 
a citizen of these states, which has been particularly stated 
to this board, he loaded him with irons, threw him into a 
dungeon, without bedding, without straw, without fire, in 
the dead of winter and severe climate of Detroit; that, in 
that state, he wasted him with incessant expectations of 
death; that when the rigors of his situation had brought 
him so low that death seemed likely to withdraw him from 
their power, he was taken out and somewhat attended to, 
until a little mended, and before he had recovered ability 
to walk was again returned to his dungeon, in which a 
hole was cut seven inches square only, for the admission of 
air, and the same load of irons again put on him; that ap- 
pearing, a second time, in imminent danger of being lost to 
them, he was again taken from his dungeon, in which he 
had lain from January till June, with the intermission of a 
few weeks only, before mentioned. 

Digitized by 



'^That Governor Hamilton gave standing rewards for 
scalps, but offered none for prisoners, which induced the 
Indians, after making their captives carry their baggage 
into the neighborhood of the fort, there to put them to 
death and carry in their scalps to the governor, who 
welcomed their return and success by a discharge of cannon. 

^^That when a prisoner, brought alive, and destined to 
death by the Indians, the fire already kindled, and himself 
bound to the stake, was dexterously withdrawn, and se- 
creted from them by the humanity of a fellow-prisoner, a 
large reward was offered for the discovery of the victim, 
which having tempted a servant to betray his concealment, 
the present prisoner, Dejean, being sent with a party of 
soldiers, surrounded the house, took and threw into jail 
the unhappy victim and his deliverer, where the former 
soon expired under the perpetual assurances of Dejean 
that he was again to be restored into the hands of the sav- 
ages; and the latter, when enlarged, was bitterly repri- 
manded by Governor Hamilton. 

" It appears to them that the prisoner Dejean was on all 
occasions the willing and cordial instrument of Governor 
Hamilton, acting both as judge and keeper of the jails, 
and instigating and urging him, by malicious insinuations 
and untruths, to increase rather than relax his severities, 
heightening the cruelty of his orders by his manner of ex- 
ecuting them; offering at one time a reward to one man to 
be hangman for another, threatening his life on refusal, 
and taking from his prisoners the little property their op- 
portunities enabled them to acquire. 

Digitized by 



" It appears that the prisoner, Lamothe, was a captain of 
the volunteer scalping parties of Indians and whites, who 
went from time to time under general orders to spare 
neither men, women nor children. From this detail of 
circumstances, which arose in a few cases only, coming ac- 
cidentally to the knowledge of the board, they think them- 
selves authorized by fair deduction to presume what would 
be the horrid histor}- of the sufferings of the many who have 
expired under their miseries (which, therefore, will remain 
forever untold), or who have escaped from them, and are 
yet too remote and too much dispersed to bring together 
their well-founded accusations against the prisoners. 

'^They have seen that the conduct of the British officers, 
civil and military, has in the whole course of this war been 
savage and unprecedent among civilized nations; that our 
officers taken by them have been confined in crowded 
jails, loathsome dungeons and prison-ships, loaded with 
irons, supplied often with no food, generally with too little 
for the sustenance of nature, and that little sometimes un- 
sound and unwholesome, whereby such numbers have 
perished that captivity and death have with them been 
almost synonymous; that they have been transported be- 
yond seas, where their fate is out of the reach of our inquir}^, 
have been compelled to take arms against their country, 
and by a refinement in cruelty, to become murderers of 
their own brethren. 

*^ Their prisoners with us have, on the other hand, been 
treated with humanity and moderation; they have been 
fed on all occasions, with wholesome and plentiful food, 
suffered to go at large within extensive tracts of country, 

Digitized by 



treated with liberal hospitality, permitted to live in the fam- 
ilies of our citizens, to labor for themselves, to acquire and 
enjoy profits, and finally to participate of the principal 
benefits of society, privileged from all burdens. 

'* Reviewing this contrast, which can not be denied by 
our enemies themselves, in a single point, and which has 
now been kept up during four years of unremitting war, 
a term long enough to produce well-founded despair that 
our moderation may ever lead them to the practice of hu- 
manity; called on by that justice we owe to those who are 
fighting the battles of our country, to deal out, at length, 
miseries to their enemies, measure for measure, and to 
distress the feelings of mankind by exhibiting to them spec- 
tacles of severe retaliation, where we had long and vainly 
endeavored to introduced an emulation in kindness; hap- 
pily possessed, by the fortune of war, of some of those very 
individuals who, having distinguished themselves person- 
ally in this line of cruel conduct, are fit subjects to begin 
on, with the work of retaliation — this board has resolved 
to advise the governor, that the said Henry Hamilton, 
Philip Dejean and William Lamothe, prisoners of war, be 
put in irons, confined in the dungeons of the public jail, 
debarred the use of pen, ink and paper, and excluded all 
converse except with their keeper. And the governor or- 
ders accordingly. Arch. Blair, C. C' 

This action in relation to Hamilton made quite a sensa- 
tion, and, as was natural, the Americans generally com- 
mended it, and the British condemned it. Letters of 
remonstrance were forwarded to Governor Jefferson by the 

Digitized by 



British authorities, and to one of these he prepared the 
following vigorous, but rather voluminous, reply from Will- 
iamsburgh, July 22, 1779, to the governor of Quebec:* 

'^Your letter on the subject of Lieutenant-Governor 
Hamilton's confinement came safely to hand. I shall, with 
great cheerfulness, explain to you the reason on which the 
advice of council was founded, since, after the satisfaction 
of doing what is right, the greatest is that of having what 
we do approved by those whose opinions deserve esteem. 

"We think ourselves justified in Governor Hamilton's 
strict confinement, on the general principle of national 
retaliations. To state to you the particular facts of British 
cruelty to American prisoners would be to give a melan- 
choly history from the capture of Colonel Ethan Allen, at 
the beginning of the war, to the present day, a history 
which I will avoid, as equally disagreeable to you and to 

"I, with pleasure, do you the justice to say that I believe 
those facts to be very much unknown to you, as Canada 
has been the only scene of your service in America, and in 
that quarter we have reason to believe that Sir Guy Carle- 
ton, and the other officers commanding there, have treated 
our prisoners (since the instance of Colonel Allen) with 
considerable lenity. What has been done in England, and 
what in New York and Philadelphia, you are probably 
uninformed; as it would hardly be made the subject of 
epistolary correspondence. 

*Thi8 is the address given in the Virginia State Papers. In the edition of 
The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, published by G. P. Putnam's Sons, the ad- 
dress is, "Sir Guy Carleton, Governor of Canada." Governor of Quebec <«< 
probably right. See Mr. Brymner's letter near close of this chapter. 

Digitized by 



''I will only observe to you, sir, that the confinement 
and treatment of our officers, soldiers and seamen have 
been so vigorous and cruel as that a very great proportion 
of the whole of those captured in the course of this war, 
and carried to Philadelphia while in possession of the British 
army, and to New York, have perished miserably from 
that cause only ; and that this fact is as well established with 
us as any historical fact which has happened in the course of 
the war, A gentleman of this commonwealth in public 
office, and of known and established character, who was 
taken on sea, carried to New York and exchanged, has 
given us lately a particular information of the treatment of 
our prisoners there. 

^^ Officers taken by land, it seems, are permitted to go on 
parole within certain limits on Long Island, till suggestions 
shall be made to their prejudice by some Tory refugee, or 
other equally worthless person, when they are hurried to 
the provost in New York, without inquiring ^whether 
they be founded upon positive facts, be matter of hearsay, 
or taken from the report of interested men.' The example 
of inquiring into the truth of charges of this nature accord- 
ing to legal principles of evidence has surely not been set us 
by our enemies. We inquired what these provosts were, 
and were told they were the common miserable jails, built 
for the confinement of malefactors. Officers and men taken 

by sea were kept in prison ships infested with been 

on by the crowd* from five to ten a day. 

^^ When therefore we are desired to advert to the possible 
consequences of treating prisoners with rigor, I need only 

♦Parts of one line and all of another at bottom of the page lacking. 

Digitized by 



ask when did these rigors begin? Not with us, assuredly. 
I think you, sir, who have had as good opportunities as 
any British officer of learning in what manner we treat 
those whom the fortune of war has put into our hands, 
can clear us from the charge of rigor, as far as your 
knowledge or information has extended. 

*'I can assert that Governor Hamilton's is the first in- 
stance which has occurred in my own country, and if there 
has been another in any of the United States, it is unknown 
to me. These instances must have been extremely rare, if 
they have ever existed at all, or they could not have been 
altogether unheard of by me. When a uniform exercise 
of kindness to prisoners on our part has been returned by 
as uniform severity on the part of our enemies, you must 
excuse me for saying it is high time, by other lessons, to 
teach respect to the dictates of humanity. In such a case 
retaliation becomes an act of benevolence. 

" But suppose, sir, we were willing still longer to decline 
the drudgery of general retaliation, yet Governor Hamil- 
ton's conduct has been such as to call for exemplary pun- 
ishment on him personally. In saying this I have not so 
much in view his particular cruelties to our citizens, pris- 
oners with him (which, though they have been great, were 
of necessity confined to a small scale), as the general nature 
of the service he undertook at Detroit, and the extensive 
exercise of cruelties which they involved. 

''Those who act together in war are answerable to each 
other. No distinction can be made between the principal 
and ally by those against whom the war is waged. He 
who employs another to do a deed makes the deed his own. 

Digitized by 



If he calls in the hand of the assassin or murderer, himself 
becomes the assassin or murderer. The known rule of 
warfare of the Indian savages is an indiscriminate butchery 
of men, women and children. These savages under this 
well-known character are employed by the British nation 
as allies in the war against the Americans. Governor 
Hamilton undertakes to be the conductor of the war. In 
the execution of that undertaking, he associates small par- 
ties of whites under his immediate command with large 
parties of the savages, and sends them to act, sometimes 
jointly and sometimes separately, not against our fort or 
armies in the field, but the farming settlements on our 
frontiers. Governor Hamilton then is himself the butcher 
of men, women and children. I will not say to what 
length the fair rules of war would extend the right of pun- 
ishment against him; but I am sure that confinement under 
its strictest circumstances, as a retaliation for Indian devas- 
tation and massacre, must be deemed lenity. 

^^I apprehend you had not sufficiently adverted to the 
expression in the advice of the council, when you sup- 
pose the proclamation there alluded to to be the one ad- 
dressed to the inhabitants of the Illinois, afterwards printed 

in the public papers and to be confirmed to contain 

denunciations * proclamation there alluded 

to, contained nothing more than an invitation to our officers 
and soldiers to join the British arms against those whom 
he is pleased to call rebels and traitors. In order to intro- 
duce these among our people were put into the hands 
of the Indians ; and in every house where they murdered cr 

*Two lines at bottom of page gone. 

Digitized by 



carried away the family they left one of these procla- 
mations. Some of them were found sticking in the breasts 
of the persons murdered; one, under the hand and seal of 
Governor Hamilton, came to our hands. The Indians 
being the bearer of the proclamations under the hand and 
seal of Governor Hamilton (no matter what was the sub- 
ject of them), there can be no doubt they were acting under 
his direction, and, as including this proof, the fact was cited 
in the advice of the council. But if you will be so good as 
to recur to the address of the Illinois, which you refer to, 
you will find that though it does not in express terms 
threaten vengeance, blood and massacre, yet it proves that 
the governor had made for us the most ample provision of 
all these calamities. 

'' He there gives in detail the horrid catalogue of savage 
nations, extending from south to north, whom he had 
leagued with himself to wage combined war on our fron- 
tiers ; and it is well known that that war would of course 
be made up of blood and general massacre of men, women 
and children. Other papers of Governor Hamilton have 
come to our hands, containing instructions to officers going 
out with scalping parties, of Indians and whites, and prov- 
ing that that kind of war was waged under his express 
orders. Further proof in abundance might be added, but 
I suppose the fact too notorious to need them. 

^^Your letter seems to admit an inference that, what- 
ever may have been the general conduct of our enemies 
towards their prisoners, or whatever the personal conduct 
of Governor Hamilton, yet, as a prisoner by capitulation, 
you consider him as privileged from strict confinement. I 

Digitized by 



do not pretend to an intimate knowledge of this subject. 
My idea is that the term * prisoners of war ' is a generic 
one, the specification of which is, first, prisoners at discre- 
tion; and, second, prisoners on convention of capitulation. 
Thus, in the debate in the House of Commons of the 27th 
November last, on the address, the minister speaking of 
General Burgoyne (and in his presence) says he is a 
* prisoner,' and General Burgoyne calls himself a ^prisoner 
under the terms of the convention of Saratoga,' intimating 
that, though a prisoner, he was a prisoner of particular 
species entitled to certain terms. The treatment of the first 
class ought to be such as to be approved by the usage of 
polished nations; gentle and humane, unless a contrar}^ 
conduct in an enemy or individual render a strict treat- 
ment necessary. The prisoners of the second class have 
nothing to exempt them from a like treatment with those 
of the first, except so far as they shall have been able to 
make better terms by articles of capitulation. So far then 
as these shall have provided for an exemption from strict 
treatment, so prisoners on capitulation have a right to be 
distinguished from those at discretion. I do not propose 

* histor)^ furnishes, where certain causes antecedent 

thereto, though such instances might be produced from 
English history too, and in one case when the king himself 
commanded in person. Marshal Bouflers, after the taking 
of the Castle of Namur, was arrested and detained a prisoner 
of war, by King William, though by an article in the 
capitulation it was stipulated that the officers and soldiers 
of the garrison in general, and Marshal Bouflers, by 

*Some words at bottom of page gone. 

Digitized by 



name, should be at liberty. However, we waive reasoning 
on this head, because no article in the capitulation of Gov- 
ernor Hamilton is violated by his confinement. 

" Perhaps not having seen the capitulation, you were led 
to suppose it a thing of course that, being able to obtain 
terms of surrender, they would first provide for their own 
treatment. I enclose you a copy of the capitulation, by 
which you will see that the second article declares them 
prisoners of war, and nothing is said as to the treat- 
ment they were to be entitled to. When Governor Ham- 
ilton signs indeed, he adds a flourish, containing the mo- 
tives inducing him to capitulate, one of which was con- 
fidence in a generous enemy. He should have reflected 
that generosity on a large scale would take side against 
him. However these were only his private motives and 
did not enter into the contract with Colonel Clark. 

^^ Being prisoners of war then, with only such privileges 
as their capitulation had provided, and that having pro- 
vided nothing on the subject of their treatment, they are 
liable to be treated as other prisoners. We have not ex- 
tended our order as we might justifiably have done to the 
whole of this corps. Governor Hamilton and Captain 
Lamothe alone, as leading offenders, are in confinement. 
The other officers and men are treated as if they had been 
taken in justifiable war; the officers being at large on their 
parole, and the men also having their liberty to a certain 

'' Dejean was not included in the capitulation, being taken 
eight days after on the Wabash, 150 miles from St. Vin- 

Digitized by 



" I hope, sir, that being made more fully acquainted with 
the facts on which the advice of council was grounded, 
and exercising your own good sense in cool and candid 
deliberation on these facts, and the consequences deducted 
from them according to the usage and sentiments of civil- 
ized nations, you will see the transaction in a very different 
light from that in which it appeared at the time of writing 
your letter, and ascribe the advice of the council, not to 
want of attention to the sacred nature of public conven- 
tions, of which I hope we shall never in any circumstances 
lose sight, but to a desire of stopping the effusion of ye unof- 
fending blood of women and children, and the unjustifi- 
able severities exercised on our captive officers and soldiers 
in general by proper severities on our part/'* 

It will be observed that Hamilton and the other British 
prisoners, now in " durance vile," had been captured by 
Virginia troops, and were being held as prisoners of 
that state, under the order of the governor and council. 
The relations between the states and the general government 
were then chaotic, and in transition, but as the right to so 
treat these prisoners was vigorously denied by the British 
authorities, in letters of remonstrance to the governor and 
otherwise, Governor Jefferson, not being at all familiar 
with the technicalities of military affairs, communicated all 
the facts to General Washington, the commander-in-chief 
of the Continental Army, for the purpose of advising him 
of the situation and eliciting his views, intending to conform 

*Virgina State Papers, Vol. i, pp. 321, 322, 323, 324. Writings of Thomas 
Jefferson, Vol. 2, pp. 248 to 256, inclusive : Putnam & Sons, 1893. 

Digitized by 



his action with whatever advice might be given. The fol- 
lowing is the letter, dated Williamsburg, July 17, 1779: 

^'I, some time ago, enclosed to you a printed copy of 
an order of council, by which Governor Hamilton was to 
be confined in irons, in close jail, which has occasioned a 
letter from General Phillips, of which the enclosed is a copy. 

^'The general seems to think that a prisoner on capitu- 
lation can not be put in close confinement, though his 
capitulation should not have provided against it. 

'^ My idea was, that all persons taken in war were to be 
deemed prisoners of war. That those who surrender on 
capitulation (or convention) are prisoners of war also, 
subject to the same treatment with those who surrendered 
at discretion, except only so far as the terms of their capitu- 
lation or convention shall have guarded them. 

'^In the capitulation of Governor Hamilton (a copy of 
which I enclose), no stipulation is made as to the treatment 
of himself, or those taken with him. The governor, indeed, 
when he signs, adds a flourish of reasons inducing him to 
capitulate, one of which is the generosity of his enemy. 

'^Generosity, on a large and comprehensive scale, seemed 
to dictate the making a signal example of this gentleman ; 
but waiving that, these are only the private motives induc- 
ing him to surrender, and do not enter into the contract of 
Colonel Clark. I have the highest idea of those contracts 
which take place between nation and nation, at war, and 
would be the last on earth to do anything in violation of 

*' I can find nothing in those books usually recurred to 
as testimonials of the law and usages of nature and nations, 

Digitized by 



which convicts the opinions I have above expressed of 
error. Yet there may be such an usage as General Phillips 
seems to suppose, though not taken notice of by these 

^'I am obliged to trouble your excellency on this occa- 
sion, by asking of you information on this point. There 
is no other person whose decision will so authoritatively 
decide this doubt in the public mind, and none with which 
I am disposed so implicitly to comply. If you shall be of 
opinion that the bare existence of a capitulation, in the case 
of Governor Hamilton, privileges him from confinement, 
though there be no article to that effect in the capitulation, 
justice shall most assuredly be done him. 

^'The importance of this point, in a public view, and my 
own anxiet}^ under a charge of violation of national faith 
by the executive of this commonwealth, will, I hope, 
apologize for my adding this to the many troubles with 
which I know you to be burdened."* 

On the 6th of August, 1779, General Washington, then 
at West Point, answered Governor Jefferson's letter, saying: 

^'I have been honored with your letter of the 17th of 
July, upon the case of Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton. 
This subject, on more mature consideration, appears to be 
involved in greater difficulty than I apprehended. When 
I first received the proceedings of the council upon it, trans- 
mitted in j^our excellency's letter of the 19th of June, I had 
no doubt of the propriety of the treatment decreed against 
Mr. Hamilton, as being founded in principles of a justre- 

* Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. i, p. 225 (Published by Taylor & 
Maury, 1853, and referred lo hereafter for brevity as Jefferson's Works). 

Digitized by 



taliation. But, upon examining the matter more minutely, 
and consulting with several intelligent general officers, 
it seems to be their opinion, that Mr. Hamilton could not, 
according to the usage of war, after his capitulation even 
in the manner it was made, be subjected to any uncommon 
severit}' under that idea, and that the capitulation placed 
him under a different footing from that of a mere prisoner 
at discretion. 

''Whether it may be expedient to continue him in his 
present confinement from motives of policy, and to satisfy 
our people, is a question I can not determine ; but if it should 
be, I would take the liberty to suggest, that it may be 
proper to publish all the cruelties he has committed or 
abetted, in a particular manner, and the evidence in sup- 
port of the charges, that the world, holding his conduct in 
abhorrence, may feel and approve the justice of his fate. 
Indeed, whatever may be the line of conduct towards him, 
this may be advisable. 

'' If, from the considerations I have mentioned, the rigor 
of his treatment is mitigated, yet he can not claim of right 
upon any ground the extensive indulgence which General 
Phillips seems to expect for him ; and I should not hesitate 
to withhold from him a thousand privileges I might allow 
to common prisoners. He certainly merits a discrimina- 
tion; and although the practice of war may not justify all 
the measures that have been taken against him, he may 
unquestionably, without any breach of public faith or the 
least shadow of imputation, be confined to a room. His 
safe custody will be an object of great importance." * 

♦Writings of Washington (Sparks), Vol. 6, p. 315. 

Digitized by 



It will be seen from this letter that although General 
Washington at first considered the rigorous treatment of 
Hamilton entirely proper, and ^* founded on a just retalia- 
tion/' he finally came to the conclusion ^^that the capitula- 
tion (as a prisoner of war) placed Hamilton under a 
different footing from that of a mere prisoner at discretion. '^ 
The general could not determine, however, whether it 
would be expedient to continue Hamilton's present con- 
finement as a matter of policy and to satisfy the wishes of 
the Americans, but appears to have thought he deserved 
much of the punishment he was receiving, and that "a thou- 
sand privileges " which might properly be allowed common 
prisoners should be withheld from him. Hamilton's safe 
custody was a matter of great importance and he should, 
at least, " be confined to a room," 

The letter, as a whole, seemed to advise some relaxation- 
in the severity of the treatment Hamilton had been receiv- 
ing, and to this suggestion Governor Jefferson and his 
council conformed. The latter took the following action 
on the 29th of September: 

*^ The board having been, at no time, unmindful of the 
circumstances attending the confinement of Lieutenant-* 
Governor Hamilton, Captain Lamothe and Philip Dejean, 
which the personal cruelties of those men, as well as the 
general conduct of the enemy, had constrained them to 
advise; wishing and willing to expect that their sufferings 
may lead them to the practiceof humanity, should anyfuture ; 
turn of fortune in their favor submit to their discretion the" 
fate of their fellow-creatures; that it may prove an admon- 
ition to others, meditating like cruelties, not to rely for im- 

Digitized by 



punity in any circumstances of distance or present security, 
and that it may induce an enemy to reflect what must be 
the painful consequences should a continuation of the same 
conduct on their part impel us again to severities, while 
such multiplied subjects of retaliation are within our power; 
sensible that no impression can be made on the event of 
the war, by wreaking vengeance on miserable captives; 
that the great cause which has animated the two nations 
against each other is not to be decided by unmanly cruel- 
ties on wretches who have bowed their necks to the power 
of the victor, and by the exercise of honorable valor in 
the field, earnestly hoping that the enemy, viewing the 
subject in the same light, will be content to abide the event 
of that mode of decision, and spare us the pain of a sec- 
ond departure from kindness to our captives; confident 
that commiseration to our prisoners is the only possible 
motive to which can be candidly ascribed in the present 
actual circumstances of the war the advice we are now 
about to give — the board does advise the governor to send 
Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton, Captain Lamothe and 
Philip Dejean to Hanover Court-House, there to remain at 
large, within certain reasonable limits, taking the parole in 
the usual manner. The governor orders accordingly. 
Ordered that Major John Hay be sent also, under parole, 
to the same place.'' 

Grovernor Jefferson enclosed these orders of council to 
General Washington, on the ist of October, and at the 
same time answered the general's previous letter as follows: 

'^On receipt of your letter of August 6th, during my 
absence, the council had the irons taken off the prisoners 

Digitized by 



of war. When your advice was asked, we meant it should 
decide with us ; and, upon my return to Williamsburg, the 
matter was taken up and the enclosed advice given. A 
parole was formed, of which the enclosed is a copy, and 
tendered to the prisoners. They objected to that part of it 
which restrained them from say tng" anything to the prejudice 
of the United States, and insisted on ^freedom of speech.' 
They were, in consequence, remanded to their confinement 
in the jail, which must be considered as a voluntary one, until 
they can determine with themselves to be inoffensive, in 
word as well as deed. A flag sails hence to-morrow to 
New York, to negotiate the exchange of some prisoners. 
By her, I have written to General Phillips on this subject, 
and enclosed to him copies of the within ; intending it as an 
answer to a letter I received from him on the subject of 
Governor Hamilton."* 

On the next day Governor Jefferson again wrote Gen- 
eral Washington, saying: 

^^Just as the letter accompanying this was going off, 
Colonel Mathews arrived on parole from New York, by 
the way of headquarters, bringing your excellency's letter 
on this subject, wnth that of the British commissary of 
prisoners. The subject is of great importance, and I must, 
therefore, reserve myself to answer after further considera- 

^^Were I to speak from present impressions, I should 
say it was happy for Governor Hamilton that a final deter- 
mination of his fate was formed before this new informa- 
tion. As the enemy have released Captain Willing from 

♦Jefferson's Works, Vol. 1, p. 230. 

Digitized by 



his irons, the executive of this state will be induced, per- 
haps, not to alter their former opinion. But it is impossible 
that they can be serious in attempting to bully us in this 
manner. We have too many of their subjects in our power, 
and too much iron to clothe them with, and I will add, too 
much resolution to avail ourselves of both, to fear their pre- 
tended retaliation. However, I will do myself the honor 
of forwarding to your excellency the ultimate result of the 
council on this subject. 

^*In consequence of the information in the letter from 
the British commissary of prisoners, that no officers of the 
Virginia line should be exchanged till Governor Hamilton's 
affair should be settled, we have stopped our flag, which 
was just hoisting anchor with a load of privates for New 
York. I must therefore ask the favor of your excellency 
to forward the enclosed by flag, when an opportunity offers, 
as I suppose General Phillips will be in New York before 
it reaches you."* 

On the 8th of the same month Governor Jefferson wrote 
still another letter to General Washington: 

'' In mine of the second of the present month, written in 
the instant of Colonel Mathews' delivery of your letter, I 
informed you what had been done on the subject of 
Governor Hamilton and his companions, previous to that 

'' I now enclose you an advice of council, in consequence 
of the letter you were pleased to enclose me, from the 
British commissary of prisoners, with one from Lord 

*Jcfferson*8 Works, Vol. i, p. 231. 

Digitized by 



Rawdon; also a copy of my letter to Colonel Mathews, en- 
closing, also, the papers therein named. 

'' The advice of council to allow the enlargement of 
prisoners, on their giving a proper parole, has not been 
recalled, nor will be, I suppose, unless something on the 
part of the enemy should render it necessary. I rather 
expect, however, that they will see it their interest to 
discontinue this kind of conduct. I am afraid I shall here- 
after, perhaps, be obliged to give your excellency some 
trouble in aiding me to obtain information of the future 
usage of our prisoners. 

*^I shall give immediate orders for having in readiness 
every engine which the enemy has contrived for the de- 
struction of our unhappy citizens, captured by them. The 
presentiment of these operations is shocking beyond expres- 
sion. I pray Heaven to avert them; but nothing in this 
world will do it but a proper conduct in the enemy. In 
every event, I shall resign myself to the hard necessity 
under which I shall act."* 

The following is the enclosure referred to in the fore- 
going letter : 

'^In Council, October 8, 1779. 

^'The governor is advised to take proper and effectual 
measures for knowing, from time to time, the situation and 
treatment of our prisoners by the enemy, and to extend to 
theirs, with us, a like treatment, in every circumstance ; 
and, also, to order to a proper station the prison ship 
fitted up on recommendation from Congress, for the recep- 

♦Jefferson's Works, Vol. i, p. 232. 

Digitized by 



tion and confinement of such prisoners of war as shall be 
sent to it.'' 

About this time Captain Lamothe and Mr. Dejean, two 
of the imprisoned British officers, accepted the parole, 
which they had at first rejected, probably under the influ- 
ence of Hamilton. The latter continued for a long time 
to reject all paroles offered him, apparently without any 
very well founded reason. He was, therefore, continued 
in close confinement, with Hay and four others who pur- 
sued a similar course. 

Washington wrote, from his headquarters at West Point, 
on the 23d of November, to Jefferson, fully approving this 
action. He said: ^'The measure of the council in remand- 
ing Governor Hamilton and his companions back to con- 
finement on their refusing to sign the parole to them, is 
perfectly agreeable to the practice of the enemy. The 
particular part objected to, I have always understood, enters 
into the paroles given by our officers. In regard to your 
letter of the 8th, I would hope, with your excellency, that 
there will be no necessity for a competition in cruelties with 
the enemy. Indeed, it is but justice to observe that of late, 
or rather since Sir Henry Clinton has had the command, 
the treatment of our prisoners has been more within the 
line of humanity, and in general very different from that 
which they experienced under his predecessors. I shall 
not fail, however, as a matter of duty, to pay proper atten- 
tion to such deviations from this conduct as may appear 
the result of mere wantonness or cruelty, and have not been 
incurred by the irregularities of our prisoners."* 

♦Writings of Washington (Sparks), Vol. 6, p. 407. 

Digitized by 



The extreme anxiety which the British authorities man- 
ifested for the welfare of Hamilton, and their great desire 
to secure his liberty, soon attracted the attention of Ameri- 
can prisoners of like rank, and inspired them with hope 
that it might lead to their own release by exchange. 
Friends of American prisoners, as well as the prisoners 
themselves, interceded with Washington and Jefferson to 
that end. To an application of that character by ^^Colonel 
Dubuysson, a French officer in the family of Baron De 
Kalb," General Washington wrote in reply that '^ the state 
of Virginia, sensible of the dangerous influence which 
Governor Hamilton holds over the Indians, have absolutely 
refused to exchange him on any terms, for the present at 
least, and, as I have never deviated from a rule, which I 
laid down at the beginning of the war, of exchanging of- 
ficers in course, according to the time of their captivity, I 
can not, without manifest injury to several gentlemen of 
your rank, who have been prisoners for more than three 
years, propose your exchange in preference to theirs. I 
am glad to find that you seem to be aware of this difficulty 
in your letter from Philadelphia." * 

Some time before this Governor Jefferson wrote a letter 
to Mrs. Byrd, a member of a well-known Virginia family, 
who had apparently written him favoring an exchange of 
Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton for Colonel Mathews, in 
which he said: "I think he (Hamilton) will not be ex- 
changed on any terms during the war." The following is 
a fac-simile of this letter, the original of which is now in 
the author's possession: 

♦Writings of Washington (Sparks), Vol. 7, p. 240. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 





1 K- 1 



. u 





Digitized by 


Digitized by 



The Colonel Mathews here alluded to is, presumably, the 
same referred to in a letter written by General Sullivan in 
relation to the battle of Germantown, in which he says: 

'^ A regiment commanded by Colonel Mathews advanced 
.with rapidity near the town; but not being supported by 
some other regiments, who were stopped by a breast-work 
jnear Lucan's Mills, the brave colonel, after having per- 
formed great feats of bravery, and being dangerously 
wounded in several places, was obliged with about a hun- 
dred of his men to surrender." * 

Governor Jefferson addressed an important letter to 
Colonel Mathews, October 8, 1779, in which he said: 

'^The proceedings respecting Governor Hamilton and 
his companions, previous to your arrival here, you are 
acquainted with. For your more precise information, I en- 
close you the advice of council of June i6th, of that of 
August the 28th, another of September the 19th, on the 
parole tendered them the ist instant, and Governor Hamil- 
ton's letter the same day, stating his objections, in which he 
persevered; from that time his confinement has become a 
voluntary one. You delivered us your letters the next 
day, when the post being just setting out, much business 
prevented the council from taking them into consideration. 
They have this day attended to them, and found their res- 
olution expressed in the enclosed advice, bearing date this 

^^It gives us great pain that any of our countrymen 
should be cut off from the society of their friends and ten- 
derest connections, while it seems as if it was in our power 

♦Writings of Washington (Sparl<s), Vol. 5, p. 463. 

Digitized by 



to administer relief. But we trust to their good sense for 
discerning, and their spirit for bearing up against, the fal- 
lacy of this appearance. 

^^ Governor Hamilton and his companions were impris- 
oned and ironed, ist. In retaliation for cruel treatment of 
our captive citizens by the enemy in general. 2d. For the 
barbarous species of warfare which himself and his savage 
allies carried on in our western frontier. 3d. For particular 
acts of barbarity, of which he himself was personally guilty, 
to some of our citizens in his power. Any one of their 
charges was sufficient to justify the measures we took. 

^^Of the truth of the first, yourselves are witnesses. 
Your situation, indeed, seems to have been better since you 
were sent to New York ; but reflect on what you suffered 
before that, and knew others of your countrymen to suffer, 
and what you know is now suffered by that more unhappy 
part of them who are still confined on board of the prison 
ships of the enemy. 

" Proofs of the second charge we have under Hamilton's 
own hand ; and of the third, as sacred assurances as human 
testimony is capable of giving. Humane conduct on our 
part was found to produce no effect ; the contrary, there- 
fore, was to be tried. If it produces a proper lenity to our 
citizens in captivitj^, it will have the effect we meant ; if it 
does not, we shall return a severity as terrible as universal. 
If the causes of our rigor against Hamilton were founded 
in truth, that rigor was just, and would not give right to 
the enemy to commence any new hostilities on their part ; 
and all such new severities are to be considered, not as 
retaliation, but as original and unprovoked. If those 

Digitized by 



causes were not founded in truth, they should have denied 

^* If, declining the tribunal of truth and reason, they 
choose to pervert this into a contest of cruelty and destruc- 
tion, we will contend with them in that line, and measure 
out misery to those in our power in that multiplied pro- 
portion which the advantage of superior numbers enables 
us to do. We shall think it our particular duty, after the 
information we gather from the papers which have been 
laid before us, to pay very constant attention to your situ- 
ation and that of your fellow-prisoners. 

*^ We hope that the prudence of the enemy will be your 
protection from injury ; and we are assured that your regard 
for the honor of your country would not permit you to 
wish we should suffer ourselves to be bullied into an ac- 
quiescence, under every insult and cruelty they may choose 
to practice, and a fear to retaliate, least you should be made 
to experience additional sufferings. Their officers and 
soldiers, in our hands, are pledged for your safety; we are 
determined to use them as such. Iron will be retaliated 
by iron, but a great multiplication on distinguished sub- 
jects ; prison ships for prison ships, and like for like, in 

^' I do not mean by this to cover any officer who has 
acted or shall act improperly. They say Captain Willing 
was guilty of great cruelties at the Natchez; if so, they do 
right in punishing him. I would use any powers I have, 
for the punishment of any officer of our own who should 
be guilty of excesses unjustifiable under the usages of civ- 
ilized nations. However, I do not find myself obliged to 

Digitized by 



believe the charge against Captain Willing to be true, on 
the afBrmation of the British commissary, because in 
the next breath he claims no cruelties have as yet been 
inflicted on him. Captain Willing has been in irons. 

" I beg you to be assured, there is nothing, consistent 
with the honor of your country, which we shall not at all 
times be ready to do for the relief of yourself and com- 
panions in captivity. We know that ardent spirit and 
hatred for tyranny, which brought you into your present 
situation, will enable you to bear up against it with the 
firmness which has distinguished you as a soldier, and to 
look forward with pleasure to the day when events shall 
take place against which the wounded spirits of your ene- 
mies will find no comfort, even from reflections on the 
most refined of the cruelties with which they have glutted 
themselves.'' * 

On the 9th of October, 1779, the British soldiers were 
transferred from the jail to the barrack, and were allowed 
to cut wood both for themselves and the oflScers in the 
prison when cold weather arrived. " Even the American 
soldiers on guard," says Hamilton's narrative, ^^ though 
miserably bare of clothing themselves, used to spare a part 
of their own fuel for the dressing of our victuals." On 
Christmas day the British soldiers were marched away 
to King William county. ^^The weather at this time be- 
came so intensely cold that we could not rise from the floor, 
but continued da)^ and night in our blankets. The scurvy 
began to make its appearance and our legs to swell. The 
jailer then concluded we could not survive the severity of 

♦JefFer8on*8 Works, Vol. i, p. 233. 

Digitized by 



the cold in our present situation, took us to an upper room 
in the jail where prisoners had formerly been kept. This, 
though it had no windows, but an open grate, was more 
tolerable than the dungeon; we could light a fire in the 
chimney and by sacrificing part of our blankets to stop the 
grated window and stuff the cracks in the ceiling we made 
a shift to endure in the daytime; at night we were remanded 
to our dungeon. 

^ 'April 1 8th, 1 780, Lieutenant Schieffelin made his escape 
in company with Monsieur De Rochblave and after great 
risks and difficulties got to New York. 

''June I St, Mr. Maisonville destroyed himself. 

'* August I St, we were marched from Williamsburg. 
Major Hay and I sent to the jail at Chesterfield. The sur- 
geon and Mr. Bellefeuille to King William Court-House.'' 

He states that while ''at Chesterfield, our confinement 
was rendered very tolerable, and several of the military 
and others who were convinced of the injustice and illiber- 
ality of our treatment, showed by their behavior what 
opinion they had of the executive power. In this jail, 
Major Hay and I had a very severe, though short, attack of 
fever, which was pretty generally felt through the country. 
We were well attended. We had liberty to walk about in 
the neighborhood of the jail." 

He had persistently refused all paroles offered, until in 
the fall of 1780, when word was sent him by the British 
authorities that he was not likely to be exchanged at all, 
unless he accepted the parole. This caused him to accept, 
and he signed substantially the same parole which had at 
all times been open to him for a year. To some readers 

42 *^ 

Digitized by 



it may look as if from some personal motive ot his own he 
preferred imprisonment during that period to being re- 
leased, as he could have secured his liberty when the parole 
was first offered him, on substantially the same terms he 
now secured it, but it is more likely he was brought to ac- 
cept it by the advice of friends, the irksomeness of long 
confinement, and the probability of facilitating an ex- 
change. Here is the parole as given by him, and his ac- 
count of how he came to sign it: 

'' On the 23d, Lieutenant-Colonel Towles who had been 
a long-time prisoner to the English on Long Island, arrived 
at Chesterfield. He had had hopes of procuring an ex- 
change, and got permission to come to Virginia to effect it, if 
practicable. He brought me letters from my friends at 
York, which gave me to understand that, unless I accepted 
the parole, there was little probability of my procuring an 
exchange. Having therefore written to Brigadier (Alex- 
ander) Hamilton to request the continuance of his kindness 
to the prisoners now removed to Frederic Town, I, with 
Major Hay, accepted the parole, following: 

** Lieutenant-Governor Henry Hamilton Parole. 

** October 10, 1780. 
"I, Henry Hamilton, lieutenant-governor and superin- 
tendent of Detroit, do hereby acknowledge myself a pris- 
oner of war to the commonwealth of Virginia, and having 
permission from His Excellency Thomas Jefferson, gover- 
nor of the said commonwealth, to go to New York, do 
pledge my faith and most sacredly promise upon my parole 
of honor, that I will not do, say, write or cause to be done, 
said or written, directl)^ or indirectly, in any respect what- 

Digitized by 



soever, anything to the prejudice of the United States of 
America, or any of them, until I shall be enlarged from my 
captivity by exchange, or otherwise, with the consent of 
the said governor of Virginia, or his successors, and that I 
will return, when required by the said governor or his suc- 
cessors, to such place within the commonwealth as he shall 
point out, and deliver myself up again to him or the person 
acting for or under him. 

''In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and seal, at Chesterfield, this loth day of October, 1780. 

''Henry Hamilton, [l. s,]" 

It must be admitted that there was a sudden change 
about this time in the position of Governor Jefferson as to 
holding Hamilton as a prisoner until the close of the war. 
It will be seen that he still held that position on the 26th 
of September, 1780, when he wrote as follows to General 

"I was honored yesterday with your favor of the 5th 
instant, on the subject of prisoners, and particularly Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Hamilton. You are not unapprised of 
the influence of this officer with the Indians; his activity 
and embittered zeal against us. You also, perhaps, know 
how precarious is our tenure of the Illinois country, and 
how critical is the situation of the new countries on the 

"These circumstances determined us to detain Governor 
Hamilton and Major Hay within our power, when we de- 
livered up the other prisoners. On a late representation 
from the people of Kentucky, by a person sent here from 
that country, and expressions of what they had reason to 

Digitized by 



apprehend from these two prisoners, in the event of their 
liberation, we assured them they would not be parted with, 
though we were giving up our other prisoners, 

" Lieutenant-Colonel Dubuysson,aid to Baron De Kalb, 
lately came here on his parole, with an offer from I^rd 
Rawdon, to exchange him for Hamilton. Colonel Towles 
is now here with a like proposition for himself, from Gen- 
eral Phillips, very strongly urged by the general. 

" These, and other overtures, do not lessen the opinion 
of the importance of retaining him; and they have been, 
and will be, uniformly rejected. Should the settlement, 
indeed, of a cartel become impracticable without the con- 
sent of the states to submit their separate prisoners to its 
obligation, we will give up these two prisoners, as we 
would anything, rather than be an obstacle to a general 
good. But no other circumstance would, I believe, extract 
them from us. 

^^ These two gentlemen, with a Lieutenant-Colonel Elli- 
good, are the only separate prisoners we have retained, 
and the last only on his own request, and not because we 
set any store by him. 

^' There is, indeed, a Lieutenant-Governor Rochblave, 
of Kaskaskia, who has broken his parole, and gone to 
New York, whom we must shortly trouble your excellency 
to demand for us as soon as we can forward to you the 
proper documents. 

^' Since the forty prisoners sent to Winchester, as men- 
tioned in my letter of the 9th ultimo, about one hundred 
and fifty more have been sent thither, some of them taken 
by us at sea, others sent on by General Gates. 

Digitized by 



^^The exposed and weak state of our western settle- 
ments, and the danger to which they are subject from the 
northern Indians, acting under the influence of the Brit- 
ish post at Detroit, render it necessary for us to keep from 
five to eight hundred men on duty, for their defense. This 
is a great and perpetual expense. Could that post be re- 
duced and retained, it would cover all the states to the 
southeast of it." 

Within a month from the time this was written there 
seems to have been a change on both sides. Hamilton 
had signed the parole he so long refused, and the gov- 
ernor had consented that he might go to New York on 
parole and join his British comrades. This is the permis- 
sion given him by the governor: 

^'The within mentioned Henry Hamilton, having signed 
a parole of which this is a copy, has permission to go to 
New York and to remain within such parts of that state as 
are in possession of the armies of his Britannic majesty, 
until he shall be exchanged, or otherwise liberated with 
consent of the governor of Virginia for the time being, or 
until he shall be recalled by him. 

" Given under my hand and seal of the commonwealth 
of Virginia, at Richmond, date within written. 

^'Th. Jefferson, [l. s.] '' 

The following is the explanation made ci the matter in 
a note Governor Jefferson sent General Washington from 
Richmond on the 25th of October: 

^* I take the liberty' of enclosing to you letters from Gov- 
ernor Hamilton, for New York. On some representations 
received by Colonel Towles, that an indulgence to Gov- 

Digitized by 



ernor Hamilton and his companies to go to New York, on 
parole, would produce the happiest effect on the situation 
of our officers in Long Island, we have given him, Major 
Hay, and some of the same party at Winchester, leave to 
go there on parole. The two former go by water the lat- 
ter by land."* 

Washington promptly replied from " Headquarters Pas- 
saic Falls," the eighth of the next month, saying: " I am 
glad to hear that you have permitted Governor Hamilton 
and Major Hay to go to New York ; while they remain 
there upon parole, they will be less capable of concerting 
mischief than in Virginia, and it will deprive the enemy 
of a pretext for complaining that they are treated with 
rigor, "f 

Released from a dungeon, and all the hardships and 
annoyances of being a prisoner in the immediate charge of 
his enemies, and clothed with the authority of the governor 
to join his comrades in New York, it would seem that 
Hamilton ought now to have been out of trouble. But, 
according to his account, there was no happiness for him 
as long as he remained in this country. " Having accepted 
this parole," says he, ''we hastened to Williamsburg, on our 
way to Hampton, and there were stopped by the lieuten- 
ant-governor, who, as General Leslie had just arrived, 
thought it not advisable to let us pass, and gave orders for 
our being escorted back to Richmond. This treatment I 
resented, telling them they might march me back a pris- 

♦Jefferson's Works, Vol. i, p. 267. 

t Writings of Washington (Sparks), Vol. 7, p. 291. 

Digitized by 



oner, but that this was a step they might judge imprudent 
in the present juncture. 

**They seemed to think so, for we had liberty to pro- 
ceed. As soon as I had given certificates, recommending 
to General Leslie such of the inhabitants as had shown an 
attachment to government, or had been kind to us in 
our distress, we proceeded to York, where some turbulent 
people were reminded to set a guard over us and stop our 
progress. At length we got to Hampton. This short 
journey cost us one thousand pounds, such was the de- 
preciated state of the paper money at that time. 

*^At Hampton the people were civil to us; furnished us 
with a canoe, which to our inexpressible satisfaction put us 
on board of His Majesty's sloop Delight, Captain Inglis, 
who by his kind reception of us presently recruited our 
lowered spirits. We next went to wait on Captain Gray- 
ton, commander of the squadron. 

^^The cartel vessel, which was to have convej^ed us from 
Hampton to New York, had been taken and the master's 
certificate not appearing genuine, he with the vessel were 

' ' Having paid our respects to General Leslie , who received 
us with the greatest politeness, we returned to the Romulus, 
Captain Grayton's ship. The cartel master was suffered 
to go to Hampton to prepare for his voyage. The stores 
which General Leslie and Captain Grayton had most liber- 
ally supplied us, were plundered by the Americans on 
shore, for we did not choose to risk ourselves out of a 
king's ship. At length we set off from the Romulus in 
our cartel, a little miserable sloop of thirty-six feet keel, 

Digitized by 



for a passage in which we were obliged to pay four hundred 
hard dollars. A violent gale of wind obliged us to anchor 
off Smith's Islands, where we were very near perishing; our 
crew was three hours at work to get the anchor out of the 
ground; at last we got in home, leaving one fluke behind, 
and to our no small mortification were obliged to put back 
to Hampton. 

^^Here we were on the point of being detained by order 
of General Wilson, who had assembled some militia, but 
our skipper being desirous to get away, and having 
got another anchor, we once more set sail for New York. 
A very severe gale of wind took us near the capes of Dela- 
ware, when our skipper, not having a log line on board, 
laid the vessel to, and we had reason in the morning to 
admire our good fortune, for the wind was right on shore, 
and it was twelve at night when we lay to, judging by the 
sun that we were opposite Delaware Bay, as it proved, for 
we had driven seven leagues up the bay from the time of 
laying to." 

But the disagreeable journey came to an end at last; 
the party landing in New York, as Hamilton, says, ^^very 
squalid spectacles, not having had any sleep for three days 
and nights, our clothes ragged, shoes broken, and so altered 
in face and figure that our acquaintances could scarcely 
recollect us.'' 

Consolation, however, speedily came from Sir Henry 
Clinton, General Phillips and Lord Rawdon, and finally 
an exchange was secured for Hamilton, and he was, at last, 
entirely free; but this did not take place until the 4th of 
March, 1781. He sailed for England on the 27th of May, 

Digitized by 



of that year, but did not arrive there until the 21st of the 
next month. 

He established himself in St. Jermyns street, London, at 
which place, on the 6th of July, he dates his account and 
attempted justification of his far-reaching defeat. He hopes 
^^to be more pitied than blamed,'' and attributes his over- 
throw largely to the treachery of the Canadians, Creoles and 
French, and admits that ^^the difficulties and danger of 
Colonel Clark's march from Illinois were such as required 
great courage to encounter, and great perseverance to over- 
come. In trusting to traitors he was more fortunate than 
myself; whether on the whole he was entitled to success is 
not for me to determine." 

And so ended the long captivity of Lieutenant-Governor 
Henry Hamilton and his active connection with the affairs 
of the American Revolution. Whatever diverging views 
may be taken on the different sides of the Atlantic of his 
remarkable career on American soil, patriotic citizens of 
the United States must ever rejoice that Clark evidenced 
the better and more successful generalship, and forced him 
to a complete and full surrender of the vast territory now 
so important a part of the American union of states; and 
however objectionable -he may have been to Americans, 
and whatever animosities were naturally and justly aroused 
against him because of his course in using the savages 
against the unprotected settlements of the frontiers, it can 
not be denied that he was at least ever true and loyal to his 
king and country. 

The author tried in every direction to procure his portrait 
for this volume but was not successful in finding it. Know- 

Digitized by 



ing the thorough information of Mr. Douglas Brymner, the 
custodian of the Canadian archives, upon such subjects, 
a letter was addressed to him inquiring as to the existence 
of any portrait of Governor Hamilton, and as to his his- 
tory after his return to Canada. Mr. Brymner promptly 
replied: ^^ I do not know of any portrait of Henry Ham- 
ilton. He was lieutenant-governor of Quebec (Canada 
was then the province of Quebec) from the 14th Novem- 
ber, 1784, till the end of 1785, having only the civil author- 
ity, the civil and military having been separated in the 
retirement of his predecessor, General Haldimand. On the 
13th August, 1785, the secretary of state notified Hamil- 
ton that the king had no further need of his services. 
On the 2oth, Hope was informed that he was to succeed. 
Hope's first letter as lieutenant-governor is dated 12th 
October, 1785. Hamilton became lieutenant-governor of 
Bermuda on the i6th September, 1788, and governor 
on the nth January, 1790; he was afterward appointed 
governor of Dominica, the date of his appointment being 
the 23d of April, 1794. ^ Henry Hamilton, Esq., to be 
captain-general and governor-in-chief of the Island of 
Dominica, vice Orde.' He assumed the duties on the 30th 
of November, 1794. The date of his death I have not 
ascertained.'' From other sources the author ascertained 
that Hamilton died at Antigua, in September, 1796. 

The author also sought the portrait and information as 
to Hamilton in England, and through the kindness of 
Honorable Thomas F. Bayard, United States ambassador, 
and of Benjamin F. Stevens, Esquire, United States gov- 
ernment dispatch agent in London, received copies of 

Digitized by 



several valuable papers from the public records there relat- 
ing to Hamilton, and also the information that ^^he was 
the fourth son of Gustavus Frederick, seventh Viscount 
Boyne." A letter from Mr. Stevens, dated '^London, 
October 17, 1895, says," "I am writing to the present Vis- 
count Boyne on the possible chance of a portrait of Gov- 
ernor Hamilton being preser\^ed in the family. If any 
information is obtained I shall have pleasure in repeating it 
to you." If received, and in time, the portrait will be in 
this volume. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Fort near mouth of Ohio determined upon — Develops his plans in a general 
order — Also in a letter to Governor John Todd — Letter of Todd to Governor 
Jefferson approving Clark's plans — Clark proceeds to mouth of Ohio early 
in 1780 — Builds Fort Jefferson a few miles below — Intended for a settlement 
and garrison combined — Besieged by Indians — Heroic defense — Captain 
George Owens and his descendants — Garrison finally relieved — Indians with- 
draw from its vicinity — Perilous journey made by Clark from Fort Jefferson 
to Harrisburg — British and Indians invade Kentucky — Clark's campaign 
against the Indians at old Chillicothe and Piqua — Distressing particulars of 
death of Joseph Rogers — Clark returns to Kentucky — Deplorable condition 
of affairs there, at Fort Jefferson and the Illinois — Oflficial letters on the sub- 
ject — Sketch of George Slaughter and Silas Harlan — Fort Jefferson finally 
abandoned — La Balme^s defeat. 

^^^^HEN Colonel Clark returned to the falls of the 
^JlM^ Ohio, at the close of the summer of 1779, he 
found that quite an accession had been made to the popu- 
lation of that vicinity, and of Kentucky generally, and he 
at once took steps to further the public interests in every 
possible way. The garrison left on Corn island had already 
removed to the main land on the Kentucky side, and a rude 
stockade fort had been constructed, probably near where 
Twelfth street in Louisville now intersects the river. 

He not only devoted himself to matters pertaining to the 
defense of the country, but took great interest in promot- 

Digitized by 



ing the welfare of the settlement at the falls of the Ohio, 
which his keen foresight realized was destined to develop 
into a place of much importance. 

He has the honor of being the founder of the important 
city of Louisville, which has a justifiable pride in havmg 
such an illustrious founder. A well informed historian of 
that city says, ^' to him belongs the honor of settling our city 
as clearly as belongs to him the glory of the capture of Vin- 
cennes, Kaskaskia, and Cahokia."* It was a high com- 
pliment to the falls of the Ohio as a desirable location that 
he started a settlement there and made it his depot of sup- 
plies in the spring of 1778, when he had so many other 
beautiful and desirable sites on the Ohio to select from, and 
that he confirmed his first judgment by returning to it after 
the capture of the Wabash and Illinois country from the 
British, and established his headquarters permanently there, 
*^as the best place," as he tells us, ^^of having a general 
supervision over the whole." This action, and the securit}^ 
given by the forts he caused to be built there, attracted the 
first settlers, and fixed the future destiny of Louisville, Jef- 
fersonville and New Albany. Had he chosen the mouth of 
the Kentucky river, as he was urged to do, the first settlers 
would have naturally been attracted to that point. Clark 
undoubtedly gave the matter much thought, and looked far 
into the future in making this selection. He expected two 
great cities to arise some day at the falls: first Louisville, to 
be followed later, as the countrj^ became populous, by one 
on the other side of the river, which he hoped would bear 

• R. T. Durrett in Centenary of Louisville, p. 42. 

Digitized by 



his name.* But, until Virginia made the grant for Clarks- 
ville, the planning of what he expected would be a great 
city at Louisville absorbed his attention. The wisdom and 
far-reaching benefits of the plan he then drew up for the 
city is now generally conceded, and where it has been de- 
parted from generally deplored. Upon this subject one of 
the most competent judges says : ^^ When General George 
Rogers Clark returned from the conquest of the Illinois 
country in the fall of 1779, and took up his abode in Louis- 
ville, he drew a plan of the proposed town of Louisville, 
and made a map of the public and private divisions of the 
land as he thought they ought to be established. This 
map is still preserved, and it shows the wonderful sagacity 
of General Clark. From his little room in the fort, at the 
foot of Twelfth street, he looked far into the future and 
saw the need of public grounds for breathing places when 
the city should become populous. His map shows all the 
ground between Main street and the river, from First to 
Twelfth streets, marked ^public' Also a strip of ground 
half a square in width, just south of Jefferson street, run*- 
ning the whole length of the town, marked ^public' Also 
two whole squares, where the court-house now stands, 
marked 'public' If this plan of the town had been ac- 
cepted by the trustees and adhered to by their successors, 
Louisville would be one of the handsomest cities on the 

*In view of the progress and development at the falls since 177S, what greater 
cities may be expected there when another like period shall have pasised away. 
Possibly the day may yet come when the, now comparatively little, vacant 
ground between Jeffersonville, Clarksville and New Albany will all be built up, 
and the three places be united in one city. Then, if the name of Clark should be 
substituted for the present names, his dream of the future city on the north side 
of the river would at last be fullv realized. 

Digitized by 



continent to-day. The trustees, however, either for want 
of capacity to see the advantages of holding this property 
for the public, or from necessity to pay debts against it, 
sold all this property, except the court-house square and the 
grave-yard. It brought but little when sold. It would be 
worth millions now in the shape of park property, with a 
number of grand old forest trees upon it. This map of 
General Clark only extends to Jefferson street, but tradi- 
tion says that it was part of his plan to have the strip of 
ground it shows south of Jefferson repeated at intervals of 
every three squares as the city should enlarge.''* It is a 
singular coincidence that when William Henry Harrison, 
governor of Indiana territory, and Isaac Bowman, one of 
Clark's officers, requested President Jefferson to draw the 
plan for a town at the falls, to be laid off on land on the 
north side of the river, which Bowman had donated, to be 
called Jefferson ville, that Mr. Jefferson should have adopted 
the same liberal ideas as to public squares and grounds 
that had been adopted by General Clark for Louisville, and 
that in both instances the plans should have been aban- 
doned. Yet such is the fact. 

But other points than the falls of the Ohio were also re- 
ceiving Colonel Clark's attention. 

The establishment of a strong fort near the mouth of 
the Ohio had been for some time considered as essential to 
American success. Governor Henry, as far back as Janu- 
ary, 1778, wrote that it was ''in contemplation to establish 
a post near the mouth of the Ohio, with cannon to fortify 
it." Thomas Jefferson, who succeeded Henry as governor 

* R. T. Durrett in Centenarj' of Louisville, pp. 42-43. 

Digitized by 



on the 1st of June of that year, renewed the project, and 
followed it up, vigorously, until consummated. The object, 
in part, was to strengthen the American claim to the country 
as far west as the Mississippi, and a line of forts was con- 
templated from Fort Jefferson northwardly, towards the 
lakes. Colonel Clark warmly approved the building of 
the fort near the mouth of the Ohio, and did what he 
could to carry it into execution, but it progressed slowly, of 
necessity. Some Kentuckians did not seem to favor it be- 
cause it would weaken the settlements by drawing off a 
portion of the militia much needed nearer home. 

Colonel Clark's plan was not only to build and garrison 
a fort, but to induce families to settle there by liberal grants 
of land. He issued the following order, to that end, to 
Captain Silas Martin, soon after his return to the falls: 

** September 30, 1779. 
^'G. R. Clark to Captain Silas Martin^ etc.^ Com- 
mander of Militia Headquarters Falls of Ohio: 
^^By George Rogers Clark, Esq., Colonel of the Illinois 

Battalion, Commander-in-Chief of the Virginia Forces 

in the Western Department, Etc., Etc. 

^ ^Whereas a fort is intended immediately to be built near 
the mouth of Ohio, and a number of artificers wanting to 
carry on the works, as well other inhabitants, 

^*I do, by the virtue of the power and authority to me 
given, authorize you to raise any number of persons that 
you can get to become settlers at said post, the whole to be 
under pay as militia as long as necessary. You are to ren- 


Digitized by 



dezvous at this place by the first day of December next. 
Given from under my hand.'' 

The fall and winter passed without building the fort, but 
in March, 1780, Colonel Clark reviewed the situation and 
developed his plans in the following letter to Colonel John 
Todd, the then governor of the Illinois country: ^^By the 
account from every post in the Illinois so nearly corres- 
ponding, I make no doubt of the English regaining the 
interest of many tribes of Indians, and their designs against 
the Illinois, perhaps on Governor Hamilton's plan, and 
without some speedy check may prove fatal to Kentucky 
and the total loss of the western country on the Mississippi. 
I am not clear but the Spaniards would fondly suffer their 
settlements in the Illinois to fall into ours for the sake of 
having the opportunity of retaking both. I doubt they 
are too fond (of) territory to think of restoring it again. 

^ ^Although there are but few British troops on the lakes 
(the) deficiency is fully replaced by the immense quantity 
of goods they have, the effects of which among the sav- 
ages you well know. Not being apprehensive of a visit, 
I make no doubt of their having planned some expedition 
of importance against our posts, which, if they gain, may 
be attended with greater consequences than I have hinted 
at. They have greater opportunities of knowing our situ- 
ation than we have of theirs, which you know they could 
not deprive us of. You well know the difficulties we have 
labored under with our joint efforts to maintain our ground, 
and support our interest among the savages in that depart- ' 
ment, and the reason why — which is now greater than 
ever as the bad crops and the severity of the winter hath 

Digitized by 



rendered it impossible for the towns in the Illinois to make 
any further supplies until next harv^est. 

^^The troops being entitled to a discharge in a few weeks, 
except those that have re-enlisted when joined by Captain 
Rogers — when armed will not amount to more than one 
hundred and fifty, which is too few, under our present cir- 
cumstances, to think of defending the different posts we 
now occupy. Letters from His Excellency, and a promis- 
ing account from our recruiting officers may, perhaps, soon 
alter our apparent circumstances, but, as yet, receiving no 
advice from either, already meeting with many disappoint- 
ments in my expectations, much to the disadvantage of the 
department, a few weeks' hesitation may be productive of 
long future disadvantage. I think it best to act as though 
we had no expectation of being assisted either with men or 
provisions. Your counsel, not only necessary, but which 
you know I prize, is what I want. 

"li we were tolerably formidable at any one post that we 
could subsist at, it might have a great and good effect. As 
I hinted to lay aside all expectations of a re-enforcement, I 
see but the one probable method of maintaining our authority 
in the Illinois, which is this; by immediately evacuating 
our present posts, and let our whole force center at or near 
the mouth of Ohio, which will be too contemptible to answer 
the good effect proposed, without we fall upon some method 
to draw off a considerable re-enforcement from Kentucky 
of militia. 

^^Families would be of the greatest service, as they are 
always followed by two or three times their numbers of 
young men. They would with their store of provisions be 

Digitized by 



able to victual great part of our troops in proportion to 
their number, which, if only one hundred, by the ensuing 
fall would be able to victual a regiment, besides establish- 
ing a post that His Excellency is very anxious for, the reason 
I imagine we are both acquainted with, and the interests of 
all the western country call for. 

"One hundred families, their followers, the troops we 
have already engaged, those whose time of service is or 
shortly will expire, that would remain at the place, when 
joined, would be considerable. The report of which by 
the time it reached our enemies would be augmented, per- 
haps, to treble our numbers, as such intelligence is always 
aggravated by the Indians; and I don't doubt but that it 
would put a stop for some time to their proceedings, as I 
know it would greatly confuse the Indians they are like to 
win from us, as our temporary force, with the French 
militia, probably counting the Spaniards, would be too con- 
siderable for them to tamper with. 

"Our only chance at present to save that country is by 
encouraging the families, but I am sensible nothing but 
land will do it. I should be exceedingly cautious in doing 
anything that would displease government, but their pres- 
ent interest, in many respects obvious to us both, call so 
loud for it, that I think, sir, that you might even venture to 
give a deed for forty or fifty thousand acres of land at said 
place, at the price that government may demand for it. It 
interferes with no claim of our friendly Indians (and would 
be) the greatest barrier to the inhabitants of the Illinois 
against the southern Indians — security of the general com- 
merce and perhaps the saving of the country to the state, 

Digitized by 



and probably in a few months enable us to act again on 
the offensive. 

"1 should be against suffering families to settle promis- 
cuously in any part of the Illinois at present, but the estab- 
lishment of the said post is so necessary, and as it can not be 
complete without the families, I think it your duty to give 
the aforesaid encouragement and such instructions as would 
confine the people for some time to a fort. Before you 
could consult government it might be too late. Sustenance 
for some time will be procured with difficulty. 

"I can not think of the consequences of losing possession 
of the country without a more determined resolution to 
risk every point rather than suffer it, for they, the English, 
can not execute any matter of very great importance among 
the savages without it. I know your concern to be equal 
to mine; if you concur with me in sentiment, let me know 
immediately, or such amendment as you might think more 
advantageous." * 

Colonel Todd approved these suggestions, and acted upon 
them, as will be seen from his letter to Governor Jefferson, 
in which he said: ^'On consulting with Colonel Clark, we 
found it impracticable to maintain so many posts in the 
Illinois with so few means and concluded it better to draw 
them all to one post. The land at the junction of the Ohio 
and Mississippi was judged best situated for the purpose 
as it would command the trade on an extensive countrj- 
on both sides of each river and might serve as a check to 
any encroachments from our present allies, the Spaniards, 
whose growing power might justly put us upon our guard 

♦Virginia State Papers, Vol. i, p. 338. 

Digitized by 



and whose fondness for engrossing territory might other- 
wise urge them higher up the river upon our side than we 
would wish. 

''The expenses in erecting this new post and victualing 
the men would have been obstacles insurmountable without 
a settlement contiguous to the garrison to support it, where 
adventurers would assist the soldiers in the heavy work of 
building their fortifications. I therefore granted to a cer- 
tain number of families four hundred acres to each family, 
at a price to be settled by the general assembly, with com- 
missions for civil and military officers, and the necessary 
instructions. Copies of the principal of which I herewith 
send you. The other being agreeable to the printed forms 
heretofore delivered me by the governor and council. 

''Lest the withdrawing our troops from St. Vincennes 
might raise suspicions among the citizens, to our disadvan- 
tage, I have sent to Major Bosseron, the then district com- 
mandant, blank commissions, with powers to raise one 
company and put them in possession of the garrison, with 
assurances that pay and rations should be allowed them by 
the government. When Colonel Clark left the falls, his 
officers and men, to the amount of perhaps one hundred 
and twenty, were all well clothed except in the article of 

"Mr. Isaac Bowman, with seven or eight men and one 
family, set off from Kaskaskias the 15th November last, 
in a batteau, attended by another batteau with twelve men 
and three or four families in it, bound to the falls of Ohio. 
I judged it safer to send to the falls many articles belonging to 
the commonwealth by Bowman than to bring them myself 

Digitized by 



by land. Bowman's batteau fell into the hands of the 
Chickasaw Indians, and the other arrived in March or 
April at the French Lick on Cumberland, with the account 
that Bowman and all the men except one Riddle (Ruddell) 
were killed and taken. I enclose Your Excellency a list of 
such articles as belonged to the state, as well as I can make 
out from my detached memorandums. My books and 
many necessary papers being also lost. Many necessary 
articles of intelligence yet remain unmentioned. I will 
enjoy no leisure until I shall have fully acquainted Your 
Excellency with the situation of the Illinois." Bowman 
was not killed as stated in this letter of Colonel Todd, but 
was captured by the Indians, as will be fully related fur- 
ther on. 

Early in 1780 Colonel Clark, with a small force — from 
one hundred and twenty to two hundred men — proceeded 
to a place on the Mississippi river called Iron Banks, four 
or five miles below the mouth of the Ohio, where they 
erected several block-houses and a fort, in what is now 
Ballard county, Kentucky, which was called Fort Jeffer- 
son, in honor of Thomas Jefferson, then governor of Vir- 
ginia. From inadvertence, or cause not now known, the 
consent of the Indians had not been obtained for the erec- 
tion of the fort, and, as they had not relinquished the land, 
it naturally offended them, and led to skirmishes and such 
acts of hostility as prevented settlements outside the fort, 
and thus defeated the carrying out of an important part 
of Colonel Clark's plan of having a self-sustaining settle- 
ment and fort combined. 

Digitized by 



Finally the Choctaw and Cherokee Indians united, and 
over one thousand warriors, under the leadership of a 
Scotchman, named Colbert, who had obtained, and whose 
descendants long held, great power among them, laid siege 
to the fort, which had then, from various causes, been re- 
duced to a garrison of only about thirty men. Much sick- 
ness prevailed in that region, and the Americans were 
badly prepared to make resistance; but, notwithstanding 
these disadvantages, they made a most gallant defense. 

The Indians continued the siege, in vain, for five or six 
days, which was an unusually long time for Indians to hold 
together in such an attempt. Their principal camp was on 
an island near the fort and the mouth of May field creek, 
now known as Island Number One. The Americans were 
reduced to great extremities. There was not only sickness 
in the fort, but scarcity of water and food, the latter being 
finally reduced to unripe pumpkins. But, worn out as 
they were with loss of sleep, and the constant strain of 
watching and fighting, day and night, there was no thought 
of surrender. 

Finally the Indians made a desperate night assault on the 
fort, but were entrapped into a position within reach of the 
fire of a cannon, or swivel, heavily loaded with rifle and 
musket balls. This had been planted by Captain George 
Owens in a place unsuspected by the Indians, and was 
fired when they were crowded together in close range of 
the gun. The carnage was terrific, and the survivors with- 
drew in hot haste. Colbert was wounded, and the attack 
was not renewed. But the Indians did not retire entirely 
from that part of the countrj- until the arrival of Colonel 

Digitized by 



Clark with re-enforcements and provisions, when they gave 
up the contest and returned to their respective villages. 


Captain George Owens, a native of Pennsylvania, and 
the chief actor in this slaughter of the Indians, came to a 
sad end a few years later, and the savages had a terrible re- 
venge. They captured him near the falls of the Ohio, in 
what is now Indiana, as he was hunting, or attempting to 
pass between the falls and Vincennes, and, after torturing 
him in the most frightful manner, finally burned him to 
death at the stake at or near the Wea towns (Ouiatanon). 
It is said he himself had some Indian blood in his veins. 
His descendants settled in Scott county, Indiana. The 
author knew them intimately, and when a young man 
heard Captain Owens's sons, George and Thomas, then 
old men, speak of these events. Their hatred of the In- 
dian race was so vehement that the people of Lexington, 
then the county seat of Scott county, had much difficulty 
in keeping them from killing two friendly Indians who 
happened at that place half a century after Captain Owens's 
death, and long after the Indian wars in that region were 
ended. The author was present and remembers the cir- 
cumstances distinctly. Abednego Owens, who died in 
Scott county, in 1894, ^^ ^^ advanced age, and Thomas 
Owens, who removed to Texas many years before that 
date, were grandsons of this historic Captain George Owens, 
and there were other grandchildren whose names are not 
now remembered. 

Digitized by 



The author was intrusted by the family with a number of 
papers which had belonged to Captain Owens, and among 
them is the following peculiarly worded receipt given by 
John Montgomery, who was a prominent officer in Clark's 
Illinois campaigns: ^^This is to certify that George Owens 
and me have settled acumpts and have received full satis- 
faction of all demands from the beginning of the world to 
this day. I say received of me. 

'^ March 24, 1787. John Montgomery." 

But it was not the southern Indians alone that were giving 
trouble about the time of the unsuccessful siege of Fort 
Jefferson. The northern Indians, as Colonel Clark knew, 
were preparing, under British leadership, to attack the 
American frontiers; probably in furtherance of Hamilton's 
original plan of a united movement, which was expected 
to sweep everything before it. 

Knowing this, and vigilant ever, he determined to meet 
it by a counter movement against the enemy. To that 
end he made his stay short at Fort Jefferson, and started 
across the wilderness for Harrodsburg with only one or two 
companions. It was an exceedingly fatiguing and perilous 
journey on foot, and they had to cross many swollen streams 
by swimming, or on rafts made of logs bound together 
by grape vines. There were no roads, and the country 
was full of roving bands of Indians. To deceive them, 
Clark and his companions painted their faces and dressed 
like the savages, which artifice came near getting them into 
serious trouble, as they finally met a party of whites who 
were firing at them before their identity was made known. 

Digitized by 



They lived on buffalo and other game, and finally arrived 
at Harrodsburg at a fortunate time for Clark's purposes, as 
there was a large assemblage of men, for that period, who 
had gathered there to enter lands in the surveyor's office. 
Clark took the responsibility of temporarily closing the 
office, and proceeded at once to enrolling volunteers, and 
was quite successful, although there was some grumbling 
among the land speculators at his arbitrarily closing the 
land-office. He adopted other necessarj', but equally 
positive measures, such as sending a small force to a point 
on the wilderness road, then the principal outlet from 
Kentucky, to turn back or disarm everj' one trying to leave 
the country at this time of peril. 

In the spring of 1780 the Americans in the west were in 
great danger in several quarters. In addition to the formid- 
able invasion of Kentucky by the British and Indians under 
Colonel Bird, a movement against Cahokia and St. Louis 
was inaugurated by the Illinois river and more western 
routes than had before been followed. Of this contemplated 
exp)edition Lieutenant-Governor Sinclair, British command- 
ant at Michilimackinac, wrote General Haldimand, the 29th 
of May, saying: 

^* Your Excellency was informed by my letter of Febru- 
ary last, that a party was to leave this place on the loth 
of March to engage the Indians to the westward in an 
attack on the Spanish and Illinois countr3\ Seven hun- 
dred and fifty men, including traders, servants and Indians, 
proceeded with them down the Mississippi for that pur- 
pose on the 2d day of May. 

Digitized by 



"During the time necessary for assembling the Indians 
at La Prairie du Chien, detachments were made to watch 
the river to intercept crafts coming up with provisions and 
to seize upon the people working in the lead mines. Both 
one and the other were effected without any accident. 

"Thirty-six Minomies, at first intended as an escort, 
have brought to this place a large, armed boat, loaded at 
Pencour, in which were twelve men and a rebel commis- 
sary. From the mines they have brought seventeen Span- 
ish and rebel prisoners, and stopped fifty tons of lead ore, 
and from both they obtained a good supply of provisions. 
The chiefs Machiquawish and Wabasha have kindled this 
spirit in the western Indians. 

"Captain Langlade, with a chosen band of Indians and 
Canadians, will join a party assembled at Chicago, to 
make his attack by the Illinois river, and another party are 
sent to watch the plains between the Wabash and the Mis- 

" I am now in treaty with the Ottawas about furnishing 
their quota to cut off the rebels at Post St. Vincents, but 
as they are under the management of two chiefs, the one a 
drunkard and the other an avaricious trader, I met with 
difficulties in bringing it about. Thirty Saguinah warriors 
are here in readiness to join them, and the island band can 
furnish as many more. . . . 

"A part of the Menominis who are come here, some 
Puants, Sacks and Rhenards, go away immediately to watch 
the lead mines. Orders will be published at the Illinois for 
no person to go there who looks for receiving quarter, and 
the Indians have orders to give none to any without a British 

Digitized by 



pass. This requires every attention, and support being of 
the utmost consequence." 

Some damage was done by the invaders on the Spanish 
side of the river, but, in the main, the expedition proved a 
failure. An exaggerated account is given in a letter writ- 
ten by Sinclair to Haldimand on the 8th of July, 1780, 
which says : 

'^I have the honor to inform Your Excellency that the 
two vessels sent into Lake Michigan have returned. They 
fortunately carried from this a force sufficient to enable the 
party retiring from the Illinois by Chicago to pass with 
safety through a band of Indians in the rebel interest and 
to embark in security, some in canoes and some on board 
the vessels. The others retired in two divisions, one by 
the Mississippi with Monsieur Calve, who allowed the 
prisoners taken by the Sacks and Outagamies to fall into 
the hands of the enemy. The other division penetrated 
the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi, 
and are arrived here with their prisoners. Two hundred 
Illinois cavalry arrived at Chicago five days after the ves- 
sels left it. On the 26th of May Mr. Ilesse, with the 
Winipigoes, Scioux, Ottawa, Ochipwa, Iowa, and a few 
of the Outagamies, Sacks, Mascoutins, Kickapous and Pot- 

^^Twenty of the volunteer Canadians sent from this, and 
a very few of the traders and the servants, made their at- 
tack against Pencour and the Cahokias. 

'^The Winnipigoes had a chief and three men killed, 
and four wounded, I fear one of them mortally. They are 
the only sufferers. 

Digitized by 



*^The rebels lost an officer and three men killed at the 
Cahokias, and five prisoners. 

'^At Pencour sixty-eight were killed and eighteen blacks 
and white people made prisoners, amongst whom sev- 
eral good artificers. Many hundreds of cattle were de- 
stroyed and forty-three scalps are brought in. There is no 
doubt can remain from the concurrent testimony of the 
prisoners that the enemy received intelligence of the med- 
itated attack against the Illinois, about the time I received 
a copy of my Lord George Germain's circular letter." 

Colonel Clark was sent for in great haste to aid in re- 
pelling this threatened invasion, but exactly what part he 
took in it is not definitely known. There seems to have 
been a well-laid plan to attack the Americans simultane- 
ously in different places, as at about the time of the inva- 
sion of the Illinois country a very formidable raid was 
made into Kentucky by a large force of British and In- 
dians, principally the latter, under a British officer named 
Byrd, which naturally created great excitement and alarm 
among the residents of the frontier, and caused some, in 
despair, to desire to leave the country. It was, indeed, for 
that period, a formidable expedition, and might have proved 
far more calamitous to the Kentucky pioneers than it did. 
It was not only strong in numbers but in cannon and 
munitions of war, which, if properly handled, would un- 
doubtedly have been disastrous to the American settlements. 
After capturing, by overwhelming force, Ruddell's and 
Martin's stations on the 22d of June, as before related, the 
British and Indians, for some cause never explained with 
certainty, hastily retired from the countr}^ by the same route 

Digitized by 



they had come, killing some of the prisoners and taking the 
rest, with the plunder of the stations, which the prisoners 
were made to carrj' with them. 

Colonel Clark, realizing the bad effect the terror inspired 
by this raid was having upon the settlements, vigorously 
pushed forward his contemplated expedition into the 
enemy's country, not only to punish them, but to restore 
confidence to his own people. He selected the mouth of the 
Licking river as the place where all his forces were to meet, 
and there was a general turn out of all the men capable of 
bearing arms in Kentucky, in many instances leaving only 
the boys, very old men and women to provide food for 
themselves and guard the stations. From the interior 
came volunteers under such well-known Indian fighters as 
Harrod, Kenton and John Floyd. Clark moved the troops 
which had been gathered at the falls up the river, some in 
skiffs, some on foot, and some on horses marching and 
riding along the river bank. It is understood that, besides 
ammunition, each man carried a quantity of dried meat 
and six quarts of parched corn. 

The only mishap to any of the troops while on the way 
to the mouth of the Licking was to a small number of men 
under Hugh McGary, celebrated alike for his rashness and 
his bravery, who were attacked, and roughly handled by 
the Indians on the north bank of the river, probably in 
Indiana, but the exact place is not now known. Several 
were badly wounded. 

Clark left the mouth of the Licking for the Indian town 
of old Chillicothe with slightly less than a thousand men, 
and with one small cannon carried on a pack horse. About 

Digitized by 



forty men were left at the river, as a guard to the boats 
and other property, not carried into the interior. Some of 
these had been wounded at the time the Indians attacked 
the party led by Hugh McGary. 

The Indians getting warning of Clark's approach, aban- 
doned Chillicothe before his arrival. He burned the houses 
and pushed on to Piqua, not far distant, where he arrived 
on the morning of the 8th of August. Piqua was quite a 
town, with log houses stoutly built, and a strong block- 
house well constructed for defense. The cabins were gen- 
erally surrounded with "truck patches" used for raising 
corn, beans, etc. The celebrated Simon Girty and his 
brother, it is said, were there with the Indians, of whom 
there were several hundred. 

The American forces were divided into four divisions, 
Clark taking command of two and Colonel Benjamin Logan 
two. The latter was directed to make a detour and attack 
the village in the rear, but unfortunately failed to accomplish 
it in time to be of service. The fighting was mainly done 
by the divisions under Clark and continued, in a skirmishing 
way, for the most of the day; the Indians taking advantage 
of a grove of bushes and trees in the vicinity, as well as of the 
shelter and protection of the block-house and cabins. The 
cannon was finally brought into use, in an effective way, and 
the Indians successfully retreated, taking advantage of a 
ravine, and losing altogether only six or eight men, and the 
whites seventeen and quite a number wounded. The town was 
destroyed and also a large quantity of growing corn. An- 
other village was also destroyed and the troops then marched 
back to the mouth of the Licking, most of them having 

Digitized by 



been out about four weeks. The expedition is said to have 
been beneficial to the Americans, notwithstanding they had 
more men killed than their opponents. It discouraged and 
cowed the Indians for a time, coupled with Byrd's singular 
retreat from Kentucky only a short time before, and the 
rest of the year they remained quiet. 


A most pathetic and tragic event occurred at the time of 
the fight at Piqua, which overwhelmed Colonel Clark with 
sorrow and regret: Joseph Rogers, a brother of John 
Rogers, who commanded The Willing in the campaign 
against Vincennes, and a favorite cousin of Colonel Clark, 
was a prisoner with the Indians at Piqua. The manner of 
his being made a prisoner, and the sad ending of his life, 
is thus related by his nephew, Hon. Joseph Rogers Under- 
wood, formerly United States Senator from Kentucky, in 
a letter to Mrs. B. Kinkead, also a relative, a copy of 
which has kindly been furnished the author, and which, as 
far as he is aware, has never before been published. 

The letter of Senator Underwood says, ^' there was great 

intimacy between the family of my grandfather, George 

Rogers, and that of his sister, Ann Clark. After (her son) 

George Rogers Clark, had been in Kentucky some time, 

he returned to Virginia, and in visiting his relations he 

persuaded my uncle, Joseph Rogers, to return with him to 

Kentucky." This was the time the governor and council 

of Virginia furnished Clark with five hundred pounds of 

powder which he undertook to convey to Kentucky for its 

defense in 1776, as related in a previous chapter. 

Digitized by 



*^On reaching Maysville, then called Limestone," con- 
tinues Mr. Underwood, ^'the powder was hid and the 
party started for the settlements around Lexington and 
Harrodsburg. General Clark raised a party with means to 
transport the powder from its hiding place, and sent my 
uncle, Joseph Rogers, his first cousin, with the party to 
show where the powder was hid. This little band of 
pioneers was attacked by Indians on their way to Limestone, 
and defeated. Joseph Rogers was made a prisoner by 
them, taken to their homes north of the Ohio river, and, 
according to their custom, initiated into one of their families, 
to become one of them. Of course he was painted and 
dressed as an Indian. 

''General Clark crossed the Ohio in the summer of 1780 
and on the 8th of August of that year attacked the Indian 
village at Piqua. My uncle entered the fight with the 
Indians, but when the Indians retreated, instead of running 
away with them, he ran towards Clark's army, shouting as 
he went, 'I am a white manl I am a white manl' But, 
unfortunately, he was shot down as he went. The wound 
was mortal and he died in a few hours. He desired that 
General Clark might be sent to him. The general came 
and they had a most affectionate interview, in which Rogers 
told him to say to his soldiers that he (Rogers) hurt none 
of them in the fight, having purposely overshot them all the 
time, and that he had lost his life in his anxiety to join 

The unfortunate Joseph Rogers died in the twenty-fifth 
year of his age. There was always some doubt whether 
he was shot by Clark's men supposing him to be an Indian 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



or by the Indians who saw he was trying to escape from 
them. It is to be hoped it was the latter, as there is some- 
thing horrible in the idea that he was killed, even innocently, 
by his own friends, to whom he was trying to escape. 
Colonel Clark, naturally, would have felt intense sorrow 
at the death of any countryman under such circumstances. 
What then must have been his feelings when he realized it 
was the bright and beloved son of his mother's brother, 
whom he had influenced to leave his home in Virginia, 
only to find captivity, death and an unknown grave in the 
western wilderness. 

During the absence of Colonel Clark in Kentucky and 
on the Piqua campaign against the Indians affairs were not 
going on very well, either in the Illinois country or at Fort 
Jefferson. In the former the principal dissatisfaction was 
on account of the worthless paper currency forced on the 
earlier inhabitants by the '^new comers," and conflicts of 
authority between the old order of things and the militar}^ 
authorities. The bad condition of affairs is forcibly pre- 
sented in the following letter, written from the latter place 
on the 1st of August, 1780, by John Dodge, an Indian 
agent, to Governor Jefferson : ^^The few troops that are 
now here are too inconsiderable to guard themselves ; nor 
are the inhabitants much better, notwithstanding they re- 
main in great spirits in expectation of relief from govern- 
ment, and have with great bravery defeated a very large 
party of savages, who made a regular attack on the village 
at daybreak on the morning of the 17th ult. Colonel 
Clark has divided his few men in the best manner possible, 
so as to preserve the country. The apprehension of a large 

Digitized by 



body of the enemy in motion from Detroit towards the 
falls of Ohio has called him there with what men he could 
well spare from this country, before he had well breathed, 
after the fatigues of an expedition up the Mississippi; and 
Colonel Crockett, not arriving with either men or pro- 
visions, as was expected, has really involved both the troops 
and settlers in much distress, and greatly damped the spirits 
of industry in the latter, which till lately was so conspic- 

" I see no other alternative, from the present appearance 
of our affairs, but that the few goods I have left, after sup- 
plying the troops, must all go for the purchase of provisions 
to keep this settlement from breaking up; and how I shall 
ever support my credit, or acquit myself of the obliga- 
tions I have bound myself under, to those of whom I have 
purchases for the troops befpre the arrival of the goods, 
I know not. Our credit is become so weak among the 
French inhabitants, our own, and the Spaniards on the 
opposite side of the Mississippi, that one dollar's worth of 
provisions or other supplies can not be had from them with- 
out prompt payment, were it to save the whole country ; 
by which you will perceive that, without a constant and 
full supply of goods in this quarter, to answer the exigen- 
cies of government, nothing can ever be well effected but 
in a very contracted manner." 

Matters grew worse as the fall advanced. On the 24th 
of October Captain Robert George, in command at Fort 
Jefferson, wrote Colonel Clark, describing the situation 
and imploring him to return. ^^Our present distress," 
said he, ^^puts me under the necessity of informing you by 

Digitized by 



express, the absolute necessity of your presence at this 
place ; we are reduced to a very small number at present, 
occasioned by famine, desertion, and numbers daily dying. 
We have but a very small quantity of provisions at pres- 
ent. Colonel Montgomery, on his way to New Orleans, 
called on us. He says that Captain Dodge has purchased 
one thousand bushels of corn and ten thousand pounds of 
flour, which is all that is to show from a cargo of eleven 
thousand hard dollars' worth of goods sent by Mr. Pollock 
to you, together with about five or six thousand dollars' 
worth from this place. We are informed they are entirely 

^*I expect Captain Philip Barbour up every day with a 
quantity of goods for this state, and should be glad of di- 
rections from you, that they may not be exhausted in the 
manner we have no reason to doubt the first was. It's 
rather tedious to mention the conduct at the Illinois since 
your departure, as nothing but your presence can rectify it. 
If necessity detains you from us, pray send an express as 
soon as possible. The inhabitants (are) chiefly gone down 
the river, and what there is left is very much distressed. 
Lieutenant Clark sets off to Kaskaskia this morning to 
know the certainty of the provisions being purchased. It 
appears there was a pirogue sent down sometime ago, 
loaded with corn and flour, with eight men, who deserted 
with it down the river. I doubt the greatest part of this 
battalion will sure turn merchants, all for the want of your 
presence here, if there is not some steps taken to pre- 
vent it. 

Digitized by 



" Lieutenant Dalton is gone down the river with Colonel 
Montgomery, in order, if possible, to secure deserters. 
Captain Williams has arrived here with Colonel John 
Montgomery, and assumed the command, which I refused 
to give up, without further orders from you. Major Har- 
lan is out hunting, but is at a loss for want of horses. I 
sent for all the state horses at Kaskaskia, but it appears 
there (are) but few. What's gone with them God knows, 
but I believe there will be a very disagreeable account ren- 
dered to you of them, as well as many other things, when 
called for. The poor, distressed remains of this little 
borough joins in prayers for your presence once more at 
this place." 

Four days later Captain John Williams wrote him from 
the same place that: ''On the 23d of this instant I arrived 
at this post by order of Colonel John Montgomery, to take 
the command, but from the character he at present bears 
Captain George did not think proper to give him or any 
other person the command at this post until he (is) prop- 
erly relieved by your order. I, for my part, seeing times so 
precarious, and what might ensue from the least contest or 
umbrage between Captain Robert George and myself, am 
determined to remain as retired as possible until your ar- 
rival here. 

''I commanded at Cahokia since the expedition up the 
Mississippi, till ordered to this post, and here I found both 
the soldiers as well as the inhabitants in the most desolate 
situation imaginable; not so much by reason of sickness as 
for the want of good provisions. There is a quantitj^ of 
provisions purchased at present, but the difficulty we labor 

Digitized by 



under here is sickness; and lowness of water prevents us 
getting any provisions down at this time, by which reason 
we are kept constantly starving. As I am convinced before 
the reception of this you are satisfied from government in 
regard to my majority, I would be glad you would give me 
instructions by the first opportunity in what matter to 
act,'' etc. 

Captain George continued ^'to hold the fort," as we find 
him writing from there on the 15th of Februar}% 1781, to 
Colonel George Slaughter: ^4 have the honor to acknowl- 
edge the receipt of yours of the 23d January last, and am 
happy to find you are so abundant as you express, as out 
of your great abundance I shall expect to receive frequent 
and large supplies, more especially in the commissary way. 
The small supplies you have sent us have been of infinite 
services, and if you frequently repeat them they will be of 
singular advantage, as we look to you for it; but those 
supplies I beg may be of a better quality than what is yet 
come to hand. The beef is really of the poorest kind — ill- 
cured, and not half salted. The barrels being bad, the 
pickle became wasted, if any had been put on, and though 
the meat does not absolutely stink, it wants little of it. 

^^Major Harlan will give you the news of the place. As 
I have to purchase supplies in the Illinois, it draws away 
the liquor from me fast; besides I am to send a supply to 
the Opost, * and Major Linitot has made a hea\y draft on 
me for six hogsheads and the half of my ammunition for 
the use of the Indian department, and three hogsheads 
more to purchase eight months' provisions for twent}'-five 


Digitized by 



men, which I have sent for the protection of the Opost, 
under the command of Captain Bayley. 

^'The credit of the state is so bad that nothing can be had 
either there or at Kaskaskia without prompt payment, and 
when our little stock is exhausted, I know not what we shall 
do except you take some care of us. Send us as much 
whisky as you please, as we are forced to expend our 
taffia for provisions. The enemy are approaching the Opost, 
and fortifying themselves at Miamis, so that the inhabitants 
of the Opost have petitioned me (for) an officer and men 
to uphold the honor of the state there, which I have com- 
plied with. ... I have taken notice of your song and 
learned it. It is so good I wish you had sent more of it. 
I am under the necessity of putting a stop to the men's 
rations of liquor in order to purchase provisions." 


Colonel George Slaughter to whom the foregoing letter 
was addressed, and Major Harlan mentioned therein, were 
both men of high standing. George Slaughter, the son of 
Robert Slaughter, was born in Culpepper county, Virginia, 
in 1739. He was in the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774, 
probably in the regiment of his father-in-law. Colonel John 
Fields, who was killed in that battle. He came to Kentucky 
after that and raised some corn there, but speedily re- 
turned to Virginia and joined the army under Washington, 
serving, it is said, as captain in Muhlenburg's celebrated 
Eighth Virginia Regiment. He was in the battles of Bran- 
dy wine and Germantown in 1777; a colonel of volunteers 
in 1778, in Shelby's Chickamauga campaign; at Vincennes 

Digitized by 



in May, 1779, and at the falls of the Ohio in November of 
that year. He was with Clark in the campaign against 
Piqua in 1780, and continued in service through 1 781-2. 
Returned for a time to Virginia and was a member of the 
legislature of that state in 1784. Came west again and 
settled, first m Jefferson county, Kentucky, but finally 
removed to Charlestown, Indiana, where he continued to 
reside until his death, June 17, 1818, leaving his widow, 
Mary, but no children. She died at Warsaw, Kentucky, 
in extreme old age, and in the receipt of a pension. She 
was alive in 1836, at which time she was eighty-five years 
of age. 


The Major Harlan referred to in the letter was Silas Har- 
lan, after whom one of the counties of Kentucky was named. 
^^He was born in Berkeley county, Virginia, near the town 
of Martinsburg. He came to Kentucky in 1774, and took 
a very active part in the battles and skirmishes with the 
Indians. He commanded a company of scouts under 
General George Rogers Clark in the Illinois campaigns of 
1779, and proved himself a most active, energetic and 
efficient officer. General Clark said he was one of the 
bravest and most accomplished soldiers that ever fought by 
his side. About the year 1778, he built a stockade fort on 
Salt river, seven miles above Harrodsburg, which was called 
* Harlan's Station.' He was a major at the battle of Blue 
Licks, and fell in that memorable contest at the head of 
the detachment commanded by him. He was never mar- 
ried. . In stature he was about six feet two inches, of fine 

Digitized by 



personal appearance, and was about thirty years old when 
he was killed. He was universally regarded as a brave, 
generous and active man."* 

The sickness which seemed to be so universal at that day 
in the locality of Fort Jefferson; the difficulty of keeping 
it supplied with provisions, because of the lack of families 
in the vicinity to cultivate the soil, and the more urgent 
need of troops in other places, finally led to its abandon- 
ment. This was probably some time in 1781. Some 
eighty-two or three years afterwards, the caving in of the 
bank of the Mississippi at or near the site of the fort ex- 
posed a long iron cannon which had apparently been buried 
when the fort was abandoned. This was found in posses- 
sion of the owner of the land, during the Civil War, and 
was carried off by a party of Union soldiers, but the author 
has been unable to learn what afterwards became of this 
interesting relic of old historic Fort Jefferson. 

In the fall of 1780 a native of France, named Augustin 
Moltin de la Balme, who claimed to have come to America 
with Lafayette and to have been a lieutenant-colonel of 
cavalry in France and colonel in the continental army, em- 
barked in an expedition from the Illinois country against 
the British posts on the lakes, f He succeeded in enlisting 
forty or fifty followers at Kaskaskia and Cahokia. The 
number was slightly increased at Vincennes, but the whole 
number at no time exceeded one hundred. They suc- 
ceeded in getting as far as the present site of Fort Wayne, 

• Collinses Kentucky, Vol. 2, p. 320. 
fEarly Chicago and Illinois, p. 337. 

Digitized by 


LA BALME'S abortive EXPEDITION. 695 

at, or near, which they plundered the traders at the In- 
dian villages of their goods, and not only exasperated the 
traders, but the Indians as well. The 
latter, under the leadership of Little 
Turtle, the great chief of the Miamis, 
watched for a favorable opportunity, 
which they found at night, and not only 
defeated, but almost annihilated La 
LITTLE TURTLE. Balmc's cutirc party, and thus put an 
end to this rash and disastrous undertaking. 

A letter to Colonel John Todd, the county lieutenant of 
the Illinois country, from his deputy, Richard Winston, 
gives some information of La Balme and his movements at 
Kaskaskia and Vincennes. The letter is dated Kaskaskia, 
October 21, 1780, and says: 

^^There passed this way a Frenchman; called himself 
Colonel de la Balme; he says, in the American service. I 
look upon him to be a malcontent, much disgusted at the 
Virginians, yet I must say he (did) some good, he pacified 
the Indians. He was received by the inhabitants just as 
the Hebrews would receive the Masiah — was conducted 
from the post here by a large detachment of the inhabitants 
as well as different tribes of Indians. He went from here 
against Detroit, being well assured that the Indians weie on 
his side. Got at this place and the Kahos about fifty vol- 
unteers; are to rendezvous at Ouia (Ouiatenon). Captain 
Duplasi, from here, went along with him to Philadelphia, 
there to lay before the French ambassador all the grievances 
this country labors under by the Virginians, which is to be 

Digitized by 


696 LA BALME's abortive EXPEDITION. 

Strongly backed by Monsieur de la Balme. 'Tis the general 
opinion that he will take Baubin, the great partisan at 
Miamis, and from thence to Fort Pitt. . . . He passed 
about one month here without seeing Colonel Montgomery, 
nor did Montgomery see him.'' * 

•Virginia State Papers, Vol. i, p. 380. 

Digitized by 




Council of war to consider an expedition against the British at Detroit, or "the 
Floridianson the Mississippi" — Early action delayed — Clark visits Virginia 
and aids in driving out the British — Secures Governor Jefferson^s approval of 
an expedition against Detroit — Is commissioned brigadier-general thereof — 
Letter from General Washington approving theex{>edition, promising military 
stores and Continental troops — Letters of Jefferson and others on the subject 
— Colonel Gibson's regiment promised to Clark — Promises not fulfilled and 
expectations not realized — Country weary of war — Troops and army supplies 
hard to secure — Draft made but unsatisfactory — Clothing scarce — Paper 
money nearly worthless — Letters of Clark upon the discouraging situation — 
Bears up bravely under disappointments — Starts from Pittsburgh with but 
four hundred of the two thousand men expected — Events of voyage to falls of 
the Ohio— Colonel Lochry's command fails to join Clark at the appointed 
time and place — Follows on and is disastrously defeated — Distress of Colonel 
Clark at the defeat of Lochry and failure of campaign against Detroit — 
Colonel Crocket's letter defending Colonel Clark's conduct. 

Si^T will be remembered with what concern Colonel Clark 
mB abandoned a campaign against Detroit after the cap- 
ture of Vincennes. It was only an abandonment for that 
particular time, for it continued to be a chief aim of his 
military life during a long period, and its final failure was 
one of the chief regrets of his after life. He resumed its 
consideration on his return to the falls of the Ohio, and con- 
vened a council of war there, in the autumn of that year, 
to consider important miHtary questions in connection with 
an expedition against the British, either at Detroit or the 


Digitized by 


698 COUNXIL OF WAR, NOVEMBER 1 6, I 7 79. 

Floridas, then in British possession. The author has the 
original proceedings of that important council, and gives it 
here, with a fac-simile of the signatures of the officers who 
signed it : 

^^ At a council of war held at the falls of Ohio, this i6th 
November, 1779, by order of Colonel George Rogers 
Clark, colonel of the Illinois-Virginia regiment, and com- 
mander-in-chief of the western department, viz.: 

^* Present, Captain Robert George, president; Captain 
Thomas Quirk, Captain Edward Worthington, Captain 
Richard Harrison, Captain John Baily. 

*'The following propositions being presented from the 
colonel to the council, to wit : The gentlemen officers of 
the Illinois regiment present are requested to assemble in 
council at Bachelor's hall, at twelve o'clock, for the con- 
sideration of the following propositions, and give in their 
opinions thereon, to wit : 

^' ist. What number of troops would enable us to reduce 
Detroit or the Floridians on the Mississippi ? 

'^2d. How are those troops to be supported with pro- 
visions ? 

'^3d. If those troops are to draw their subsistence from 
the Illinois, what would it require annually ? 

''4th, If by tobacco lodged in French or Spanish posts, 
what quantity would be sufficient ? 

'^5th. What fortifications necessary for the Illinois, and 
where, their strength, etc.? 

''6th. What provisions might be furnished by the in- 
habitants of the Illinois ? 

''Falls, November i6th, 1779. 

"(Signed) G. R. Clark. 

Digitized by 



*' Which propositions being duly considered, the council 
came to the following resolves thereon, that is to say : 

"In answer to the ist proposition, *what number of 
troops would enable us to reduce Detroit or the Floridians 
on the Mississippi?' the council, considering the present 
state of Detroit and the well-affected dispositions of the 
adjacent inhabitants, do conceive that that post might be 
reduced by a few well-disciplined troops, but as these troops 
have a long, tedious and fatiguing march all the way 
through a hostile country, exposed to frequent interrup- 
tions and attacks from the savages, our natural enemy, as 
well as many unforeseen accidents, consequently attendant 
on long marches, they are unanimously of opinion that not 
less than one thousand troops would be requisite for effect- 
ing that purpose — which number they conceive would be 
amply sufficient, as well as for holding the same. . . , 
The reductions of the Floridians on the Mississippi the 
council conceived to be by no means either of so difficult 
or dangerous a nature as that of Detroit. When they 
consider that there are few or no savages to encounter with, 
the descent speedy and rapid, without fatiguing the troops, 
the inhabitants being finally well affected towards us; the 
great probability of the enemy being much weakened for 
want of the necessary supplies and re-enforcements. Add 
to all, the certainty of war being declared between Spain 
and Great Britain, and of the enemy being blocked up or 
narrowly watched at Mobile and Pensacola, from whence 
all the supplies and re-enforcements, if on the Mississippi, 
must come. These considerations induce them to be 
unanimously of opinion that the Floridians would become 
a safe and easily conquest with five hundred troops, well 

Digitized by 



disciplined, who would also be sufficient to protect a coun- 
try, etc. 

^^In answer to the second proposition, ^how are those 
troops to be supported in provisions ? ' the council are of 
opinion that supplies of bread kind can be furnished from 
the Illinois country; but as to the meat species, it must 
come from some part of the Ohio or waters east thereof. 

^'The council are unable to ascertain the sum it would 
require annually in case the troops should draw their sub- 
sistence from the Illinois as mentioned in the third proposi- 
tion, because they do not think the Illinois can furnish a 
sufficiency of the meat species, besides the price of pro- 
visions, as well as all other necessaries in that country, is so 
variable, fluctuating and uncertain. 

^'The fourth proposition, 'it by tobacco lodged in French 
or Spanish ports, what quantity would be sufficient?' has 
been answered by the foregoing, as the council know of 
no standard price for either tobacco or provisions to make 
just calculations. 

"To the fifth proposition, 'what fortifications for the 
Illinois and where, their strength, etc.?' the council (say) 
that 'tis their opinion three fortifications are sufficient, viz.: 
one at Kahokia, one at Post St. Vincent, one at Auabache, 
and one at or near the mouth of the Ohio, in the most 
convenient place on the banks of the Mississippi, each 
fortification to be one hundred feet square in the clear 
within the walls, to be built of earth dug out of an en- 
trenchment ten feet deep, with earth thrown upon the inside 
of said entrenchment, must form a wall of ten feet high 
and eight feet thick, which with the entrenchment, which 
will form a wall of twenty feet perpendicular, on the top 

Digitized by 




of which they conceive it necessary there should be a 
wooden wall of sawed or hewn timber ten feet high, twelve 
inches thick, with bastions at each corner so proportioned 
that one shall clear another. The garrison at Kahokia to 
consist of one hundred and fifty troops, and the garrison at 
Post St. Vincent of one hundred and fift}^ troops, and the 
garrison at or near the mouth ol Ohio, two hundred troops. 
**The sixth proposition inquires, *what provisions might 
be furnished by the inhabitants of the Illinois?' to which 
the council answer as their unanimous opinion that the 
Illinois inhabitants might supply five hundred troops in 
provisions of the bread kind yearly, but as to the meat 
species they can not conceive that any dependence can be 
placed on them for that article.'' 



The building of Fort Jefferson, its siege by the Indians, 
occurrences in the Illinois countr}-, the invasion of Ken- 

Digitized by 



tucky by the British and Indians under Byrd, Clark's own 
campaign against the Indians at Piqua, and other stirring 
events, occurring in rapid succession, delayed action in re- 
lation to a campaign against Detroit, but he did not, for a 
moment, contemplate giving it up. He realized that further 
assistance from the Virginia authorities was absolutely 
necessary, and that personal interviews with them were 
essential to success. To that end he repaired to Virginia 
towards the close of 1780. 

We know that he was there at the time Virginia was in- 
vaded by the British, under Benedict Arnold, and that he 
rendered important services in aiding to drive them from 
the country. On this subject the life of Patrick Henry, by 
his grandson, says: *^The enemy's fleet of twenty-seven 
sail, having aboard the traitor Arnold, with a force esti- 
mated at one thousand men, aided by wind and tide, 
ascended the James with slight obstruction, and he reached 
Richmond on January 5, 1781. The governor had com- 
menced to remove the public property on January 2. The 
enemy destroyed the stores that remained, and pushed on 
to Westham, seven miles above on the river, where there 
was a foundry for casting cannon, and a laboratory; they 
burned the public buildings and the stores which had not 
been removed. On January 6, Arnold commenced his 
retreat, reaching Westover on the next day. By that time 
Colonel Nicholas, with three hundred men, was six miles 
above him. General Nelson had collected two hundred 
at Charles City Court-House, eight miles below; between 
two and three hundred men at Petersburg had placed them- 
selves under General Smallwood, who happened to be 

Digitized by 



passing through the state, and Baron Steuben and General 
Gibson had eighteen hundred men on the south side of the 
James hastening to intercept the invaders. At Hood's, 
Colonel George Rogers Clark, with an advanced party, 
drew some of the British into an ambuscade, killed seven- 
teen, and wounded thirteen. This was the only blood 

Colonel Clark had already secured the approval of Gov- 
ernor Jefferson to the proposed expedition against Detroit, 
as will be seen from a letter Clark wrote him from Rich- 
mond, Virginia, on the i8th of January, 1781, in which he 
said: '^1 have examined your proposed instructions. I 
don't recollect of anything more that is necessary except 
the mode of paying the expenses of the garrison of Detroit, 
in case of success, as supporting our credit among strangers 
may be attended with great and good consequences, and 
my former experiences induce me to wish it to be the case 
where I have the honor to command. 

^'1 would also observe to Your Excellency that I could wish 
to set out on this expedition free from any reluctance, which 
I doubt I can not do without a satisfactory explanation of 
the treatment of the Virginia delegates in congress to me, 
in objecting to an appointment designed for me, which 
Your Excellency can not be a stranger to. I could wish 
not to be thought to solicit promotion; and that my duty to 
myself did not oblige me to transmit these sentiments to 
you. The treatment I have generally met with from this 
state hath prejudiced me as far as consistent in her interest 
and wish not to be distrusted in the execution of her 
orders by any continental colonel who may be in the 

Digitized by 



countries that I have business in, which I doubt will be the 
case, although the orders of the commander-in-chief is very 
positive." * 

What is meant by his reference in this letter to the ob- 
jection of the Virginia delegates to an appointment designed 
for him is, presumably, explained in a letter of General 
Washington to Governor Jefferson next hereafter quoted. 
He appears to have wanted some appointment or promotion 
on the continental establishment, or some action that would 
prevent his being outranked, or interfered with by any 
^'Continental colonel" in the same locality, where he might 
happen to be. If his desire was to be promoted as an officer 
of the state of Virginia he was soon gratified, for three or 
four days after this letter was written Governor Jefferson 
issued to him a commission as * 'brigadier-general of all the 
forces to be embodied in an expedition westward of the 
Ohio;" a deserved promotion which met with general ap- 

The governor also did everything in his power to facilitate 
the expedition. He had written to General Washington 
some time before asking his co-operation, which was cheer- 
fully granted, as will be seen by his letter to Governor 
Jefferson, dated at ''New Windsor, December 28, 1780," 
in which he said: "Your Excellency's favor of the 13th 
reached me this day. I have ever been of opinion, that the 
reduction of the post of Detroit would be the only certain 
means of giving peace and security to the whole western 
frontier, and I have consequently kept my eye upon that 
object; but, such has been the reduced state of our conti- 

♦ Virginia State Papers, Vol. i, p. 441. 

Digitized by 



nental force, and such the low ebb of our funds, especially 
of late, that I have never had it in my power to make the 

^'I shall think it a most happy circumstance, should your 
state, with the aid of continental stores which you require, 
be able to accomplish it, I am so well convinced of the 
general public utility with which the expedition, if success- 
ful, will be attended, that I do not hesitate a moment in 
giving directions to the commandant at Fort Pitt to deliver 
to Colonel Clark the articles which you request, or so many 
of them as he may be able to furnish. I have also directed 
him to form such a detachment of continental troops as he 
can safely spare, and put them under the command of 
Colonel Clark. There is a continental company of artil- 
lery at Fort Pitt, which I have likewise ordered upon the 
expedition, should it be prosecuted. The officers of this 
company will be competent to the management of the mor- 
tar and howitzers. 

'^I do not know for what particular purpose Colonel 
Clark may want the six-pound cannon; but, if he expects 
to derive advantage from them in the reduction of works 
of any strength, he will find himself disappointed. They 
are not equal to battering a common log block-house, at 
the shortest range. This we have found upon experience. 
I would, therefore, advise him to consider this point, and 
leave them behind, unless he sees a probability of wanting 
them in the field. I have enclosed the letter for Colonel 
Brodhead commanding at Fort Pitt, which Colonel Clark 
may deliver whenever he sees fit. It is possible that some 

Digitized by 


7o6 Washington's letter to jefferson. 

advantage may arise from keeping the true destination of 
the expedition a secret as long as circumstances will admit. 
If so, the fewer who are intrusted the better, 

*^The matter which the house of delegates have referred 
to my determination stands thus. A board of general 
officers in the year 1778 determined that officers bearing 
continental commissions should take rank of those having 
state commissions only while their regiments continued 
upon a state establishment; but that, when such regiments 
became continental, the officers should be entitled to receive 
continental commissions from the date of their state ap- 
pointments. Thus, you see, it is not in my power to rec- 
ommend them to congress for continental commissions, 
while in state regiments, without infringing an established 

^^As to the second point, * whether such officers shall have 
promotion in the line, or be confined to the said two regi- 
ments,' I think that they had best, for the sake of peace 
and harmony, be confined to the two regiments. For 
many of those officers left the continental line in very low 
ranks and obtained very high ranks in that of the state. 
This created much uneasiness when the troops came together 
in service; and it was with difficulty that many of the con- 
tinental officers could be made to brook being commanded 
by those who had been their inferiors the preceding cam- 
paign. I am, therefore, of opinion, that an attempt to 
introduce those gentlemen now into the continental line 
would create a source of infinite discontent and uneasiness, 
more especially as you have a sufficient number of officers 
at home and in captivity (and vacancies ought in justice to 

Digitized by 


Washington's letter to broadhead. 707 

be reserved for such of the latter as wish to serve again), 
for the quota of continental troops assigned to the state by 
the last establishment." * 

In his letter to Colonel David Broadhead, referred to in 
the previous letter. General Washington indorses the expe- 
dition to the fullest extent, as he does also Colonel Clark, 
although not knowing him personally. He said: ^^The 
state of Virginia has determined to undertake an expedition 
which I have ever had in view, and which I wished to carry 
into execution by a continental force; but you are sufficiently 
acquainted with the situation of our affairs, both as to men 
and supplies, to know that it has been impossible to attempt 
it. It is the reduction of the post of Detroit. 

^^His Excellency Governor Jefferson informs me that he 
thinks they shall be able, with the aid of some artillery and 
stores already at Fort Pitt, to accomplish this most desirable 
object; and that, should they even fail of carr}^'ing their 
point, much good will result from creating a diversion 
and giving the enemy employ in their own country. The 
artillerj' and stores required by Governor Jefferson are four 
field-pieces, and sixteen hundred balls suited to them; one 
eight-inch howitzer, and three hundred shells suited to it; 
two royals; grape-shot; necessary implements and furniture 
for the above; five hundred spades; two hundred pick-axes; 
one traveling-forge; some boats, should the state not have 
enough prepared in time; some ship-carpenter's tools. 

^^ Colonel Clark, who is to command the expedition, will 
probably be the bearer of this himself; and you are to de- 
liver to him, or his order, at such times as he shall require 

♦ Sparks's Washington, Vol. 7, p. 341. 

Digitized by 


7o8 Washington's letter to broadhead. 

them, all or so many of the foregoing articles as you shall 
have it in your power to furnish. You will likewise direct 
the officers with the company of artillery to be ready to 
move when Colonel Clark shall call for them; and as it is 
my wish to give the enterprise every aid which our small 
force can afford, you will be pleased to form such a detach- 
ment as you can safely spare from your own and Gibson's 
regiments, and put it under the command of Colonel Clark 
also. I should suppose that the detachment can not be 
made more than a command for a captain or major at most. 
You know the necessity of confining it to a continental 
officer of inferior rank to Colonel Clark. 

*' Your good sense will, I am convinced, make you view 
this matter in its true light. The inability of the continent 
to undertake the reduction of Detroit, which, while it 
continues in possession of the enemy, will be a constant 
source of trouble to the whole western frontier, has of neces- 
sity imposed the task upon the state of Virginia, and of 
consequence makes it expedient to confer the command 
upon an officer of that state. 

*^This being the case, I do not think the charge of the 
enterprise could have been committed to better hands than 
Colonel Clark's. I have not the pleasure of knowing the 
gentleman, but, independently of the proofs he has given 
of his activity and address, the unbounded confidence 
which I am told the western people repose in him is a 
matter of vast importance; as I imagine a considerable part 
of his force will consist of volunteers and militia, who are 
not to be governed by military laws, but must be held by 
the ties of confidence and affection to their leader. 

Digitized by 


GOVERNOR Jefferson's letter to general clark. 709 

^^I shall conclude with recommending to you, in gen- 
eral, to give every countenance and assistance to this en- 
terprise, should no circumstances intervene to prevent its 
execution. One thing you may rest assured of, and that is, 
that, while offensive operations are going forward against 
Detroit and the Indians in alliance with the British in that 
quarter, your posts with small garrisons in them and proper 
vigilance will be perfectly secure. For this reason, and 
the expedition depending upon the supplies here required, 
I shall expect a punctual compliance with this order, and 
am, with real esteem and regard, etc."* 

Governor Jefferson followed up General Washington's 
efforts in the same quarter, and on the 13th of February, 
1 781, wrote General Clark that, ^^Still having at heart the 
success of the expedition at the head of which you are 
placed, we have obtained leave from Baron Steuben for 
Colonel J. Gibson to attend you as next in command, and, 
of course, to succeed to your office in the event of your 
death or captivity, which, however disagreeable in con- 
templation, yet, as being possible, it is our duty to provide 
against. I have added my most pressing request to Colonel 
Broadhead that he permit Colonel Gibson's regiment to be 
added to your force for the expedition, a request which I 
hope will be successful as coinciding with the spirit of Gen- 
eral Washington's recommendations. Colonel Gibson is 
to go by Baltimore to see the powder conveyed to Fort 
Pitt, The articles which were to be sent from this place 
to Frederic county were duly forwarded a few days after 
you left us."t 

* Spark's Washington, Vol. 7, p. 343. 
t Virginia State Papers, Vol. i, p. 511. 

Digitized by 



The Colonel Gibson referred to in this letter was Colonel 
John Gibson, afterwards the first secretary of Indiana terri- 
tory, and for a time acting governor. His selection was 

entirely satisfactory to 

/'O^^'/^ jr^ General Clark, and all 

that now seemed to be 

required was the raising 
of two thousand men, which was the number thought to 
be necessary to make the expedition a success. 

But this was the zenith of his expectations and his pros- 
pects, for, notwithstanding the favor shown the enterprise 
by Washington and Jefferson, two of the foremost men of 
that day, unavoidable difficulties and disappointments be- 
gan to appear, and continued to make themselves felt with 
crushing pertinacity to the end, and all the facts at com- 
mand evidence that this was in no way due to any fault of 
his own. 

The truth is, the long continuance of the War of the Revo- 
lution had brought the people to realize that it was a very 
serious matter and military zeal and desire to engage in mili- 
tary campaigns had very much abated. This was particu- 
larly true in Virginia and Pennsylvania, where the horrors 
of the war had been brought within their own state limits, 
and it was in the former, mainly, that he expected to raise 
his troops. The fighting population felt they were needed 
nearer home, and, besides, continental money had become 
so worthless that pay was not likely to be at all adequate. 

Finally it was undertaken to draft militia for the expedi- 
tion, and the following letter, written to Governor Jeffer- 
son, February 9, 1781, by Colonel John Smith, the county 

Digitized by 



lieutenant of Frederic, will show what the result was in 
that county : 

^^The orders for a draught of two hundred and eighty 
men from the militia from that country to serve under 
Colonel Clark has been executed, so far as to direct the 
men to hold themselves in readiness. But the difficulty 
will be to compel these men to march, owing to their aver- 
sion to this expedition. 

^^Even should this be accomplished, he can not procure 
twenty guns in the country, and without arms they could 
do nothing. Colonel Clark has been informed of this dif- 
ficultj\ and says arms can be procured in Philadelphia. 
Major Hunter, the bearer of this, will give further par- 
ticulars in regard to the sentiments of the people of the 
county." * 

The same condition of affairs prevailed in other coun- 
ties, and there seemed to be a general feeling of indiffer- 
ence, or repugnance, as to going off on such a distant 
campaign. Besides, the deplorable financial condition of 
Virginia at that time prevented suitable clothing and equip- 
ments being promptly furnished the troops when they were 
raised. Colonel Joseph Crockett wrote the governor from 
Shepardstown, on the 4th of March, that ^'By orders re- 
ceived from Colonel Clark, we have just returned from 
Frederic town to this place, in hopes to get the regiment 
equipped for the western expedition. I must beg leave 
once more to mention to Your Excellency the great dis- 
tress the regiment is in for want of clothing, the soldiers 
being almost naked for want of linen, and entirely without 

♦Virojinia State Papers. Vol. i. p. 502. 

Digitized by 


712 Clark's appeal to jefferson and Washington. 

shoes. Colonel Clark informs me he expects a consider- 
able quantity of linen at Winchester, of which we shall 
have a part. As for shoes, I know not where to apply. 

^^This will be handed to Your Excellency by Captain 
Cheriy, paymaster to the western battalion, who will wait 
on the treasurer for a sum of money due the officers, agree- 
able to a late act of assembly, and also will with cheerful- 
ness obey any commands Your Excellency may please to 
lay on him, in order to serve the regiment in forwarding 
clothing, money, etc."* 

The trouble was that when the money did come it was 
usually in paper, and of little or no value. Colonel John 
Gibson, writing to the governor of Virginia (Nelson) Sep- 
tember i8, 1 781, says: ^^He had been ordered the winter 
before by Governor Jefferson from Richmond to Philadel- 
phia, in order to forward a supply of powder to Fort Pitt, 
for the expedition under General Clark. The money sent 
through Ensign Tannehill to defray the expenses incident 
to this duty ^would not pass at any rate' in that countrj^, 
and he now returns it by Mr, Boreman, with the request 
that it be exchanged, etc'^f 

General Clark bore up under all these vexations and dis- 
appointments with remarkable fortitude. Foiled at one 
point he turned hopefully to another and never relaxed his 
efforts. The severest blow came in Broadhead's failure to 
assign him Colonel Gibson and his regiment as had been re- 
quested by Jefferson and Washington. Clark fully realized 
the danger of this failure, but did not despair. From Fort 

* Virginia State Papers, Vol. i, p. 572. 
tVirginia State Papers, Vol. 2. p. 458. 

Digitized by 


Clark's appeal to jefferson and Washington. 713 

Pitt he wrote earnest appeals to both. On the 20th of 
May he wrote this feeling letter to General Washington : 
*^ Reduced to the necessity of taking every step to carry my 
point the ensuing campaign, I hope Your Excellency will 
excuse me in taking the liberty of troubling you with this 
request. The invasion of Virginia put it out of the power 
of the governor to furnish me with the number of men pro- 
posed for the enterprise to the west, but informed me he 
had obtained leave from the Baron Steuben, and agreeable 
to your letters, for Colonel John Gibson and regiment and 
Heth's company to join my forces, an addition of men with 
them the militia we were disappointed of. 

**On consulting Colonel Broadhead he could not conceive 
he was at liberty to let them go, as your instructions were 
pointed, respecting the stores and troops to be furnished by 
him. From Your Excellency's letters to Colonel Broad- 
head I supposed him at liberty to furnish what men he 
pleased. Convinced he did not think as I do, or otherwise 
he would have had no objections, as he appeared to wish 
to give the enterprise every aid in his power. 

*^The hopes of obtaining a grant of these troops has in- 
duced me to address Your Excellency myself, as it is too 
late to consult Governor Jefferson farther on the subject, 
wishing to set out on the expedition early in June, as our 
store of provisions is nearly complete. If our force should 
be equal to the task proposed I can not conceive but that 
this post with every small garrison even of militia will be 
in any danger, as it is attached to a populous country, and 
during our time in the enemy's (country), Mcintosh and 

Digitized by 


714 Clark's appeal to jefferson and Washington, 

Wheeling will be useless, or might also be garrisoned by 
small parties of militia, 

''These I know to be Your Excellency's ideas. If you 
should approve of the troops in this department joining 
our forces, though they are few the acquisition may be at- 
tended with great and good consequences, as two hundred 
only might turn the scale in our favor. 

''The advantages which must derive to the states from 
our proving successful is of such importance that I think 
(it) deserved greater preparations to insure it. But I have 
not yet lost sight of Detroit. Nothing seems to threaten 
us but the want of men, but even should (we) be able to 
cut our way through the Indians and find that they have 
no re-enforcements at Detroit, we may probably have the 
assurance to attack it, though our force may be much less 
than proposed which was two thousand, as defeating the 
Indians with inconsderable loss on our side would almost 
insure us success. Should this be the case a valuable peace 
will probably ensue. 

"But on the contrary, if we fall through in our present 
plans and no expedition should take place, it is to be feared 
that the consequences will be fatal to the whole frontier, as 
every exertion will be made by the British party to harass 
them as much as possible — disable them from giving any 
succor to our eastern or southern forces. The Indian war 
is now more general than ever — any attempt to appease 
them will be fruitless. Captain Randolph waits on Your 
Excellency for an answer to this letter, which I flatter my- 
self you will honor me with immediately. Colonel Gibson 
who commands in the absence of Colonel Broadhead will 

Digitized by 


Clark's appeal to jefferson and Washington, 715 

keep the troops in readiness to move at an hour's warning; 
conducting myself as though this request was granted, im- 
patiently waiting for the happy order." * 

Three days later he wrote from '^Yahogania C. H." the 
following letter to the governor of Virginia: ^^Afew days 
past I received dispatches from the Illinois, Kentucky, etc., 
of a late date. I am sorry to inform Your Excellency that 
near one hundred thousand pounds of beef at the Kentucky 
is spoilt by the persons engaged to procure it. About the 
same quantity on hand excellent good, and two hundred 
and fifty head of cattle promised by the inhabitants. The 
Indians have done considerable damage there. The enclosed 
copies are all that is worth your notice from the Illinois, 
but what you already knew of by former letters from that 

*^You will see the measures that have been taken respect- 
ing Shannon and Moor and the issue. Colonel Broadhead 
would not agree to suffer Colonel Gibson's regiment to go 
on the expedition, as he said he could not answer for it. 
I have written to General Washington in consequence as 
perenclosed copies. The continental officers and soldiers of 
this department to a man (are) anxious for the expedition 
supposed against the Indians. The country in general 
wishing it to take place, but too few think of going, and so 
great a contrast between the people of the two states in this 
quarter that no method can be taken to force them to war. 

'^We are taking every step in our power to raise volun- 
teers. What number we shall get I can't as yet guess. I 
doubt too few. The disappointment of seven hundred men 

•Virginia State Papers, Vol. i. p. io8. 


Digitized by 


7i6 COL. JOHN Gibson's letter to gov. jefferson. 

from Berkeley and Hampshire I am afraid is too great a 
stroke to recover (from), as in fact the greatest part of this 
country is in subordination neither to Pennsylvania or Vir- 
ginia. General Washington informs me that he had re- 
ceived information that Colonel Connelly had left New 
York with a design to make a diversion in the countries to 
be re-enforced by Sir John Johnson in Canada. 

"I doubt, sir, we shall as usual be obliged to play a des- 
perate game this campaign. If we had the two thousand 
men first proposed, such intelligence would give me pleas- 
ure. The greatest part of our stores have come to hand, 
the remainder I shortly expect. By the greatest exertions 
and your timely supplies of money we have the boats and 
provisions expected in this quarter nearly completed. 

''I propose to leave this about the 15th of June, if we 
can embody a sufficient number of men by that time. I 
do not yet despair of seeing the proposed object on toler- 
able terms, although our circumstances (are) rather gloomy. 
Colonel Crockett and regiment arrived a few days past who 
informed me that a company or two (of) volunteers might 
be expected from Frederick and Berkeley. I am sorry we 
are so circumstanced as to be glad to receive them." * 

Colonel John Gibson, then in command at Fort Pitt, 
offered General Clark every facility in his power, but he 
plainl}^ foresaw that he was not likely to secure the number 
of men necessary to the success of a campaign against De- 
troit, and he foreshadowed as much, on the 30th of May, 
in a letter to Governor Jefferson, in which he said: 

* Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, p. 116. 

Digitized by 



^^General Clark will write Your Excellency by this oppor- 
tunity and I make no doubt give you every information 
relative to the intended expedition. I am much afraid he 
will not be able to get many of the militia from this quarter, 
as I have just heard that three hundred men from the 
counties of Monongahela and Ohio have crossed the Ohio 
at Wheeling, and are gone to cut off the Moravian Indian 
towns; if so they will hardly turn out on their return. 

^^ Indeed it appears to me they have done this in order 
to evade going with General Clark. The Moravians have 
always given the most convincing proofs of their attachment 
to the cause of America, by always giving intelligence 
of every party that came against the frontiers; and on the 
late expedition they furnished Colonel Broadhead and his 
party with a large quantity of provisions when they were 
starving. For the news of this post, permit me to refer 
Your Excellency to the bearer, Ensign Tannehill." * 

General Clark expected to have left Fort Pitt by the 15 th 
of June with two thousand men, but they could not be 
secured, notwithstanding he made the most strenuous efforts 
to that end, and delays were unavoidable. The failure to 
secure the continental troops, under Gibson, was followed 
by the failure to procure seven hundred men expected to be 
raised in Hampshire and Berkeley counties, in Virginia, 
and those from Frederick dwindled away to only a small 
part of the number anticipated. These, and other dis- 
appointments and difficulties, delayed his departure, and 

•Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, p. 131. 

Digitized by 



finally he started down the river with only about four hun- 
dred, instead of two thousand men, as intended. Some 
additional troops were expected to overtake him but never 
did, as will be seen later. 

Clark was at Wheeling on the 4th of August, on which 
day he wrote the following gloomy letter to the governor 
of Virginia: ''I make no doubt but it was alarming to you 
that I had not left this country. Whoever undertakes to 
raise an army in this quarter will find himself disappointed 
— except the law was of greater force, and not depending 
on the wills of the populace. This country calls aloud for 
an expedition, wishing me to put it into execution, but 
(the people are) so strangely infatuated that all the methods 
I have been able to pursue will not draw them info the 
field. We have made draughts to no purpose. Governor 
Reed also wrote to them, but to no effect. 

''From the time I found I was to be disappointed in the 
troops ordered by government I began to suspect the want 
of men, which is now the case when everything else is pre- 
pared. I could not get Colonel Gibson's regiment, other- 
wise I should have been gone long since — had to make up 
the deficiency by volunteers, but finding that no arguments 
are sufficient, I determined to quit them, leaving no stone 
unturned by which they might hereafter excuse themselves. 
To save the garrison of Pittsburgh from being evacuated, I 
have been obliged to spare them a considerable quantity 
of flour, but yet have enough to do something clever had I 

"I have relinquished my expectation relative to the plans 
heretofore laid, and shall drop down the river with what 

Digitized by 



3 O 

I W 

1- ^ 

I 2 

i ? 

I W 

a o 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



men I have, amounting to about four hundred; consisting 
of Crockett's regiment, Craig's artillery, volunteers, etc. 
If I find a prospect of completing my forces in any other 
country I shall do it, and make my strokes according to 
circumstances. If I find it out of my power to do anjiihing 
of importance, I shall dispose of the public stores to the 
greatest advantage and quit all further thoughts of enter- 
prise in this quarter. 

" I do not yet condemn myself for undertaking the ex- 
pedition against Detroit. I yet think, had I near the num- 
ber of men at first proposed, should have carried it. I 
may yet make some stroke among the Indians before the 
close of the campaign, but at present (that is) really to be 

'' 1 have been at so much pains to enable us to prosecute 
the first plan, that the disappointment is doubly mortify- 
ing to me, and I feel for the dreadful consequences that 
will ensue throughout the frontier if nothing is done. This 
country already begins to suspect it and to invite me to 
execute some plans of their own, but I shall no longer 
trust them. 

^' I shall hereafter transmit to Your Excellency copies of 
all the public letters sent and received respecting the expe- 
dition, by which you will see the very great pains that have 
been taken with the inhabitants of this country to little 
purpose. The unsettled state of the government is very 
hurtful to public measures among them. I have spared to 
Colonel Harrison £126581 17s to enable him to go on 
with his business, which he is to settle with the auditors. 

Digitized by 



Be pleased to order me credit for it on their books. I 
think Colonel Harrison has done himself honor in con- 
ducting his business."* 

lochry's defeat. 

Part of the troops which General Clark expected would 
join him at Wheeling, Virginia, where there was then a 
fort, called Fort Henry, were recruited largely in West- 
moreland county, Pennsylvania, by Colonel Archibald 
Lochry, the county lieutenant of that county. In the com- 
mand of Colonel Lochry were a company of volunteer 
riflemen raised by Captain Robert Orr, two companies of 
rangers under Captains Samuel Shannon and Thomas 
Stockley, and a company of horse under command of Cap- 
tain William Campbell; but these companies could not have 
been full, as there were but one hundred and seven men in 
the party when they passed down the Ohio river. 

Colonel Lochry started with his command from Carna- 
han's block-house, eleven nuJes west of Hannastown, 
Pennsylvania, late in July or early in August, 1781, to 
join General Clark's forces. It is pretty certain that the 
date of departure from Carnahan's was not earlier than 
the 24th of July, or later than the 3d of August, and all 
accounts agree that the party reached Wheeling on the 8th 
of the latter month, coming by land as far as Pittsburgh, 
and from thence by water. 

There had, apparently, been unexpected and unavoid- 
able delay, which proved to be most unfortunate, as will 
be seen in the sequel. General Clark waited at Wheeling 

♦Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, p. 294. 

Digitized by 



five days longer than was intended, and, finding further 
delay dangerous, as his troops were restless and many 
deserting, he left Wheeling the day before the arrival of 
Colonel Lochrj^'s party, hearing nothing from them, and 
dropped down the river ''about twelve hours," leaving 
provisions and boats for their use, with directions to follow 

But here was another serious delay, for they did not 
arrive at the place below, to which Clark had gone, until 
ten days later, having been detained, mainly, by preparation 
of additional boats for the transportation of men and horses. 
Again they were one day too late, as General Clark had 
departed the day before for the mouth of the Kanawha 
river, where he expected to await their arrival, and he left 
Lieutenant Creacraft and some men, with a boat, but, un- 
fortunately, did not leave ammunition and provisions, of 
which the Lochry partj' were now in great need, although 
that fact was probably not known by General Clark. 

Misfortunes were still pursuing them. So much dissat- 
isfaction had developed among the troops with General 
Clark that there was danger of the force being greatly re- 
duced by desertions, a party of nineteen having already 
deserted, and therefore he decided not to remain at the 
mouth of the Kanawha, for the Lochry part}^ to come 
up, as he had intended. He left a letter, suspended from 
a pole, directing the party to come down the river. But 
the river was low, and none of the Lochr}^ pai'ty seemed 
familiar with the channel, and their supplies having run 
short they now felt themselves in such bad condition that 
they lost hope of overtaking Clark with their whole force, 

Digitized by 



but decided to send Captain Shannon, with seven men 
in a swift moving boat, to overtake him, if possible, and 
inform him of the situation. 

This, under ordinary circumstances, was a wise deter- 
mination, and would doubtless have been successful but for 
an overwhelming and unexpected disaster which occurred 
to Captain Shannon and most of his men. They were 
captured by the Indians, and with them a letter to Clark, 
disclosing the situation of Lochry's party, which before 
was unknown to the Indians and their British leaders, who 
supposed that Clark and Lochry's forces were coming down 
the river together. 

This capture was the greatest misfortune that had yet 
befallen the Americans. Their weak and divided condi- 
tion was now definitely made known to the enemy, who 
promptly decided to take advantage of the opportunity. 
They had long been advised of the intended expedition 
against Detroit, and were watching Clark's voyage down 
the river, but overestimated both his force and the number 
of his cannon, and, thus far, had made no attack. Now 
they were better informed, and determined, when the right 
time came, to attack Lochr}^'s part}\ 

They watched their opportunity, and finally collected, 
about eleven miles below the mouth of the great Miami 
river, three hundred strong, under able leaders. The cel- 
ebrated chief. Brant, is said to have been one of them, but 
this is not entirely certain. 

The Indians, with their usual cunning, forced and per- 
suaded Shannon's party, under promise of release, to station 
themselves at a prominent place on the north side of the 

Digitized by 


lochry's defeat. 725 

river to hail the Lochry party as they descended and induce 
them to surrender, on the ground that resistance against 
such an overwhelming force would result in certain de- 
struction, whereas if they surrendered their lives would be 
spared. It is said the prisoners (of course with guards near 
enough to prevent escape) were stationed at the head of an 
island about three miles below a creek flowing into the 
Ohio, now the dividing line between Dearborn and Ohio 
counties, in the state of Indiana, and called Lochrj^, as is 
also the island, after the unfortunate commander of this 
division of the expedition. 

The Indians, however, attacked the Lochry party before 
reaching this point, probably at or near the mouth of the 
creek before referred to, there being some dispute as to the 
exact spot where the attack was made. The fighting ap- 
pears to have been brought on earlier and a little higher 
up than the Indians intended, because of the Americans 
having stopped their boats here to take the horses on the 
shore to graze, feed for them on the boats being exhausted. 

Lieutenant Isaac Anderson, who had command of Cap- 
tain Shannon's company, and was taken prisoner, kept a 
journal of the campaign, from which the following extracts 
are taken: 

August 8, 1 781. Arrived at Wheeling fort, and found 
Clark was settled down the river about twelve hours. 

August 9th. Colonel Lochry sent a quartermaster and 
officer of the horse after him, which overtook him at Mid- 
dle island and returned; then started all our foot troops on 
seven boats and our horses by land to Grave creek. 

Digitized by 



August 13th. Moved down to Fishing creek; we took 
Lieutenant Baker and sixteen men, deserting from Gen- 
eral Clark, and went that day to middle of Long Reach, 
where we staid that night. 

August 15th. To the Three islands, where we found 
Major Creacroft waiting on us with a horse-boat. He, 
with his guard, six men, started that night after General 

August 1 6th. Colonel Lochry detailed Captain Shan- 
non with seven men and letter after General Clark, and 
moved that day to the Little Kanawha with all our horses 
on board the boats. 

August 17th. Two men went out to hunt who never 
returned to us. We moved that day to Buffalo island. 

August 1 8th. To Catfish island. 

August 19th. To Bare Banks. 

August 2oth. We met with two of Shannon's men, 
who told us they had put to shore to cook, below the mouth 
of the Siotha (Scioto), where Shannon sent them and a 
sergeant out to hunt. When they got about half a mile in 
the woods they heard a number of guns fire, which they 
supposed to be Indians firing on the rest of the party, and 
they immediately took up the river to meet us; but, un- 
fortunately, the sergeant's knife dropped on the ground 
and it ran directly through his foot, and he died of the 
wound in a few minutes. We sailed that night. 

August 2ist. We moved to Two islands. 

August 2 2d. To the Sassafras bottom. 

August 23d. Went all day and all night. 

Digitized by 



August 24th. Colonel Lochrj' ordered the boats to land 
on the Indiana shore, about ten miles below the mouth of 
the Great Meyamee (Miami) river, to cook provisions and 
cut grass for the horses, when we were fired on by a party 
of Indians from the bank. We took to our boats, expect- 
ing to cross the river, and were fired on by another party 
in a number of canoes, and soon we became a prey to 
them. They killed the colonel and a number more after 
they were prisoners. The number of our killed was about 
forty. They marched us that night about eight miles up 
the river and encamped. 

August 25th. We marched eight miles up the Mey- 
amee river and encamped. 

August 26th. Lay in camp. 

August 27th. The partj^ that took us was joined by one 
hundred white men under the command of Captain Thomp- 
son and three hundred Indians under the command of Cap- 
tain McKee. 

August 28th. The whole of the Indians and whites 
went down against the settlements of Kentucky, excepting 
a sergeant and eighteen men, which were left to take care 
of sixteen prisoners and stores that were left there. We 
lay there until the 15th of September. 

September 15, 1781. We started toward the Shawna 
towns on our way to Detroit. 

Lieutenant Anderson was first taken to Detroit, then to 
Fort Niagara, finally to Montreal, where he escaped, reach- 
ing his home in Pennsylvania just one year after his depart- 
ure on the unfortunate expedition. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


lochry's defeat. 729 

The place where the attack on Colonel Lochry's party 
was made was where a sand bar projected far out from the 
shore making the river, which was then at a low stage of 
water, verj' narrow at that point. As the Indians knew 
perfectly well that they were three times as strong in num- 
bers as the party they were going to attack, it is believed 
that they had a portion of their force on each side of the river, 
so as to take advantage of the advance or retreat of the 
Americans in either direction; and the attack was probably 
made from both sides, which has led to some confusion as 
to where the fight began. The evidence, however, is posi- 
tive that the main attack, and the slaughter and capture of 
Lochrj^'s party was on the Indiana side, at, or near, the 
mouth of Lochry's creek. 

General Clark had already passed on down the river in 
safety, and was entirely ignorant of the threatened calamity 
to Colonel Lochry's command. It is not likely the latter 
had any idea the Indians were near in such force, or that 
he was in immediate danger. However, as Captain Shan- 
non had not returned, it seems somewhat strange that he, 
and his command, did not act with greater caution and 
make a better defense, but their helpless condition should 
be remembered, and that they had no positive evidence of 
Indians being in the immediate vicinit}\ 

They were in a strange country, on a part of the river 
unknown to them, out of provisions, and almost out of 
ammunition. The horses were starving and were landed 
at a favorable spot to feed upon the luxuriant grass and pea 
vines growing in that locality. The men, too, were greatly 
in need of food, and had killed a buffalo, which some of 

Digitized by 



them were cooking when the Indians rushed upon them 
with such impetuosity and overwhelming numbers that all 
the Americans were either killed or captured. 

This was the sad and deplorable ending of Colonel Loch- 
ry's unfortunate expedition, and it was more destructive 
and disastrous to the whites than any conflict with the In- 
dians that had ever before occurred on what is now Indiana 
soil — or probably any that had occurred in the western 
country. Forty-one Americans were killed and the rest 
taken prisoners. Of the whole number who left Pennsyl- 
vania on the expedition only a month before, less than 
half returned to their homes. The mournful tidings did 
not reach Pennsylvania for several months but when it did 
'Hheir misfortunes threw the people of the country into 
the greatest consternation and despair, particularly West- 
moreland county, Lochry's party being all the best men of 
their frontier." * 

But it was not in Pennsylvania alone that the sad news 
filled the hearts of the people with sorrow. It was mourned 
and deplored by sympathizing Americans everywhere; but 
by none more sincerely than by General Clark, and for 
many reasons, not the least of which was that it was the 
finishing blow that extinguished, forever, all hope of a suc- 
cessful campaign against Detroit, which he had so long 
and so fondly cherished, as well as all hope of any imme- 
diate campaign against the Indians. 

His distress was increased by unjust criticism of some of 
the people of Pennsylvania who thought he ought to have 
prevented Lochry's defeat, which censure was the out- 

*Letter of General Irvine to General Washington. 

Digitized by 



growth of the strong prejudice and unfriendly feeling exist- 
ing between certain parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia at 
that period, on account of the disputed boundary line be- 
tween the two commonwealths. This condition of affairs had 
much to do in preventing General Clark from getting the 
men he expected to join him at Pittsburgh. Major Will- 
iam Croghan, writing from that place to Colonel William 
Davis, speaks of General Clark's departure with only four 
hundred men, and says: ^^The reason so few went with 
him from this place is owing to the dispute that subsists 
here between the Virginians and Pennsylvanians respecting 
the two bounds of the latter. And the general, being a 
Virginian, was opposed by the most noted men here of 
the Pennsylvania party." It should not be forgotten, 
however, that the reason assigned by Major Croghan did not 
operate in Berkeley, Hampshire and Frederick counties, in 
Virginia, where the failure was equally marked and dis- 

General Clark's conduct in this matter, as well as in the 
contemplated expedition against Detroit, appears to need 
no defense; but if it did, it is amply given in a letter written 
to the governor of Virginia (Harrison) by Colonel Joseph 
Crockett, who was in the expedition, and familiar with all 
the circumstances. The following is an extract from this 

"I received Your Excellency's letter of the i6th instant, 
the purport of which I am at loss to answer as clearly as I 
could wish. As for General Clark's conduct, last cam- 
paign whilst I had the honor to serve under his command, 
as touching his military character, I can not think he is 

Digitized by 



deserving censure; his greatest misfortune and loss of use- 
ful operations of this campaign was the want of men, 
although the general strained every nerve in his power to 
raise a sufficient number to penetrate into the heart of the 
enemy's country, and was assisted by a small number of 
good men, to complete his laudible design. It appeared 
to me to be out of the power of any human existence to 
cause a sufficient number to enter the field, or subject those 
few that were already there to good order. The general 
often told them of the evils that has already (befallen) 
them, if that campaign miscarried. 

^^One place of general rendezvous was Wheeling, where 
the general expected to be joined with a thousand militia 
from the counties over the mountains; out of which two 
hundred and fifty only joined, and the half of them de- 
serted, after drawing a quantity of arms, blankets, leggins, 
shirts, etc., etc.; the greatest part of those (who) did not 
desert threatened mutiny for several days. 

**Nor was this all of the general's disappointment. There 
was a certain quota of men to be sent him from the counties 
of Berkeley, Frederick and Hampshire, of which he never 
received one. 

''I know the general is much censured in the neighbor- 
hood of Fort Pitt for the loss of Colonel Laugherry's 
party, for whom he waited five days at Wheeling; disap- 
pointments being so frequent, he lost all hopes of his 
coming, and moved down the river. The colonel, coming 
to Wheeling the next day, sent a boat after, with a letter 
to the general that he would be glad if he would wait for 

Digitized by 



him, as he had one hundred and thirty men without pro- 

*^The general sent a small boat with ten kegs of flour, 
and wrote the colonel he would leave boats enough at a 
certain island, under a small guard, for the reception of his 
men, with a quantity of flour, ammunition, etc.; to prevent 
desertion, he would move slowly down the river. The 
unhappy colonel, without proper caution, landed his men at 
the mouth of the Miami, at which place was a large num- 
ber of Indians, who destroyed the whole of the colonel's 

♦Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 358. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 





Memorial of the people of Vincennes — Letter of Captain Bailey, commandant 
of the post there — Colonel John Floyd writes of the situation in Kentucky — 
Colonel Floyd killed by Indians — Colonel Slaughter and others write gloomily 
of the situation — Clark immediately engages in putting matters into better 
shape — Ascertains strength of the Kentucky militia — Builds Fort Nelson — 
Suggests to the governor of Virginia a system of armed boats on the Ohio 
— Uses a gun-boat between the falls and the Licking — Indian depredations 
continue — Disastrous battle of Blue Licks in August, 1782 — Rising of the 
people to carry the war into the enemy*s country — General Clark marches, 
at the head of a thousand men, against the Indian towns on the i»ittle-Miami ^)/y^c "• t 
and destroys them — Indians amazed at unexpected development of the strength *» 

of the Americans and never afterwards invade Kentucky in force — An appro- 
priate ending of the successful part of General Clark's military career. 

I^ENERAL CLARK arrived at the falls of the Ohio 
P^2lf ^^^^ his forces the latter part of August, 1781. 
Things had gone on badly during his long absence, both 
in Kentucky and the Illinois country. There was trouble 
in both. Colonel Todd, the civil governor, returned to 
Kentucky, leaving the Illinois country to the management 
of his lieutenant, Winston, with positive instructions to 
avoid coming in conflict with the military authorities. This 
was advice thrown awa)% as disagreements, under the cir- 
cumstances, were unavoidable. The military officers had 
no money with which to purchase army supplies but the 


Digitized by 



worthless continental paper, which the inhabitants refused 
to receive, and consequently provisions and other requisite 
things were sometimes of necessity taken without compen- 
sation and by force. This, of course, produced not only 
bad feeling, but conflicts of authority. Finally Winston 
boldly charged some of the leading military officers with 
dishonesty and crime, and in turn was imprisoned by them. 

He left a written memorandum of this indignity offered 
the civil authority, represented in his person, in which he 
records, in very bad English, that on the 29th of April, 
1782, at ten o'clock in the morning, he was taken out of 
his house ^'by tyrannic military force without making any 
legal application to the civil magistrates.'' He says it was 
done ''by Israel Dodge, on an order given by John Dodge, 
in despite of the civil authority," and ''on the malicious 
accusation of James Williams and Michael Pevante." * 

Todd had instructed Winston that "during my absence 
the command will devolve upon you as commander of 
Kaskaskia — if Colonel Clark should want anything more 
for his expedition, consult the members of the court upon 
the best mode of proceeding; if the people will not spare 
willingly, if in their power, you must press it, valuing the 
property by two men upon oath. Let the military have 
no pretext for forcing property. When you order it, and 
the people will not find it, then it will be time for them to 
interfere. By all means keep up a good understanding 
with Colonel Clark, and the officers. If this is not the 
case, you will be unhappy." 

*Early Chicago and Illinois* p. 289. 

Digitized by 



That he disregarded Todd's instructions is not unlikely, 
but whether he did or not it is quite certain that he became 

What the outcome was of this imprisonment of the highest 
civil magistrate then in that part of the country, ^'by tyran- 
nic military force," he does not record; but, whatever it 
was, it doubtless increased the bad feeling already existing 
between the American troops and the people. It had been 
growing ever since Clark left Vincennes, and even before. 

There was now much dissatisfaction and trouble at Vin- 
cennes, and on the 30th of June, 1781, the principal inhab- 
itants set forth their grievances in the following memorial 
to the governor of Virginia : ^'The undersigned have the 
honor to present to Your Excellency the very serious griev- 
ances to which they have been exposed, since the arrival of 
Virginia troops in this countr}^, and especially since Captain 
(Colonel) Clark left this town have we experienced most 
horrible treatment from a people who professed to be 
friends, and who were generously received as such. But 
things have totally changed since the departure of that of- 
ficer, lie left in command Colonel Montgomer}^, who, 
with his officers, have failed to carry out his friendly policy. 
We have with promptitude furnished provisions and goods 
as far as was in our power. Colonel Clark drew bills on 
the treasurer of Virginia, which remain unpaid. 

^^The accredited officers of finance and others have as- 
sured us that continental money was of equal value with 
coin, and we accepted the same in good faith. When the 
Virginians gave us cause to be supicious of their money. 

Digitized by 



we remonstrated with Colonel Clark and the officers of the 
garrison, who, notwithstanding this fact, claimed for this 
money its value in Spanish coin. Mr. John Todd, in ac- 
cord with Captain Leonard Helm, commanding the fort at 
this town, has required by public order that this money be 
received as of equal value with specie, threatening punish- 
ment of all who refused it. As soon as we had furnished 
provisions and goods for this money, the Virginians ap- 
peared to think they could take by force our property, our 
supplies, and even the little we had reserved to keep our- 
selves alive. 

'^ Your Excellency must also be informed that, in addi- 
tion to these annoyances, they have perpetuated others of 
a more serious character, by killing our cattle in the fields 
and our hogs in our yards, taking our flour from the mills 
and the corn in our garners, with arms in their hands, 
threatening all who should resist them, and the destruction 
of the fort we built at our own cost. When they left the 
town they carried off the artillery, powder and balls, there- 
by depriving us of the only means of defending ourselves 
against the fury of the savages, whom they have excited 
against us. This you perceive is the conduct Virginians 
have pursued in this country. Your Excellency may be 
assured this is the exact truth, and Mr. Vaucheres is 
charged with the duty of representing the matter to Your 
Excellency, of demanding the satisfaction due to us as 
citizens and friends of the states, and to make adequate 
return for the money we have received as of the value of 
specie. We beseech Your Excellency to require the troops 
to put an end to the troubles they continue to produce. 

Digitized by 




We are unwilling longer to submit to the exactions inci- 
dent to their lawless proceedings, it being apparent to His 
Excellency that the Virginians have entirely ruined us 

''If it be thus you treat your friends, pray what have you 
in reserve for your enemies ? We must insist that Your 
Excellency put a stop to our misfortunes, and render us 
the justice our patience deserves. 

''Assuring you of our profound respect, we have the 
honor to be, etc." 

This memorial was signed by the principal citizens of 
Vincennes of French descent, and there was scarcely any 
other kind there at that period. Fac-similes of the signa- 
tures of two of them, F. Bosseron and J. M. P. Legrace, 
have already been given, and they had both rendered im- 
portant services to the American cause, as has already been 

shown. An- 
other signer 
was Philli- 
bert, a man 

of affairs who for a long period, in the absence of a regu- 
lar Catholic priest, performed some of the functions of that 
office. Then there x- 

was Pierre Gam- /jA^^^ 

elin, whose fam- 
ily, for at least a 
generation after- 
wards, was distinguished in the history of that locality. He 
was one of the men appointed by Colonel John Todd to 

Digitized by 




act as judges in the Illi- 
nois country. Bosseron, 
Legrace and L. E. Deline, 
who was a signer of the 
memorial, were also 
judges of this court. One 
of the judges of the court, 
Pierre Queres, did not sign the memorial, and perhaps for 
good reason, as he seems to have signed other papers only 
by making his mark. Additional signatures to the memo- 
rial were Pierre Guerin, P. Mallet, Jean Batiste Vallaite, 
Pierre Cournoyer, Dagenet, Ja. Barois, Godefroy Linetot, 
Major P. Barron, Israel Ruland, Moses Henry and Gabriel 
Legrand. Ru- 
land and Henry ^ — "^ 
were presumably 
not of French de- 
scent. Legrand 
was an impor- 
tant appendage 
of the court, be- 
ing both sheriff and clerk. He had been a notary from 
1776 to 1778, and Winthrop Sargent, acting governor of 
the Northwest Territory, July 31, 1790, wrote General 
Washington in relation to land claims about Vincennes, 
saying of Legrand's books and papers that ^^the records 
have been so falsified, and there is such gross fraud and 
forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and information which 
I might otherwise have acquired from the papers."* It 

♦Laws Colonial Vincennes, p. io8. 

Digitized by 



will be observed, however, that while the inference is some- 
what pointed he does not attribute the frauds and forgeries 
to Legrand personally in direct language. The court here 
referred to was the first held within the limits of what is 
now the state of Indiana after the conquest of the country 
from the British, and fac-similes are given in this work of 
the signatures of the clerk and all the judges, except the 
one who does not seem to have written his name. It is 
presumed without evidence to the contrary that this court 
in a general way dispensed justice in a simple, informal, 
but substantial manner, so as to satisfy the pioneer com- 
munity of that day, but the judges assumed the right to 
grant public lands, and exercised it to their own advantage 
in a way entirely unjustifiable. This can not be better ex- 
plained than it was by Judge Law, who lived and died at 
Vincennes, and possessed the best opportunity for procuring 
accurate information. In his Colonial Vincennes he says: 
"Todd (then governor of the Illinois and Wabash coun- 
try') went to Kaskaskia in 1779, where he issued his proc- 
lamation descriptive of the fertility and beauty of the 
'Valley of the Wabash,' and strongly intimating that 'au- 
thority was meant to be implied' — if not expressly given — 
to the governor, by Virginia, to make grants of land. That 
the executive authority under Virginia in the northwestern 
territory had the same right to make concessions of land 
as was claimed by the French and British commandants. 
Mr. Le Gras, his substitute at the 'post,' seems to have 
had fewer scruples upon the subject of the right than his 
superior. Governor Todd. Not only did he exercise the 
power of disposing of the public domain, but he delegated 

Digitized by 



it to the county court, composed of four judges, organized 
under the act of Virginia, and who held their sessions at 
Vincennes. They did a wholesale business in the way of 
disposing of the domain — not only to others, but to them- 
selves — not only by the ^arpent,' but by leagues.' The 
way it is stated to have been done is this: Three of the 
four judges were left on the bench, while one retired. The 
court then made a grant of so many ^leagues' of land to 
their absent colleague, which was entered of record. He 
returned as soon as the grant was recorded, and another of 
these ^ermined' gentlemen left the bench while the chief 
justice and the other judges made a similar grant to their 
absent friend. After the grant was made and duly re- 
corded, he returned, the third departed, and a similar record 
was made for his benefit; and so with the fourth. In this 
wholesale transfer of the public land, if continued, Vir- 
ginia would have had but a small donation to make her 
sister states of the confederacy, when she gave up the em- 
pire she held in the northwestern territory ^for the common 
benefit.' Governor Sargent complains of their wholesale 
plunder of the public domain, in his letter to General 
Washington in 1790, and among the documents accom- 
panying that letter is the answer of the judges to his 
inquiry, ^by what right these concessions were made,' and 
is as follows: 

'^ ^ To the Honorable Winthrop Sargent^ Esquire^ Secre- 
tary in and for the Territory of the United States 
Northwest of the River Ohio^ and Vested toith all 
Powers of Governor and Commander-in-Chief: 
'^ ^SiR — As you have given orders to the magistrates 
who formerly composed the court of the district of Vin- 

Digitized by 



cennes, under the jurisdiction of Virginia, to give you their 
reasons for having taken upon them to grant concessions 
for the lands within the district, in obedience thereto, we 
beg leave to inform you that their principal reason is, that 
since the establishment of the country the commandants 
have always appeared to be vested with powers to give 
land. Their founder, Mr. Vincennes, began to give con- 
cessions, and all his successors have given lands and lots. 
Mr. Le Gras was appointed commandant of *Post Vin- 
cennes' by the lieutenant of the county and commander- 
in-chief, John Todd, who was in the year 1779 sent by the 
state of Virginia /^r to regulate the government of the coun- 
try^ and who substituted Mr. Le Gras with his power. In 
his absence Mr. Le Gras, who was then commandant, as- 
sumed that he had in quality of commandant authority to 
give lands according to the ancient usages of other com- 
manders, and he verbally informed the court of ^Post Vin- 
cennes,' that when />^^j would judge it proper to give lands 
or lots to those who should come into the country to set- 
tle, or otherwise, they might do it, and that he gave them 
permission so to do. These are the reasons that we acted 
on, and, if we have done more than we ought, it was on 
account of the little knowledge which we had of public 
affairs. (Signed) 


" ^L. E. Deline. 
" ^Pierre Gamelin. 
" 'Pierre Querez, his x mark. 
'' 'Post Vincennes, July 3, 1790.' 

Digitized by 



^^The following is a translation of one of these grants 
issued by ' Legrand, GrefBer de la Cour' to Henry Coop- 
rider, but is written ^Coupraiter' by the clerk : 

" ^The court, knowing the power given to them by **Sig- 
nor John Todd, colonel and civil grand justice of the 
United States," after having examined and duly deliberated 
on the absolute necessity, not only to the ^'city of Vin- 
cennes" but to the whole country, that the lands here- 
abouts should be settled, for the supply and commerce of 
the ^^county of Illinois and Vincennes," and seeing the great 
quantity of land uncultivated, which has never been settled 
nor granted to any one, the court, by virtue of the powers 
given to them, the Signor Le Gras, colonel commandant, 
and president of said court, has responded favorably to the 
written request of *^ Henry Coupraiter" and directed me, 
^^Gabriel LeGrand, clerk of the court," to grant and accord 
to said Coupraiter four hundred arpents of land, bounded, 
etc. He, the said Henry Coupraiter, submitting to all 
regulations made between 2i -potentate and subject.'^ " 

These grants occasioned a good deal of trouble and loss 
to purchasers, but the claims were sold and traded at merely 
nominal rates and were never confirmed by the government. 

The sentiments expressed by the judges and other signers 
of the memorial to the governor of Virginia were doubtless 
the general sentiment of the community, and it can not but 
be admitted that there was just ground for their complaint. 

The before-mentioned Colonel Legrace wrote the gov- 
ernor of Virginia, May 22, 1780, that 

^^The inhabitants of St. Vincennes and the country of 
the Illinois, ignorant of the act of congress, have sold their 

Digitized by 



han'est to the army of Colonel Roger Clark, and have re- 
ceived in payment piastres of the continent, * upon the 
footing and for the value of the Spanish piastres. f Persons 
in authority (by your orders) have circulated them as such, 
and have assured us authentically that there would be 
nothing lost. They have even passed counterfeits. In the 
position of magistrate of this district my duty and benevo- 
lence prompt me to beg you to take pity upon a people 
who, by this loss, find themselves reduced to the most 
urgent necessities. In addition to this, there has been pub- 
lished at St. Vincennes an order, by command of Colonel 
Jean Todd, to oblige the residents to receive this money as 
Spanish piastres, and many have been imprisoned for hav- 
ing refused. Some time later the before-mentioned Colonel 
John Todd required me, as it appears from his letter, to 
stop the circulation, in view of the quantity of counterfeit 
orders that many are circulating, which I have done, to 
avoid confusion, without lessening (or preventing) the 
value of the goods. Earnestly hoping that the states will 
pay this money according to the denomination, I have the 
honor, etc." J 

That the native inhabitants of the Wabash and Illinois 
country' were mistreated there can be no question. They 
were not only neglected by the government, but positively 
imposed upon in many ways. The complaints made about 
worthless paper money being forced upon them was strictly 
true. It was not only forced by the army officers, but by 

* That is continental paper money. 

f Coin. 

t Foot note Early Chicago and Illinois, p. 328. 

Digitized by 



the government, for in March, 1781, Virginia went into 
the forcing business generally, by passing a law ' ^That all the 
paper bills of credit which hath been emitted or shall here- 
after be emitted by congress, and all bills of credit which 
have been heretofore emitted by this state, also all bills of 
credit that the governor with advice of council hath been 
empowered to emit, as well as all such bills as shall be 
emitted by any act or vote of this present session of assembly, 
shall to all intents and purposes be a legal tender in dis- 
charge of all debts and contracts whatsoever, except specific 
contracts, expressing the contrary." * 

The value of the paper thus made a legal tender is shown 
by another law of the Virginia legislature, also passed in 
1 781, fixing a ^'scale of depreciation" for it, as compared 
with silver and gold, in settlement of debts created at the 
following periods: Close of year 1777, two and a half for 
one; close of 1778, six for one; close of 1779, forty for one; 
close of 1780, seventy-five for one, and at the close of 1781, 
one thousand for one; so that at the time of the memorial of 
the inhabitants of Vincennes, and of Colonel Legrace's 
letter, '^the piastres of the continent" forced on these poor 
and confiding people, for property taken, under the assur- 
ance they were as good as coin, proved utterly worthless, 
and it is no wonder that for these and many other wrongs 
they felt deeply aggrieved. They had been true friends of 
the Americans when their friendship was of vital importance 
and had received only neglect and injury in return. 

On the 6th of August, Captain John Baley, commandant 
of the garrison at Vincennes, wrote from that place giving 

*Hening*8 Statutes, Vol. lo, p. 398. 

Digitized by 



an account of a recent attack upon a party of Americans, 
in which quite a number were killed, wounded or captured, 
and also explaining the deplorable conditions of affairs. 
''I am sorry," said he, ^'to inform you of the following 
news. The boat commanded by Captain Coulson, started 
from this the nth July, was defeated within seventy-tive 
miles of the falls of Ohio. The captain was killed and three 
of his men; several others wounded; the remainder of the 
company came back and gave me the unhappy news. They 
retreated to the mouth of Wabache, left the boat and came 
by land, the enemy being close in the rear of them. Four 
days ago I received news from Detroit that they were much 
annoyed by the Americans coming against them, also that 
they were weak — about one hundred men. Provisions 
scarce and dear, and goods plenty. The Indians greatly 
exasperated against them not meeting with the treatment 
as they had formerly done. 

^*Sir, I must inform you once more that Lean not keep 
garrison any longer, without some speedy relief from you. 
My men have been fifteen days upon half allowance; there 
is plenty of provisions here but no credit. I can not press, 
being the weakest party. Some of the gentlemen would 
help us, but their credit is as bad as ours, therefore, if you 
have not provisions, send us whisky, which will answer as 
good an end. I hope if my express gets in you will not 
detain him. Pray use the Indian well, having no other to 
send. I expect his return in twelve days from the date, 
and for some one man to come with him to this post. It 
appears that the communications is to stop between Canada 


Digitized by 



and Detroit, from the commencement of this year, by ac- 
counts from thence.'' * 

It is certainly creditable to General Clark's course and 
management that during the time he was in the Illinois 
and Wabash country no such unfortunate state of affairs 
existed as described in these letters. He always arranged 
to take care of his soldiers without offending or coming 
in conflict with the inhabitants. As already stated, the 
principal cause of the troubles referred to in these letters 
grew out of the military chest being only provided with de- 
preciated, in fact worthless, continental paper, which the 
inhabitants knew nothing about and refused to take in ex- 
change for supplies the troops were compelled to have, and 
which they therefore, from necessity, were driven to take 
by force. Trouble and conflict were, of course, unavoid- 
able under such circumstances. 

Trouble equally disquieting, but of a different character, 
also existed on the south side of the Ohio. 

The settlements in Kentucky were kept in a constant 
state of alarm by the Indians, instigated by the British, and 
sometimes led by white men. Besides, there was a great 
scarcity of provisions, as well as of ammunition, both being 
indispensable in their isolated and unprotected situation. 
Colonel John Floyd laid the condition of affairs in Kentucky, 
and especially in Jefferson county, before the governor of 
Virginia, in April, by letter. He said: ''We are all obliged 
to live in forts in this country, and notwithstanding all the 
caution that we use, fortj^-seven of the inhabitants have 
been killed and taken by the savages, besides a number 

♦Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, p. 33S. 

Digitized by 



wounded since January last. Amongst the last is Major 
William Lynn. 

*^ Whole families are destroyed without regard to age or 
sex. Infants are torn from their mothers' arms and their 
brains dashed out against trees, as they are necessarily 
moving from one fort to another for safety or convenience. 
Not a week passes and some weeks scarcely a day without 
some of our distressed inhabitants feeling the fatal effects 
of the infernal rage and fury of these execrable hell-hounds. 

^*Our garrisons are dispersed over an extensive country, 
and a large proportion of the inhabitants are helpless indigent 
widows and orphans, who have lost their husbands and 
fathers by savage hands, and left among strangers, without 
the most common necessaries of life. Of those who have 
escaped, many have lost all their stock, and have not any 
land of their own, nor wherewithal to purchase. Our 
dependence to support our families is upon getting wild 
meat and this is procured with great difficulty and danger; 
and should it fall to the lot of some in this county who are 
thus situated to serve as regular soldiers according to law, 
their families must inevitably starve. 

*'Our garrison at the falls is made sufficient to stand an 
attack with light cannon, but our numbers which will risk 
themselves in it will by no means be sufficient to defend it 
from an army which we are frequently threatened with 
from Detroit. Our inhabitants being so dispersed that they 
could not be collected to any one place in the country in 
less than fifteen days. 

*^The confidence the people here have in General Clark's 
vigilance; his enterprising spirit and other militarj- virtues, 

Digitized by 



together with their inability to remove, have been barely 
sufficient to keep this country from being left entirely deso- 
late. Major Slaughter, at the falls of Ohio, has about five 
hundred pounds of powder and lead in proportion, which 
is all the public ammunition in this country; none of that 
delivered to Colonel Bowman last winter having been 
sent me, and there is very little in the country of private 

^^There is not at this time, I am informed and believe, 
more than fifty thousand pounds of beef in this county, 
Fayette and Lincoln; upwards of one hundred thousand 
weight of that laid up in this county being entirely rotten 
and lost. Corn is plenty in Lincoln and Fayette but there 
is no flour in any of these counties. The men you order 
for General Clark's expedition will be raised without much 
difficulty, notwithstanding all the disadvantages the county 
is under. The canoes also shall be ready in time, though 
one-fourth of the militia must guard while they are on hand. 
Salt may be had here sufficient for an army of two thousand 
men six months and perhaps more." * 

Little did Colonel Floyd think at the time of writing 
the foregoing letter that he would be dangerously wounded, 
a few months later, by these same Indians, and in two 
years would be in his grave from injuries received at their 
hands. Yet such was his unfortunate fate. 

^4n (September) 1781, hearing of the disaster to the 
settlers at 'Squire Boone's Station (near Shelbyville) while 
removing for safety to the stronger settlements on Beargrass, 
Colonel Floyd collected twenty-five men, and with noble 

* Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, p. 48. 

Digitized by 




promptitude hurried to relieve the whites and chastise the 
Indians. He fell into an ambuscade — in spite of the pre- 
caution of dividing his force, and marching with great care 
— and was defeated by a body of two hundred Indians, 
losing half his men, although but nine or ten Indians were 
killed. While himself retreating on foot, closely pursued 
by Indians, and much exhausted, Captain Samuel Wells 
(who had retained his horse), dismounted and gave it to 
Floyd, and ran by his side to support him. This magna- 
nimity was greatly enhanced because of previously personal 
hostility between those officers — which was thus canceled 
forever; they lived and died friends." * 

In Jefferson county, Kentucky, on the turnpike road be- 
tween Middletown and 
Simpsonsville stands the 
monument here shown 
which bears the follow- 
ing inscription, viz.: 

*' Erected by the com- 
monwealth of Kentucky 
to the memory of four- 
teen brave soldiers who 
fell under Captain John 
Floyd in a contest with 
the Indians in 1783." 
**On April 12, 1783, 

Monument Erected by State of Kentucky Colonel Flovd and his 
To Fourteen Soldiers Who Fell "^ 

Under Capt. John Floyd. brother Charles, not 

suspecting any ambush or danger from the Indians — for 

*Collins's Kentucky. 

Digitized by 




there had recently been serious trouble with them, and 
they were supposed to have retreated to a safe distance — 
were riding together, some miles from Floyd station, when 
they were fired upon, and the former mortally wounded, 
lie was dressed in his wedding coat of scarlet cloth, and 
was thus a prominent mark. His brother, abandoning his 
own horse, which 
was wounded, 
sprang up behind 
his saddle, and, 
putting his arms 
around the col- 
onel, took the 
reins and rode off 
with the wounded 
man to his home, 
where he died in 
a few hours. Col. 


Floyd had a remarkable horse that he usually road which 
he claimed had the singular instinct of knowing when In- 
dians were near, and always gave to the rider the sign of 
their presence. He remarked to his brother Charles, ''if 1 
had been riding Pompey, to-day, this would not have hap- 
pened." * 

Another writer describes the terrible condition of affairs 
along the border lines, in 1781, in these words: 

^'The frontiers of this county along the Ohio river is two 
hundred and seventy-seven miles, by computation, and the 
inhabitants greatly dispersed and cooped up in small forts 

*Collins's Kentucky. 

Digitized by 



without any ammunition. Eighty-four of the inhabitants 
of this county have been killed and captured since last 
spring, and many more wounded. We are now so weak- 
ened in the most exposed parts of the county, by having 
so many men killed, and others removing to Lincoln for 
safety, that when any murder is done we can not pursue 
the enemy without leaving the little garrisons quite defense- 
less. The most distressed widows and orphans, perhaps 
in the world, make up a great part of our inhabitants." 

Three days after the commandant of the garrison at Vin- 
cennes wrote the letter already quoted, stating that he could 
not hold that garrison longer without speedy relief. Colonel 
George Slaughter wrote substantially the same thing as to 
the garrison at the falls of the Ohio, where he was in com- 
mand. He said : 

"The situation of my little corps at this place at present 
is truly deplorable ; destitute of clothing, victuals and 
money, the commissaries have furnished them with little 
or no provisions these three months past, don't give them- 
selves the least concern about it, and, unless unexpected 
and immediate supplies of clothing and provisions are ob- 
tained, I shall evacuate this post. We are neglected in 
everj^ respect — no dispatches from government or General 
Clark for such a length of time that patience is almost at 
an end. In short, sir, the service must be painful and disa- 
greeable to any man of sensibility."* 

On General Clark's return to the west, he at once de- 
voted himself to ascertaining the true condition of affairs, 

* Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2. p. 306. 

Digitized by 



with a view of bettering them as rapidly as possible. But 
it was a difficult undertaking, and required time to secure 
favorable results. He called the military officers within 
reach to meet him in consultation at the falls of the Ohio 
early in September, shortly after his return to that place. 
It was found that the militia strength of the three counties, 
Jefferson, Lincoln and Fayette, into which Kentucky was 
then divided, amounted to only seven hundred and sixtj' 
men, but this did not include the regular soldiers brought 
down the river by Clark or those in the several stations. 
The council thought two-thirds of the militia could be 
spared to go with (jeneral Clark on an expedition, but 
rather advised against its being undertaken just then, 
deeming the establishment of garrisons on the Ohio more 

The council favored locating a strong fort at the mouth 
of the Kentucky river, but General Clark thought the falls 
of the Ohio a better location. His preference prevailed 
and a stronger fort was finally built on the Kentucky side 
at that point than had been there before, and was called 
Fort Nelson, after a governor of Virginia. When the people 
who were left on Corn island by Colonel Clark removed 
to the main land on the Kentucky shore, in the winter of 
1778-9 and the following spring, a small fort was erected 
near the mouth of Beargrass creek. Another fort was erect- 
ed at the foot of what is now Twelfth street in the city of 
Louisville, and this was the principal point around which 
the first settlements were made. This fort was quite large 
for the period, being one hundred and fifty by two hun- 
dred feet, and it continued in use until Fort Nelson was 

Digitized by 




built in 1782, between Sixth and Eighth streets, north of 

CoUins's History of Kentucky says that ^'Seventh street 
passed through the foot-gate, opposite the headquarters of 
General George Rogers Clark. The fort contained about 
an acre of ground, and was surrounded by a ditch eight 
feet deep and ten feet wide, intersected in the middle by a 
row of stump pickets. This ditch was surmounted by a 

breast-work of 
^^^^^^^*^.MA^-3k ft?r*-- — •^ log pens, filled 

with earth ob- 
tained from 
the ditch, with 
pickets ten feet 
high planted 
on the top of 
the breast- 
work. Next to the river, pickets were deemed sufficient, 
aided by the long slope of the bank. In 1844, in exca- 
vating for a cellar, on the north side on Main street, 
opposite the Louisville Hotel, the remains of the timbers 
forming the base of General Clark's block-house were dis- 
covered. It appears from this that the south facade of 
the fort was on Main, extending from Sixth to Seventh 
streets as far as the northeast corner of the tobacco ware- 
house — with its pickets extending eastward, so as to enclose 
a never-ending spring of water, which may yet be seen 
about one hundred and ninety feet from Main and a little 
west of Fifth street; this spring has been neglected for 
many years and fallen into disuse." It was probably the 


Digitized by 



only fort in the far west, except Fort Chartres, strong 
enough to be cannon-proof, and it seems to have been 
fairly well provided with munitions of war for that day 
and that remote point. An inventory, quoted in ^'The 
Centenary of Louisville," shows a pretty good stock on 
hand in 1783, such as four cannon, eight swivels, and a 
general assortment of shells, balls, grape shot, and other 
corresponding war material. 

A long letter from Colonel John Todd to the Governor 
of Virginia, in October, 1781, shows that he and Colonel 
Ben Logan opposed locating the fort at the falls or calling 
on the militia to aid in its construction. * It was constructed 
under General Clark's auspices, however, notwithstanding 
this opposition, and the result demonstrated the excellence 
of his judgment in the matter, for it proved so formidable 
that the enemy never dared to attack it. There was about 
this time a good deal of jealousy between the militia and 
the regular troops. 

General Clark wrote the governor of Virginia on the 
7th of March, 1782, pointing out the value of armed boats 
in preventing incursions of hostile Indians on the south 
side of the Ohio. With a reasonable number of these, 
properly manned and equipped, he thought there would 
be no apprehension of serious damage being done to the 
Kentucky country. He represented that no vessel the 
enemy could bring across the portage from the lakes could 
compete with such boats as he suggested, and he asked for 
them, or means to construct them. 

•Virginia State Paperb, Vol. 2, p, 562. 

Digitized by 



The following extract from the war records gives an 
amusing but all-sufficient explanation of the reason why 
General Clark did not get the boats; and it also shows the 
kind of difficulties he had to encounter: ''War Office, 
April 22, 1782. Colonel Davies informs the executive that 
Major Harding is willing to supply boats on the Ohio for 
General Clark if the money can be furnished to pay for 
them. The governor replies from the council chamber, 
'I am sorry to inform you that we have but four shillings 
in the treasury, and no means of getting any more.' "* 

Disappointed, as he had often been before, in receiving 
the means necessary to execute desirable plans, he ac- 
quiesced cheerfully, and did the next best thing, which was 
to construct a gun-boat himself, mounted with cannon, 
which aided in keeping off the Indians, by patroling the 
river from the falls to where Cincinnati is now situated. 
This was a novel achievement for that day, esf>ecially in 
western waters, but it rendered good service, bearing effi- 
cient testimony as to Clark's fertility of resources. 

The fall, winter and early spring passed without the oc- 
currence of any event of special interest, but in May, 1782, 
twenty-five Indians attacked Estill's station in Kentucky, 
and after killing one American and taking another prisoner 
retired, but were followed by about an equal number of 
white men. A fierce fight ensued, in which Captain Estill 
and eight of his men were killed and four wounded. The 
Indians lost about the same number. 

In the following August several hundred Indians, headed 
by Simon Girty and other white men, made an attack on 

*V^irginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 133. 

Digitized by 



Bryant's station, and continued it for several days, but only 
succeeded in killing four men and wounding three, whereas 
their own loss was four or five times that number. On the 
fourth day they withdrew from the vicinity. The Kentuck- 
ians speedily assembled, one hundred and eighty-two in 
number, under the leadership of some of their most promi- 
nent citizens, and pursued the Indians, overtaking them 
near the lower Blue Licks, when a battle ensued, which, 
although fought with great impetuosity and bravery by the 
whites, was particularly destructive to them — especially in 
prominent officers. Among the distinguished men killed 
was Colonel John Todd, the senior commanding officer on 
the occasion, and the lieutenant-commandant of the Illinois 
country as before stated. The result was exceedingly dis- 
astrous, over one-third of the whole command having been 
killed, and they among the bravest of the brave. Among 
the officers killed was also Major Harlan who had served 
with General Clark in the Illinois campaign.* 

The whole country was aroused to action by this disas- 
ter, and General Clark at once assumed the command of 
the forces, now gathering in all directions, with Colonels 
Floyd and Logan to assist him. The falls of the Ohio 
and Bryant's station were selected as the places for the 
troops to meet, from which points they moved forward as 
mounted riflemen, a thousand strong, to the mouth of the 
Licking, where they remained some time perfecting their 

From thence they marched early in November, 1782, 
against the leading Indian towns, on the Miami river, 

•Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, p. 562. 

Digitized by 



north of the Ohio, but the enemy fled on their approach, 
and left them nothing to do but destroy the villages and pro- 
visions, which they did thoroughly at Chillicothe, Pickawa, 
Wilston, and other places. Ten Indians were killed, seven 
taken prisoners, and two white captives recovered; but 
this was of little consequence, in breaking the spirit of the 
Indians and preventing future depredations, in comparison 
to the destruction of their homes and their food supplies. It 
was at a season of the year when such a loss was particu- 
larly distressing, and Clark literally took away or destroyed 
ever^'thing of value in a wide scope of country. Their 
women and children were left without shelter, or food, in 
the face of the storms of winter, and this brought them to 
effectually realize that they had nothing to gain by contin- 
uing the contest with the Americans. 

"We surprised the principal Shawanee town,'' says 
General Clark, "on the evening of the loth (of Novem- 
ber), immediately detaching strong parties to different 
quarters. In a few hours two-thirds of the town was laid 
in ashes, and everything they were possessed of destroyed, 
except such articles as might be useful to the troops. The 
enemy had no time to secrete any part of their property 
which was in the town. 

"The British trading-post at the head of the Miami and 
carrying-place to the waters of the lake shared the same 
fate, at the hands of a party of one hundred and fifty horse, 
commanded by Colonel Benjamin Logan. The property 
destroyed was of great amount, and the quantity of pro- 
visions burned surpassed all idea we had of the Indian 

Digitized by 



^^The loss of the enemy was ten scalps, seven prisoners, 
and two whites retaken. Ours was one killed and one 
wounded. After lying part of four days in their towns, 
and finding all attempts to bring the enemy to a general 
action fruitless, we retired, as the season was far advanced 
and the weather threatening." * 

The wholesale destruction of the provisions and homes 
of the Indians by General Clark's forces on this occasion, 
coupled with their display of numbers and anxiety to fight, 
so soon after the disaster of Blue Licks, had great influ- 
ence in keeping the Indians quiet for a considerable time. 

They were content, thereafter, to remain on the northern 
side of the Ohio, and this expedition ended forever all for- 
midable Indian invasions of Kentucky. That this desirable 
result should follow and date from a campaign conducted 
by George Rogers Clark was a fit ending of the successful 
portion of his military life, and will ever stand, creditably 
linked with his other notable achievements. 

•Clark's letter to governor of Virginia, November 27, 1782. 

Digitized by 




Negotiations ended in treaty of peace of 1783 — These negotiations called atten- 
tion more particularly to the great benefit General Clark's services had been 
to the country — He had captured from the enemy a vast territory, and being 
in possession it was included in the boundaries of the new government — But 
for this the boundary might have been the Ohio river, or the Alleghany 
mountains — Importance of the conquest — Triumph of Clark and his sol- 
diers — Seal of the Northwest Territory — Importance of that territory. 

5T is quite probable that one reason, and perhaps the 
principal reason, why formidable expeditions were 
not made against the frontier settlements after the cam- 
paign of General Clark against the Indians in November, 
1782, referred to in the last chapter, was because for some 
time thereafter they were not instigated, led and supported 
by the British. 

All their hopes of conquering the so-called '^rebels" 
vanished with the capitulation of Cornwallis at Yorktown, 
Virginia, on the 19th of October, 1781. From that time 
on it was evident to all thinking people that the Ameri- 
cans would be successful, and the British authorities recog- 
nized the, to them, humiliating fact, by signing provisional 
articles of peace with the United States, November 30, 
1782, a few weeks after this campaign of General Clark. 


Digitized by 


762 VALUE OF Clark's services realized. 

A cessation of hostilities was agreed to at Versailles, 
France, January 20, 1783, and a proclamation of the fact 
was made by congress, April nth of that year. The for- 
mal and definitive treaty of peace was concluded at Paris, 
September 3, 1783, and ratified by congress January 14, 

It was when the terms of this treaty came to be con- 
sidered, and the northern and western boundary of the 
United States debated, that the general public began more 
fully to realize the important services General Clark had 
rendered the country. When the boundar}' was finally 
established, it was plainly seen he had provided the means 
of securing for the country a territory which was, in itself, 
an empire in extent and material resources. But for his 
services, and that of the little band of soldiers comfX)sing 
his Illinois regiment, the boundary of the United States 
on the northwest might have been the crest of the Alle- 
gheny mountains, or the southeast bank of the Ohio river. 

The claim is not made for General Clark that there 
were no other grounds, and no other agencies, favoring 
the boundaries as finally established, but the paramount 
agency, however, was the fact that the Illinois and Wabash 
country had been captured from the British by Clark, held 
in continuous possession thereafter, and was in actual pos- 
session at the time the treaty was made; and but for these 
circumstances the territory, in all probability, would not 
have been included within the boundaries of the United 

The American commissioners, John Adams, John Jay 
and Benjamin Franklin, were hampered in negotiating the 

Digitized by 



terms of the treaty by an unwise restriction imposed by 
their own government, in effect that they were to under- 
take nothing, in the negotiations for peace, without the 
knowledge and concurrence of the king of France, which 
restriction they finally disregarded, much to the benefit of 
the United States. 

It required no profound statesmanship, or knowledge of 
human nature, to understand that France had been in- 
fluenced in joining in the war quite as much, and per- 
haps more, from interested motives, to humble and cripple 
England, her ancient rival and enemy, as to build up a 
great republic in America. As against England, both 
France and Spain, from these local and selfish considera- 
tions, were for the new American government, but they 
were for themselves first of all. 

They were both more than willing to see the boundary 
of the United States contracted in the north and west, and 
hence the great importance of the fact that the Americans, 
as a result of Clark's achievements, were then in actual 
possession of the Illinois and Wabash country. If the in- 
vasion by Clark had not been made, and the British had 
remained in actual possession during the war, is it at all 
likely this territory would have been given to the Americans 
by the treaty? The author believes, as already foreshad- 
owed, that it was the well-established //// possidetis — state 
of actual present possession — that prevailed, much more 
than the vague and shadowy claims based upon ancient 
charters, or anj^ other pretension. 

The old charter grants to the colonies, readinoj '^froni 

sea to sea," were issued at a time when comparatively 
49 I ^ 

Digitized by 



nothing^ was known of the wilderness to the north or west, 
or of the sea beyond, and, while technically England had 
ceded proprietary rights over the whole country covered 
by the grants, that cession was not sufficient of itself to 
be a controlling factor in securing the boundary, although 
its justice could not consistently be disputed by England. 
If the charter grants had a controlling influence, why did 
the United States boundary stop at the lakes and the 
Mississippi? Why did it not extend from ''sea to sea," so 
as to include the same territory covered by a literal con- 
tinuation of these pretentious grants? The country was 
never reduced by the Americans to peaceable possession 
beyond the Ohio, or to any other kind of possession, for 
that matter, other than the military occupancy of Clark and 
his soldiers, when they wrested the Illinois and Wabash 
country from the British and held it, in connection with 
civil officers appointed by Virginia, not so much by char- 
ter rights, or any other claim, as by force of arms, and so 
continued to the time of making the treaty of peace. 

It was enough to know that the Spaniards were in pos- 
session of the country west of the Mississippi, and the 
Americans of the country on the east, to fix that part of 
this river as the western boundary of the United States. 
Of course every fx)ssible phase of claim was presented and 
urged, in the exhaustive discussion which took place be- 
tween the contracting parties, but a review of the lengthy 
debate and negotiation is not necessary here and does not 
fall within the scope of this work. 

General Clark's possession of the Illinois and Wabash 
countr)^ was not only good as against the British, but also 

Digitized by 



against the Spaniards, and there is scarcely a doubt that the 
latter would have seized the French towns, and occupied 
the territory, if it had not already been in actual American 
possession. The Spaniards did make a raid, to that end, 
in the winter of 1780-81, and captured St. Joseph on the 
east shore of Lake Michigan, but they made no attempt to 
hold the country. It was a raid, and nothing more. 

The result of the treaty was a great triumph for the 
United States, not only in securing independence and re- 
taining the country held in actual possession when the war 
began, but in retaining also the territory taken possession 
of during the war. It was a vindication of the foresight of 
Thomas Jefferson, who said, from the beginning, that 
Clark's expedition into the Illinois and Wabash country 
''would, if successful, have an important bearing ultimately 
in establishing our northwestern boundary;'' and it was by 
his wise statesmanship that a vast territory west of the 
Mississippi was subsequently acquired, and its value demon- 
strated by an exploration through the then wilderness to 
the Pacific ocean, conducted, with marked ability, by Merri- 
wether Lewis and the distinguished William Clark, youngest 
brother of General George Rogers Clark. 

It was especially a triumph for General Clark, although he 
was at that time not enjoying any benefits from these im- 
portant and far-reaching achievements, as will presently be 
shown; and it was none the less a great and important tri- 
umph because it was accomplished with but few men and 
meagre resources, and without the shedding of much blood. 

Measured by the standard of great results, the map of 
the magnificent territor}% acquired mainly through his 

Digitized by 



agency, speaks louder in behalf of General Clark and his 
little army, than any words of praise. Without intending 
the slightest disparagement to the other states, it may 
truthfully be said that to take from the map of the Amer- 
ican Union the states created out of the old Northwest 
Territory conquered from the British would be to strike out 
the very heart of the republic. Without this acquisition, 
what might have been the destiny of the great countrj^ to 
the south and west — between it and the Pacific ocean — 
now forming so important a part of the United States 
with such magnificent prospects for the future ? Look at the 
vast proportions of the old Northwest Territory. Compare 
it with the territory now embraced within the boundaries 
of the original thirteen states or that of Great Britain and 
Ireland combined, or with France or German)^ Contem- 
plate its mighty rivers, and its wonderful fresh water lakes; 
its genial climate, productive soil, immense prairies, great 
forests of valuable timber; its coal, iron, copper, lead, 
building stone, minerals, salt, oil, and natural gas. Where 
can be found so large a country with so little worthless 
land, or better provided with all the material elements of 
prosperity? And where may be seen a country that has 
advanced more rapidly, not only in material prosperit}*, 
but in the higher lines of an enlightened, progressive and 
refined civilization? 

Such is the countr}- embraced within the boundaries of 
the historic ^ ^Territory of the United States Northwest of 
the River Ohio," acquired in the manner related in these 
volumes, and out of which has sprung the great states of 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and, in part, 

In the political organization of this vast territory under 
the ordinance of 1787 will be found some of the wisest 
provisions ever incorporated in a territorial government, and 
from which has resulted great benefits to all the people of 
the United States, and, to some extent, the whole human 
family. For example, the following far-reaching articles 
of ^^ compact between the original states and the people 
and states of said territory" : 

"Article i. No person, demeaning himself in a peace- 
able and orderly manner, shall ever be molested on account 
of his mode of worship or religious sentiments in the said 

"Art. 2. The inhabitants of the said territory shall 
always be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas 
corpus, and of the trial by jury; of a proportionate repre- 
sentation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial 
proceedings according to the course of the common law. 
All persons shall be bailable, unless for capital offenses, 
where the proof shall be evident or the presumption great. 
All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unusual pun- 
ishment shall be inflicted. No man shall be deprived of 
his liberty or property but by the judgment of his peers, 
or the law of the land, and should the public exigencies 
make it necessary, for the common preservation, to take 
any person's property, or to demand his particular services, 
full compensation shall be made for the same. And, in 
the just preservation of rights and property, it is under- 
stood and declared, that no law ought ever to be made, or 

Digitized by 



have force in the said territor}^, that shall, in any manner 
whatever, interfere with, or affect, private contracts or 
engagements, bona fide and without fraud, previously 

*^Art. 3. Religion, morality and knowledge, being 
necessary to good government and the happiness of man- 
kind, schools and the means of education shall forever be 
encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be ob- 
served towards the Indians; their lands and property shall 
never be taken from them without their consent; and in their 
property rights, and liberty, they never shall be invaded or 
disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by 
congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity shall 
from time to time be made for preventing wrongs being 
done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with 

''Art. 6. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntarj- 
servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the pun- 
ishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly 

A history of ''The Territory of the United States North- 
west of the River Ohio" does not fall within the scope of 
the author's present volumes, but it may be of some in- 
terest to give here some account of an investigation made 
as to the official seal of the territory. 

"The Seal of the Territory of the U. S., N. W. of 
THE River Ohio." 

Great difficulty was experienced in procuring a full and 
clear impression of this seal. Various impressions were 

Digitized by 



found upon official documents, but unfortunately some part 
was indistinct in all of them. In this condition of un- 
certainty recourse was had to the department of state, at 
Washington, through the kind intervention of President 
Harrison, and his private secretar}-, Mr. Halford. The au- 
thor enclosed a sketch of the seal, as far as he was able to 
decipher it, which was returned with the following letter: 

^'Department of State, 
'^Washington, September 14, 1891. 
^'The Honorable William H. English ^ Indianapolis^ Ind, : 

''Sir — At the request of Mr. Halford, whose letter of 
the I St instant to me is enclosed, I have pleasure in inform- 
ing you that the seal of the Northwest Territor}^ found among 
the papers of that territory in this department gives only 
the following inscription in addition to that read by you: 

" ^Meliorem lapsa locavitj^ 

"The words have been inserted in your pencil sketch of 
the seal herewith returned. 

"I am, sir, your obedient servant, 
"William F. Wharton, Acting Secretary." 

"(Enclosed: Mr. Halford to Mr. Wharton, September 
I, 1 89 1. Pencil sketch of the seal of the Northwest Terri- 

A more formal drawing of the seal, including the Latin 
inscription mentioned in Mr. Wharton's letter, was for- 
warded the department, which elicited the following reply 
on the 15th of October following: " Referring to your 
letter to Mr. Wharton of the 30th ultimo, I have to re- 
turn herewith enclosed the drawing of the seal of the 
Northwest Territory transmitted by you and to send you 

Digitized by 



an imperfect reproduction of the seal from which the size 
of the type, the location of the inscription, and the char- 
acter of the lines can be determined, with the exact size 
of the seal. As it is impossible to make an exact repro- 
duction of the seal, I will have sent you, as soon as the}' 
can be obtained, photographs of different impressions of 
the seal, which will show the only things omitted from your 
drawing, a coiled snake in the foreground and two boats in 
the middle distance. I am, sir, your obedient servant, 
^'JoHN II. Haswell, Acting Chief Clerk." 

The photographs referred to were subsequently received 
with a letter, which said: ''In reply to your letter of the 
nth instant, I have to enclose herewith certain photographs 
of the seal of the Northwest Territory, which I trust will be 
of some assistance to you. There is no perfect impression 
of the seal among the papers in the department. 

"I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

''Sevellon a. Brown, Chief Clerk." 

There were enclosed in this letter no less than six of these 
photographs of seals on official documents, and presumably 
the most perfect there, one being that ''affixed to the 
journal for July, 1790." In some of the photographs the 
seal was represented actual size, in others enlarged so as to 
better develop the inscription, the department evidently 
rendering every possible assistance in securing a correct 

In addition to the six photographs there was enclosed an 
impression made by rubbing with a pencil, and on this was 
indorsed as follows: *'a lead pencil rubbing of the seal of 
the Northwest Territory made from an impression of the seal 

Digitized by 



on a paper in the department of state." Below the im- 
pression was written: ''Note. — ^This shows both bounding 
lines of the seal to be beaded. It will give proper size of 
type and position of sun." 

As this correspondence disclosed that the department had 
possession of ''the journal for July, 1790," the author in- 
ferred that the entire executive journal of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory was there, and that an examination of the earlier 
record might disclose the action designating what the seal 
should be, or for making the die, and that possibly not only 
the order for making it, but the die itself might be found. 

He, therefore, ventured to ask the department, as the time 

approached for this work to go to press, to make a thorough 

search for this information also, which was promptly done, 

but without success, as will be seen by the following letter: 

"Department of State, 

"Washington, August 9, 1895. 
^'Honorable William H. English ^ President of the In- 
diana Historical Society^ Indianapolis^ Indiana : 

"Sir — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 3d instant. In regard to the seal of the Northwest 
Territory: The impression of which you have photographs 
is affixed to the certified copy of the executive journal of 
the territory, sent at different times and in separate parts 
to Charles Thomson, as secretary of congress, by Win- 
throp Sargent. Sargent transmitted to Thomson copies of 
the acts or proceedings of the legislative body of the terri- 
tory also, but these do not bear the impression of the seal. 
After the establishment of the Federal government such 
documents were addressed to the president. 

Digitized by 




*^ Concerning the order for the seal or for making the 
die, the department regrets that it can not help you. Ex- 
amination of the journal, and of other possible sources of 
information on this point does not disclose the authority 
for the seal, nor any order for making the die. The earliest 
mention of use of the seal is in St. Clair's proclamation of 
July 26, 1788. Could not Marietta college aid you in this 
search? The impression here is that the seal must have 
been fully discussed there, particularly at the time of the 
Marietta centennial. 

" In the course of these examinations attention has been 
drawn to certain manuscripts relating to Indiana's history, 
and a list is enclosed of such as are at present known to 
exist, which may be of service to you, should the papers 
enumerated not have been brought to your notice before. 
''I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

'' Alvey a. Adee, Acting Secretary." 
Following this suggestion a letter of inquiry was ad- 
dressed ''The President of Marietta College, Marietta, 

Ohio," but no reply has been 

^^^^^ '^''^^'^.i^^. received, and no information 

on the subject was found in the 
official published proceedings 
of the Marietta centennial. 

The impression of the seal 
here given is the result of the 
information furnished by the 
state department, as well as 
the author's careful investigation of every other source of 
information available, and is believed to be entirely re* 

Digitized by 



liable. Nothing has been found showing the descriptive 
official record of the seal, the order for making the die, or 
what became of the die itself. It is hoped that this publi- 
cation may call such attention to the subject as will lead to 
the discovery of this additional information if it be in exist- 

The impression of this and the other seals given in the 
frontispiece of the first volume of this work are, of course, 
fac'shniles^ reduced in size, but that of ''The Seal of the 
Territory of the U. S., N. W. of the River Ohio," on the 
preceding page, is believed to be an exact reproduction, 
in every respect, of the original seal. 

It is naturally difficult to place any design in so small a 
compass that would have great significance, but a study of 
this historic seal will show that it is far from being destitute 
of appropriate and expressive meaning. The coiled snake 
in the foreground and the boats in the middle distance; the 
rising sun; the forest tree felled by the ax and cut into 
logs, succeeded by, apparently, an apple tree laden with 
fruit; the latin inscription ''Afeliorem lapsa locavit^^'^ all 
combine to forcibly express the idea that a wild and savage 
condition is to be superseded by a higher and better civil- 
ization. The wilderness and its dangerous denizens of 
reptiles, Indians and wild beasts, are to disappear before 
the ax and rifle of the ever-advancing western pioneer, 
with his fruits, his harvests, his boats, his commerce, and 
his restless and aggressive civilization. 

"Meliorem lapsa locavit!^^ 

''He has planted a better than the fallen." 

Digitized by 



And for all he has subdued and destroyed, he has bet- 
tered humanity beyond expression by what he has sub- 
stituted, for where in the world's historj^ can be found 
progress and development surpassing that which has taken 
place in the country northwest of the river Ohio since the 
adoption of this seal, and what may fairly be anticipated 
of it when another like period shall be numbered with the 
past? In the light of these grand results, much is due the 
memor}^ of the men who so materially contributed to it by 
the reduction of the British posts northwest of the Ohio 
river as related in these volumes, and especially to George 
Rogers Clark, who certainly originated, planned, and exe- 
cuted the successful expedition. That he shed but little 
blood in its accomplishment, and had but few men, and 
but meagre resources, is to his credit rather than his dis- 

If there be any inclined to think lightly of these cam- 
paigns which resulted in " the Conquest of the Northwest," 
because few men were engaged and few lives sacrificed, 
they should remember that to win victories and accomplish 
great results with but little sacrifice of life shows the very 
highest order of ability and good generalship; and, as to 
numbers, that Xerxes and his army of two and a half 
million Persians do not occupy as high a place in history 
as the little band of Greeks who fought for their country 
at Thermopylae. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Virginia, exhausted by the war, failed, for a time, to sufficiently provide for Clark's 
troops — He is finally retired from service — Letter of governor of Virginia to 
Clark — Letter from Clark to the governor, disclosing his financial distress — 
Asks, in vain, for a portion of what is due him — Similarity' of treatment of 
Clark and Vigo— Letter from Vigo to Clark — Comments on the treatment of 
Clark — Retires to Kentucky neglected, disappointed and distressed — Injurious 
effect on his health and habits — Important letters to his brother Jonathan — 
Remains in comparative obscurity until made a commissioner in 1785 to 
treat with certain Indian tribes — Some incidents attending the treaty. 

IPHbHE general assembly of Virginia proposed by act of 
^1^^ January 2, 1 781 , to cede to congress, for the benefit 
of the United States, all her claim to lands northwest of the 
Ohio river on certain conditions. Congress did not accept 
these conditions until September 13, 1783, and the transfer 
was not formally made until March i , 1 784; still it was pretty 
well understood from the time of the proposed cession at 
the beginning of 1781 that the transfer would, in some way 
or other, be consummated. From that time, consequently, 
if not before, Virginia realized that she had no special and 
separate interest in maintaining, at her own cost entirely, 
possession of the country northwest of the Ohio which the 
troops under Clark had conquered. Whether this had 
anything to do with the failure of Virginia to promptly 
furnish Clark the amount of money and supplies needed to 
prosecute his later campaigns can not be positively stated. 

50 (779) 

Digitized by 



It probably was from inability only, but it is nevertheless 
true that there was great neglect of the western troops in 
General Clark's department, and it is due to the truth of 
history that the fact of his want of means and proper army 
supplies should be known. 

December 11, 1781, Robert Todd, a captain in his 
regiment, and acting paymaster, and subsequently a brig- 
adier-general in Wayne's campaign, plainly stated the 
deplorable condition of affairs in a letter to the governor of 
Virginia. He said: *^As an officer in Clark's regiment 
and paymaster of late, it becomes a part of my duty to 
represent the wretched situation of the few troops remain- 
ing westward. Many of them have been in the service for 
two years past and have never received a shoe, stocking or 
hat, and none of them any pay. What other clothing not 
here mentioned, received at Fort Jefferson, are now worn 
out. Their being in this condition may perhaps be in some 
measure owing to bad economy in the application of the 
public clothing, which I think would not be improper to 
inquire into. Whatever dispositions Your Excellency 
should please to make, whether kept where they are or re- 
moved, clothing will be absolutely necessary. Without it, 
no great service can be expected from them." * 

The lack of supplies and efficient government support 
extended into 1782, and from this, or some other cause, 
Clark wrote a letter to the governor asking to be relieved 
from service in that department. This letter was evidently 
not favorably considered, if received, as the request was cer- 
tainly not granted. Some supplies were furnished late in 

* Virginia State Papers, Vol. 2, p. 651. 

Digitized by 



the summer, just in time to save the remnant of the army 
from desertion, at least so wrote Clark from Kentucky, in 
October. He said, *^I had the pleasure of receiving your 
letter by Major Walls and Mr. Karney the 30th of July 
past, at which time the gentlemen arrived with the stores 
all safe, surmounting uncommon difficulties. They just 
arrived in time to save what few troops was remaining, for 
desertion was so common and impossible to prevent that 
I believe, in a few weeks more, scarcely any would have 
been left. I have endeavored, as far as in my power, to 
comply with the orders of government that you enclosed 
to me (see the enclosed) . I could have wished to be pres- 
ent at the meeting of the officers you mentioned. I have 
received but a faint information of their report. 

**As for dissipation and . . . prevailing in Colonel 
Slaughter's corps, however agreeable such conduct might 
have been to their sentiments, I believe they seldom had 
the means in their power, for they were generally in a 
starving situation . Colonel Slaughter suffering his garrison 
to be ridiculed by the inhabitants of the town occasioned 
disorder among the whole. Nothing would excuse him on 
this point but his dependence on such a set of people for 
ever}thing he could get to subsist on." * 

The supplies referred to in the foregoing letter were soon 
exhausted and the troops again in a suffering condition. In 
the following February, a meeting of officers was held at 
Fort Nelson to consider the situation. ^^The officers, after 
consultation and mature deliberation, find that the garrison 
in its present situation is by no means equal to the impor- 

•Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 347. 

Digitized by 



tance of the place; that there is not above one-third of the 
men necessary for its defense, and in a short time the 
unavoidable casualties will reduce the number to not more 
than twent}' or thirty men; that there is not more than 
three months' flour in store, not one pound of meat, and no 
possibility of procuring a sufficiency by the usual method of 
hunting; that there is not a sufficiency of lead to defend 
the garrison twenty-four hours in case of an assault — some 
parts of the fortifications going to wreck, and not men to 
make the necessary repairs. Also that the men appear to 
be on the verge of mutiny in consequence of having served 
so long without receiving pay and other necessaries, and no 
prospect for an alteration for the better." * 

This narrative of the bad condition of affairs in General 
Clark's department at this period as to army supplies is not 
made to reflect on the Virginia authorities, for that com- 
monwealth had been thoroughly exhausted by the long 
struggle of the Revolutionary War, and besides, the west- 
ern territory was far away, and had drifted into a transi- 
tional and uncertain status; but the truth of histor}^ requires 
that the many diflBculties he had to encounter should be 
fully stated. On one occasion — the contemplated ex- 
pedition against Detroit — it was his misfortune to have 
means, without sufficient men; but generally his great need 
was current money and army supplies. 

General Clark, who had so materiall)^ contributed to the 
acquisition of the vast territory northwest of the Ohio river, 
was a Virginia oflBcer only, and, unfortunately, held no 
position in the organization created by congress, known as 

•Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 437. 

Digitized by 



the Continental Army. It was also evident, after the cap- 
ture of Cornwallis, October 19, 1781, that the war with 
England was virtually ended, as it was soon in fact, for 
hostilities were suspended the next year, and treaty of peace 
signed a year later. 

Under these circumstances, and with her resources entirely 
exhausted, the executive of Virginia determined to reduce 
her separate military organizations, and, accordingly. Gen- 
eral Clark was relieved of his command, July 2, 1783. 

The disagreeable dut}^ 
^^^I^-^-"^ /y^^^^-^^^^J^^^^t^ of informing General 

Clark of this action de- 
volved on Benjamin Harrison, then governor of Virginia, 
which he did in these words: ^^The conclusion of the 
war, and the distressed situation of the state, with respect 
to its finances, call on us to adopt the most prudent 
economy. It is for this reason alone I have come to a 
determination to give over all thoughts for the present of 
cany^ing an offensive war against the Indians, but before I 
take leave of you, I feel myself called upon, in the most 
forcible manner, to return you my thanks, and those of my 
council, for the very great and singular services you have 
rendered your country, in wresting so great and valuable a 
territory out of the hands of the British enemy, repelling 
the attacks of their savage allies, and cany^ing on a success- 
ful war in the heart of their country. This tribute of praise 
and thanks, so justly due, I am happy to communicate to 
you as the united voice of the executive." * 

•Dillon's History of Indiana, p. 179. 

Digitized by 



This was a sugar-coated pill, but a very bitter one, no 
doubt, to Clark, in his then distressed condition. Nor was 
it calculated, in the least, to relieve him from the financial 
embarrassment from which he was suffering, to say noth- 
ing of the humiliation of being thus unceremoniously dis- 
missed from a public service with which he had so long 
and so prominently been associated. 

At the very time this crushing blow was inflicted by 
Virginia, upon her son, who had won for her a vast terri- 
tory, and for himself imperishable renown, he was in dire 
distress for even the common decencies and necessaries of 
life. In 1783, the exact time not being known, *Hhe con- 
queror of the British forces at Ka§kaskia and at Vincennes 
made a long and lonesome journey, in a condition of pov- 
erty, from the west, through the wilderness, to Richmond, 
Virginia." On his arrival at that place, in his forlorn and 
pitiable situation he addressed, on the 27th of May, the 
following touching appeal to the governor of Virginia: 

^^SiR — Nothing but necessity could induce me to make 
the following request to Your Excellency, which is to grant 
me a small sum of money on account; as I can assure you, 
sir, that I am exceedingly distressed for the want of neces- 
sary clothing, etc., and don't know of any channel through 
which I could procure any except of the executive. The 
state, I believe, will fall considerably in my debt. Any 
supplies which Your Excellency favors me with might be 
deducted out of my accounts. 

**I have the honor to be Your Excellency's obedient 
servant, G. R. Clark. 

^^His Excellency, Governor Harrison.'' * 

* Virginia State Papers, Vol. 3, p. 487. 

Digitized by 



And the state did '^falP' in his ^Mebt," for on an adjust- 
ment of his accounts over fifty years after he was retired 
from the service, and some twenty years after he was in his 
grave, over thirty thousand dollars were allowed the adminis- 
trator of his estate. This was largely absorbed in fees, and 
the distribution of the balance was made the subject of long 
litigation among the collateral heirs, he having neither wife 
nor children. A small pension (four hundred dollars per 
year) was granted him, at last, by Virginia, but this was 
nearly twenty years after his dismissal from her service, 
and when he was a paralyzed and helpless cripple, and 
only five or six years before his death. 

The reader who remembers the closing years of the life 
of Francis Vigo, as already given in these pages, his pov- 
erty by reason of the neglect of government to pay what 
was justly due him, and its payment long after his death to 
the' administrator and not to a descendant, can not fail to 
recognize the close resemblance between his case and that 
of General Clark. The greatest sympathy and closest 
friendship existed between these old compatriots until the 
last days of their lives. Letters passed between them when 
both were old and feeble, and Clark, stricken with paralysis, 
was lingering upon the very verge of the grave. A letter 
is here given from Clark, in reply to one received from 
Vigo, which, as will be seen, is sad and touching in the 

^* Locust Grove, Near Louisville, 

^^August I, 181 1. 

**Dear Sir — A letter from a man who has always occu- 
pied a distinguished place in my affection and esteem must 

Digitized by 



insure the warmest and most cordial reception — an affec- 
tion, the result not so much of being associates in the placid 
stream of tranquillity and the benign sunshine of peace, as 
companions amidst the din of war and those struggles when 
the indefatigable exertion of every muscle and ner\'e was 
demanded. But may it be enough to remark, that while 
the one is the effect of your uniformly discreet and 
irreproachable conduct in the intricate path of civil and 
domestic life, the other is wrought by a strong sense of 
that gratitude due from your adopted country, having myself 
both witnessed and experienced the signal advantages 
flowing to our common country from your inestimable con- 
duct, and what is more enhancing to such services, having 
rendered them at a time when the cloud on which our fate 
hung assumed the most menacing aspect. 

**When I contemplate the glowing affection with which 
your letter is fraught, and only the revival of such you in 
past times, ah I better times, troublous as they were, were 
wont to evince for me, I am so filled with correspondent 
feelings that I am at a loss for words to express them. 
How happy would I be could these sentiments of entreaty 
to a trustful Providence, in the conclusive part of your letter, 
for a serene and happy evening be realized. But that 
Providence, submitting as I do with manly patience to his 
decrees, has long since denied me that boon. He has cut 
asunder the life's tenderest string. 

*'With sentiments of the warmest regard, I remain, 

'^George R. Clark." * 

*This letter was doubtless dictated by Clark, but hardly written by him, as 
he was then paralyzed. 

Digitized by 



For less services than George Rogers Clark rendered his 
countr}', men of inferior merit have been ennobled by other 
governments and granted great pensions and vast estates; 
but Clark, a poor young man when he entered the public 
service, not only made nothing out of his position, but ex- 
pended all he had, and involved himself in debt, in forward- 
ing the interests of his government, which indebtedness 
caused him great trouble and loss. He had not, in his life, 
even the half-pay, or five years' full pay in lieu of it, which 
was granted to all the officers of the continental army. He 
was on the Virginia establishment only, and Virginia turned 
him adrift, poor and in distress, with absolutely nothing but 
the vague promise of a few thousand acres of land, in the 
future, out of the almost innumerable millions he had con- 

From this period of sore trouble and bitter disappoint- 
ment aggravated by bodily pains, incurred by exposure in 
the field, dates the use of liquor to excess by General Clark. 
As far as the author's knowledge extends there is not an 
instance to be found where he used liquor to that extent 
before this time; a fact which should be remembered in 
charity, when considering the only weakness of this neg- 
lected old soldier's life. Nor will it be forgotten that the 
habit of drinking, in those days, was almost universal, 
especially in the army. 

General Clark made no complaint before the public, but 
that he keenly felt the ingratitude and neglect of his gov- 
ernment, and the injustice which had been done him, 
especially in the failure to pay what was justly his due, 
there can be no question. He confided his feelings more 

Digitized by 



freely to General Jonathan Clark, his elder brother, than 
to any one else, and in a letter, which he doubtless never 
expected would meet any other than his brother's eye, he 
said of his claim against the government, that ^^it is as just 
as the book we swear by," and he proceeded in bitter and 
forcible language to express what were undoubtedly his 
real feelings. 

This important letter is now before the author, through 
the kindness of Temple Bodley, Esquire, a descendant of 
General Jonathan Clark, and is now given to the public 
for the first time. It is directed to his brother at Spottsyl- 
vania, Virginia, the date being Beargrass, May 11, 1792, 
and is as follows: 

'' Dear Brother — Since my last to you nothing uncom- 
mon hath happened among us. The Indians are spread- 
ing fire and the tomahawk through the frontiers without 
much resistance, and I believe will continue to do so, for I 
see very little probability of their being opposed in force — 
at least until next fall, if then. From observations on the 
whole of their conduct for several years past, as far as I 
could penetrate into it, I am, as well as many others, led 
to believe that those at the helm of affairs on your side of 
the mountains either know nothing about the business or 
wish to prolong the war, except they are deceived by their 
servants on this side of the world. Various are the ideas 
of the most knowing men in Indian affairs on those points. 
It is a pity that the blood and treasure of the people should 
be so lavished, when one campaign, properly directed, 
would put a final end to the war; and a well-directed line 

Digitized by 



of conduct, after such event should take place, might es- 
tablish harmony between us and the Indians that might 
exist for many years. Two armies hath already been de- 
feated, and I doubt (not) the third will share the same 
fate, if the greatest precaution is not made use of. We are 
suing the Indians for peace. This convinces them that we 
are beat and cowed, and, of course, will cause nations not 
yet at war to join the confederacy, and, if they treat at all, 
their demands will be so great that it will be as dishonor- 
able for the states to grant as it is for them. I wrote you 
on the subject of Lanetot's(?) bill. It was settled in 
Shannon's account when he was on the assembly, which 
may appear in the auditor's office, and a bill passed the 
house for the settlement of those accounts; the bill I have 
seen myself. This I have from Captain Shannon, who 
hath been in the woods surveying all this spring, but is to 
meet me next court on that and other business. If you 
should be at Richmond, pray examine, and perhaps the 
matter may be easily settled, as I don't know where the 
doubt lies. It is as just as the book we swear by. As to 
the flour account, it is a shame among other things. I 
never could, until the time I did it, get this business ar- 
ranged so as to lay it before the assembly with the same 
propriety, and to say it ought to have been done sooner 
is ominous. Why did they not do me the justice at first and 
enable me to pay for, and take up, those accounts sooner? 
I have given the United States half the territory they pos- 
sess, and for them to suffer me to remain in poverty, in 
consequence of it, will not redound much to their honor 
hereafter, when the most minute movement of mine, from 

Digitized by 



first to last, is already committed to paper. I am more 
capable of negotiations and the military life now than ever, 
because I have until the present day studied it. Suppose 
my principles would permit me to change sides, don't you 
think the continent would have cause to tremble? * 

''I shall follow your advice and present another memorial 
this fall — am now making preparations for tt. If I meet 
with another rebuff I must rest contented with it, be in- 
dustrious, and look out further for my future bread. All 
the trouble you are at in superintending my business will 
be gratefully acknowledged by your affectionate brother, 

'' G. R. Clark. 

^^All friends near are well, except my father, who has a 
pain in the knee, but is getting better. The whole present 
compliments to your family and friends.'' 

Ten years later he was still struggling on in poverty, with 
his claim against the government remaining unpaid. Then 
he wrote another letter to the same brother, saying, in bit- 
terness and despair, ^^I have lost all prospect of getting 
my just claims from Virginia. I content myself by view- 
ing their f course with contempt." 

For some time after George Rogers Clark's dismissal 
from service by Virginia he remained in comparative ob- 
scurity, giving some attention, however, to the allotment 
of the land in the Illinois Grant among his soldiers, as will 
be hereafter shown; but in January, 1785, Clark, Richard 

* General Clark wrote so carelessly at times that it is not certain whether he 
meant should he change sides now, or had changed sides during the war in 
which he was so important a factor. It is more reasonable to suppose he meant 
the latter. 

t A word here between **their" and "course" is illegible. 

Digitized by 



Butler and Arthur Lee were the United States commis- 
sioners who executed an important treaty at Fort Mcin- 
tosh with the Wyandot, Delaware, Chippewa and Ottawa 

It is said in Dawson's life of William Henry Harrison 
that, ^'at a treaty held at Fort Mcintosh, on the Ohio, 
in the year 1785, Buckongehelas, then the chief warrior 
(of the Delawares), was present. After the sachems, 
or peace chiefs, had addressed the commissioners of the 
United States, who were George Rogers Clark, Arthur 
Lee and Richard Butler, whom he did not deign to no- 
tice, approaching General Clark, and taking him by the 
hand, he thus addressed him: ^I thank the great spirit for 
having this day brought together two such great warriors 
as Buckongehelas and General Clark.' " This may have 
been a display of too much vanity on the part of this brave, 
but somewhat self-exalting Indian, but the same author 
says: ^^This man possessed all the qualifications of a 
hero; no Christian knight was ever more scrupulous in 
performing all his engagements than the renowned Buck- 

On the 31st of the next January, Greneral Clark, Richard 
Butler and Samuel H. Parsons, acted as United States 
commissioners in negotiating a treaty with the Shawnees. 
At this treaty an incident occurred showing Clark's fearless 
character, and that he knew how to manage the Indians. 
The event is thus related, in the Western Sun of Vincennes, 
October 21, 1820, and seems to have been copied from an 
article in the National Gazette^ written b}- an old army of- 
ficer: **The Indians came into the treaty at Fort Wash- 

Digitized by 



ington in the most friendly manner, except the Shawnees, 
the most conceited and most warlike of the aborigines; the 
first in a battle, the last at a treat5\ Three hundred of 
their finest warriors, set off in all their paint and feathers, 
filed into the council house. Their number and demeanor, 
so unusual at an occasion of this sort, was altogether un- 
expected and suspicious. The United States stockade 
mustered seventy men. 

^'In the center of the hall, at a little table, sat the com- 
missioners. General Clark, the indefatigable scourge of 
these very marauders. General Richard Butler, and the 
Hon. Mr. Parsons. There was present, also, a Captain 
Denny, who, I believe, is still alive and can attest the stor}\ 
On the part of the Indians an old council sachem and a war 
chief took the lead; the latter, a tall raw-boned fellow with 
an impudent and villainous look, made a boisterous speech, 
which operated effectually on the passions of the Indians, 
who set up a prodigious whoop ar every pause. He con- 
cluded by presenting a black and white wampum, to signify 
they were prepared for either event, peace or war. Clark 
exhibited the same unalterable and careless countenance 
he had shown during the whole scene, his head leaning on 
his left hand, and his elbow resting on the table; he raised 
his little cane and pushed the wampum off the table, with 
very little ceremony. Every Indian at the same moment 
started from his seat with one of those sudden, simultaneous 
and peculiar savage sounds, which startle and disconcert 
the stoutest heart, and can neither be described nor for- 
gotten. Parsons, more civil than military, in his habits 
was poorly fit for an emergency that would probably have 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



embarrassed even the hero of Saratoga, the brother and 
father of soldiers. At this juncture Clark rose — the scru- 
tinizing eye cowered at his glance. He stamped his foot on 
the prostrate and insulted symbol, and ordered them to 
leave the hall. They did so apparently involuntarily. They 
were heard all that night debating in the bushes near the 
fort. The raw-boned chief was for war, the old sachems 
for peace; the latter prevailed, and the next morning they 
came back and sued for peace." 

Some unimportant errors may have crept into this ex- 
tract, but the incident, no doubt, occurred, substantially, 
as stated. These treaties would have been of great impor- 
tance, if they had been faithfully executed bj^ the Indians, as 
they clearly defined the territories to be occupied by them, 
and provided against trespassing thereon by the whites, be- 
sides containing other salutary provisions. But unfortu- 
nately, they were not lived up to in good faith, and there is 
some reason to doubt whether even those who signed the 
treaties intended to execute them faithfull)^ Neither was 
there unanimity among Indians of the same tribe, as there 
was a large and restless war party in each, bent on adven- 
ture and mischief, and these denied that they were bound 
by the treaties. In fact there was reason to suspect that 
the Indians signing them were actuated more by a de- 
sire to have a good time attending the councils and re- 
ceiving presents, than to secure permanent peace. The 
cessation of hostilities, which for a time existed after the 
close of the Revolutionary War, was more in the nature of 
a suspension than an actual ending of the contest. 

Digitized by 




General Clark placed in command — The situation communicated to the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia by Clark and John May — Officers, Kentucky military dis- 
trict, meet in council — Right to impress military supplies declared — Expedi- 
tion marches by land to Vincennes — Provisions forwarded by water, delayed 
and spoiled — Expedition delayed at Vincennes — March in demoralized con- 
dition — A portion revolt before reaching enemy and return — Clark over- 
whelmed with grief — French inhabitants no longer friendly — Clark determines 
to garrison Vincennes — Is driven by necessity to impress supplies for his 
troops — ^Takes some Spanish property— Commissary appointed — Regular 
accounts kept of proi>erty taken — His conduct misrepresented — Virginia and 
congress, without waiting for his explanations, condemn it — This action hasty 
and inconsiderate — Opinions of disinterested persons — Clark returns to the 
falls full of disappointment — Finally meditates an expedition in the interest 
of the French against the Spaniards on the Mississippi — Accepts French 
commission — Issues a proclamation — Expedition abandoned — Effect of the 
movement beneficial in hastening free navigation of the Mississippi — Opinion 
of Governor Shelby and others. 

JIIE Wabash and Miami Indians were not included in 
"^i^^ the treaties referred to in the last chapter, and had 
grown to be very unfriendly to the Americans. Likewise 
the French inhabitants of the towns, as already shown, had 
become exasperated against them because of shameful 
neglect by the government, and impositions to which they 

• Reference to Chapter XX in the first volume should read Chapter XXI. 


Digitized by 



had been subjected, particularly in the taking army sup- 
plies without just compensation. But there were numerous 
other causes conspiring to produce dissatisfaction; and the 
old sympathy between the French and Indians was revived 
and strengthened. 

Strongest of all was the powerful influence of British 
officers who still remained in possession of Detroit and 
other military' posts, within the boundary of the United 
States, in flagrant violation of the treaty of peace, and 
who did all they could, short of actual participation them- 
selves, to induce the Indians to unfriendly acts against 
the Americans; not by movements in large force, but by 
small parties who kept the white settlements on, or near, 
the frontiers in a constant state of alarm and danger. This 
was true of all the frontier line, but particularly of Ken- 
tucky, where the people, weary with waiting for the United 
States to enforce remedial measures, finally took the matter 
in hand themselves. 

In determining upon a military leader, in this crisis, the 
people naturally, in view of the past, turned to General 
Clark as the most desirable man. He had, in May, 1786, 
written about the situation of affairs to his old friend 
Patrick Henry, who had again become governor of Vir- 

"I make no doubt," said he, ^^you have long since had 
a full account of the late Indian treaties at the mouth of 
Miami. What future effect they may have on the nations 
treated with is impossible to tell, but some good conse- 
quences have already appeared in the peaceable behavior 
of some of those Indians. Notwithstanding, I don't think 

Digitized by 


Clark's letter to Patrick henry. 797 

that this countr}', even in its infant state, bore so gloomy 
an aspect as it does at present. 

^^The loss of Colonel Christian, whom the inhabitants 
had great future hopes in, hath caused general uneasiness; 
add to this the certainty of a war already commenced and 
early this spring declared by the Wabash Indians in general, 
amounting in the whole, to upwards of fifteen hundred war- 
riors, encouraged by the British traders from Detroit, and 
their own inclination. When you take a view of our situa- 
tion, circumstanced as we are, no prospect of support, at 
best, for several months, so formidable and bloody an 
enemy to encounter, much irregularity^ in the country — no 
power to order the militia out of the state for its protection, 
and before the assembly meets, or any assistance can be 
got from congress on your making application to them for 
it, I doubt great part of these beautiful settlements will be 
laid waste, without protected by volunteers penetrating into 
the heart of the enemy's country. Nothing else will do. 

'* Scouts and forts on the frontiers answer but little pur- 
pose and in the end cost more than an army that would do 
the business effectually at once. Was a sufficient force to 
appear in their country, after a general action, which I 
think should take place, they would sue for peace, and agree 
to any terms you pleased, to save their country from total 

**Such an example would have a great and good im- 
pression on these Indians, already treated with, as fear 
would cause them to be peaceable, when presents make 
them believe we are afraid of them, and rather an encour- 
agement for them to make war upon us when they get poor. 

Digitized by 


798 JOHN may's letter TO GOVERNOR HENRY. 

This is a notorious truth, well known by those that are 
acquainted with their dispositions. A few days ago, an 
engagement happened near St. Vincents, on the Wabash, 
in which twelve of the Indians lay (dead) on the field and a 
number wounded." 

Another letter, written to the governor in the following 
July, by John May, states the condition of affairs, and the 
opinion entertained of General Clark by the people, so fully 
that it is given here in full: ^'The very interesting intelli- 
gence," said he, ^^ which we have lately received from Post 
St. Vincent, induces me once more to trouble Your Excel- 
lency. The Americans living there have been very much 
distressed by the Indians ever since last winter, and have 
every reason to believe that they were encouraged to con- 
tinue hostilities by the French inhabitants, who have not 
only refused the Americans any assistance, but would not 
suffer them to make use of the cannon, which were left there 
for their defense, at a fort which they were obliged to build; 
and when they, the French, were written to on the subject 
by General Clark, they returned for answer that they had 
nothing to do with the United States, but considered them- 
selves as British subjects and should obey no other power. 

''1 understand that there are British traders among them 
who keep up this idea, and as congress seems to have to- 
tally neglected them, it is not to be wondered at if they 
should still think themselves under the British government, 
especially when they see that the several British posts, which 
they were told were to be delivered up to the Americans, 
are still in the possession of the British. 

Digitized by 


JOHN may's letter TO GOVERNOR HENRY. 799 

^^The Americans have been lately attacked by the In- 
dians, but repulsed them, whereupon Colonel Le Gras, or 
Legrow, for I don't recollect how he spelt his name, 
issued his proclamation, ordered all the Americans to move 
away immediately: They are now closely confined within 
their fort or houses, and have everj^ reason to expect the 
French will assist the Indians against them, and are under 
the most dreadful apprehensions of being totally cut off. 
The Wabache Indians are all at war with us, and most of 
the Shawnees, and put to death in a most cruel manner all 
the prisoners who are so unfortunate as to fall into their 

^^Since Colonel Logan wrote to you in April, there have 
been a great many murders committed, and we, every two 
or three days, hear of new murders. There are now let- 
ters here from Post St. Vincent requesting in the most 
moving terms that assistance may be sent to the Ameri- 
cans, to enable them to move away, and offering to give up 
every shilling's worth of property they possess in order to 
defray the expenses of moving them. 

^^There had a party of militia, amounting to one hun- 
dred and thirty men, marched a few days before this intel- 
ligence came to hand, to attack a party of Indians, who 
were encamped on the other side of the Ohio, some dis- 
tance below the falls, but upon General Clark's receiving 
this letter, he sent expresses after them and requested them 
to proceed immediately to this post. 

*^This country had determined to carry on a volunteer 
campaign against the Indians in August next, but your in- 

Digitized by 



stnictions have changed the plan, and they are now prepar- 
ing for a regular campaign. 

''I find it is the unanimous opinion of the inhabitants of 
this country that General Clark is the properest person to 
take command here, and notwithstanding the opinion 
which prevails below, of his not being capable of attending 
to business, I am of the same opinion with the rest of this 
country. I have been with him frequently and find him as 
capable of business as ever, and should an expedition be 
carried on against the Indians I think his name alone would 
be worth half a regiment of men. 

*^It is not expected that the troops will be ready to march 
before the first of September, as the council of officers will 
not be held till the 2d of August. . . . Colonel Logan 
is acquainted with the contents of this letter, and has au- 
thorized me to say that in case a general officer should be 
appointed, he thinks General Clark's abilities and experi- 
ence entitle him to the appointment." * 

The council of officers of the district of Kentucky, re- 
ferred to in this letter, was held at Ilarrodsburg, at the time 
mentioned, when it was decided to make a campaign, under 
General Clark, against the hostile Indians on the Wabash, 
without waiting longer for the general government to act, 
as the latter had strangely neglected to give the western 
frontiers, especially the settlements northwest of the Ohio, 
proper protection. Patrick Henry, the governor of Vir- 
ginia, approved of this action, f A foot note in Butler's 
Kentucky, p. 154, edition of 1834, indicates that the expe- 

*Life of Patrick Henrj, by his grandson, Vol. 3, p. 369. 
twinning of the West, Vol. 3, p. 83, and authorities there cited. 

Digitized by 



dition was inaugurated at a meeting of the inhabitants of 
the district of Kentucky, at Danville, some time in 1786, 
and confirmed by the military officers of the district on the 
2d of August of that year. The note is important as show- 
ing the source from which General Clark derived his author- 
ity, and that it was the opinion of the highest legal author- 
ities of Kentucky that the field officers had a legal right to 
impress all supplies needed. It says: ^'This expedition 
was prepared in conformity to resolutions of the inhabitants 
of the district assembled at Danville sometime in 1786; the 
month is not mentioned in the proceedings; they are signed 
by William Kennedy, as chairman. These resolutions, 
together with an order of the executive of Virginia, were 
acted on by the military officers of the district, who met at 
Harrodsburg, on the 2d of August, 1786. These gentle- 
men, among other resolutions, adopted one appointing 
^General George Rogers Clark to act as general officer, and 
have the command and direction of the army at this time, 
ordered in offensive operations against our enemy, the In- 

**The doubts which were entertained about the legality 
of impressments for provisions, etc., were submitted by the 
officers to Judges Muter and Wallace, and the attorney- 
general, Innes. These officers certified it as their opinion 
* that the executive have delegated to the field-officers of 
this district all their power' in regard to impressments, 
*and that they have a right to impress, if necessary, all 
supplies for the use of the militia that may be called into 
service.' The opinion is directed to Colonel Benjamin 
Logan, as president of the board of officers."* 

♦See the opinion in full in the Appendix. 

Digitized by 



The militia were to assemble at the falls of the Ohio by 
the loth of September, mounted or on foot, as they pleased. 
They came straggling in during the month under circum- 
stances not at all favorable to the establishment of good 

There was, in fact, no time to efficiently organize and 
discipline the troops, as they were moved forward from the 
falls the latter part of that month, across the wilderness to 
Vincennes. There were between ten hundred and twelve 
hundred men, brave, but self-willed and independent of 
restraint, with many disturbing elements among them. 

Bad luck seemed to fasten on the expedition from the 
beginning. The provisions and most of the army supplies 
were forwarded from the falls to Vincennes by water, and 
were expected to arrive by the time the troops reached 
there; but it was a sultry season, with water probably low, 
and the boats did not arrive until nine days after the sol- 
diers, and then it was found that a large part of the 
provisions were spoiled. The further delay at Vincennes 
was unfortunate, as discontent arose and factions were 
formed during the inactivity, which became disastrous in 
the end. 

A considerable number of the inhabitants of Vincennes 
joined the Kentucky troops when they marched up the 
Wabash in October, with a view of attacking the Indians, 
particularly those in the vicinity of Ouiatenon. The In- 
dians obtained information of the intended movement and 
prepared to ambuscade the Americans at a favorable point 
on the contemplated line of march, in the defiles of Pine 
creek. Those, however, in the region about the mouth 

Digitized by 



of the Vermilion river deserted their villages as the troops 
approached that neighborhood, and, in the meantime, the 
fatigue of the march, lack of provisions, and an absurd ru- 
mor that Clark had given the Indians an option to make 
peace without fighting if they wished, all added to the de- 
plorable insubordination, disorganization and bad feeling, 
which had been growing from the beginning. 

At this point several hundred of the troops resisted the 
commands, entreaties, and even tears, of General Clark, 
and marched off in the direction of home. This was an 
open and disgraceful revolt, but there was so much disaf- 
fection and dissatisfaction, generally, that he decided it best 
not to attempt to enforce obedience; and as there was, in 
addition, a distressing lack of provisions, nothing was left 
for him to do but to return to Vincennes, overwhelmed 
with sorrow and humiliation, at a result which it was not 
possible for him, under the circumstances, to prevent. 

There are, however, those who attribute the result to the 
unfortunate habit of drinking to excess, which had grown 
upon him since he was retired from the service of Virginia in 
1 783, but it should not be forgotten that the YGvy same result 
happened to General Hopkins, who undertook to lead the 
same kind of troops against the same Indians, in the same 

# Illinois country, twenty- 

Yn.Aj^C't^ "'^ six years afterwards, and 
/ ^ he was never even ac- 

cused of drinking to excess. Such results, some times, 
spring from jealousy and rivalry between officers and com- 
panies, and a variety of causes, that, unexpectedly, arise 
in such combinations as to be irresistible. The result 

Digitized by 



was, no doubt, occasioned by such causes, in both these 
instances, and not because of lack of bravery in the troops, 
or lack of ability in the commanding officers. 

To form a correct estimate of the transactions of this 
period, with which General Clark was connected, the de- 
plorable condition of the Wabash and Illinois country at 
this time, as already stated, should not be disregarded. The 
little protection which Virginia had given to the people 
there practically ceased when that state determined to cede 
her claim to this territory to the general government; and 
the latter, up to that period, had, strangely, neglected to 
extend governmental, or other adequate protection, over 

The sympathy and aid extended to the Americans by 
the French and Creole inhabitants, at the time of the 
original conquest by Clark, had been rewarded by neglect, 
pecuniary loss and oppression, which, naturally, produced 
resentment, and now they were anything but friends. 
The American government had apparently forsaken them 
without any fault of their own, and, in spite of their earn- 
est appeals for help, and they were left, as far as the govern- 
ment was concerned, in almost a state of anarchy. 

So far had this estrangement gone that Americans not 
having special permit from the Creole court to remain were 
ordered to leave Vincennes, and there had been almost, 
if not quite, actual collision, and a dangerous disposi- 
tion manifested by a part of these inhabitants to join the 
Indians and British against the Americans. There had 
been several conflicts with the Indians in the vicinity, in 
which there was loss of life on both sides, and the condi- 

Digitized by 



tion of affairs was so unfavorable to the Americans that 
they were in danger of being all killed or driven out of 
the country. Of all men Clark was best suited to recon- 
cile the unfortunate differences which had arisen during his 
long absence from the country, between the French and 
American inhabitants, and it is a notable and creditable 
fact, that both sides appealed to him as a mediator in 
whom they had entire confidence. 

Rea!lizing the dangerous situation, with that quick percep- 
tion which always characterized him, he promptly deter- 
mined to check the growing evil, and to do a great service to 
his country, by placing an adequate garrison of American sol- 
diers at Vincennes, and again establishing law, order and good 
feeling over the Wabash and Illinois country, as had always 
existed before when he commanded there. He also de- 
signed to hold the neighboring Indians in check, and, if 
possible, establish friendly treaty relations with them. To 
this end, on his return to Vincennes from the unfortunate 
campaign against the Indians, he enlisted from the soldiers 
who had remained faithful one hundred and forty men. 

It is true he did this without the direct authority of the 
government, much in the same spirit that General Jackson 
established martial law in New Orleans, and his action, 
like Jackson's, caused many bitter criticisms to be leveled 
against him. It was a case of emergency, and to have 
waited until he could communicate with the distant gov- 
'ernment and procure technical authority would not have 
afforded the remedy the circumstances required. 

In fact it would have been out of the question, as it 
probably would have required a year to accomplish it, if 

Digitized by 



it could have been done at all. As evidence of the then 
imperfect intercourse between the east and the west, it may 
be mentioned that ^^the preliminary articles of peace be- 
tween the United States and Great Britain, which had 
been signed on the 30th of November, 1782, were not 
known in Kentucky until the spring of 1783."* The 
facilities of intercommunication were but little if any better 
in 1786, 

There were no very close obligatory relations at that 
period between a commander in the western wilderness 
and the distant home government; all the surroundings 
necessitated large discretionary powers, which Governor 
Patrick Henry clearly comprehended, when he wrote to 
Colonel Clark, in December, 1778, and reminded him that 
emergencies might arise where the government could not be 
consulted, and wisely said, ^ ^general discretionary powers, 
therefore, are given you to act for the best in all cases where 
these instructions are silent and the law has made no pro- 
visions." General Clark had several times taken such 
responsibilities, and the result had always proven the cor- 
rectness of his action. On this occasion he appears to have 
done that which he thought was right and best under the 
circumstances, again taking the responsibility, courageously 
and without hesitation, for which, to say the least, consid- 
ered from any point of view, he deserved much better 
treatment than he received. 

He did, however, consult such persons in authority as 
were within consulting distance, who were supposed to 
be entitled to give advice in the premises. He appropri- 

* Butler's Kentucky and MarshalPs Kentucky. 

Digitized by 



ately called together for consultation the field-officers in 
this expedition. They met in council while at Vincennes 
in October and ^^unanimously agreed that a garrison at that 
place would be of essential serv^ice to the district of Ken- 
tucky, and that supplies might be had in the district more 
than sufficient for their support, by impressment, or other- 
wise, under the direction of a commissary to be appointed 
for that purpose, pursuant to the authority vested in the 
field-officers of the district by the executive of Virginia." 

Nothing to the contrary appearing it is to be presumed 
that these field-officers were competent to form a correct 
judgment when they joined General Clark in advising the 
establishment of a garrison at Vincennes. That its estab- 
lishment was intended for the public good has been gen- 
erally conceded, and, whether regular in every respect or 
not, it was believed a wise thing for the country, at the 
time, and was cordially approved by the great mass of the 
western people. 

There remains nothing to base criticism upon except that 
the command, being wholly destitute of money, provisions 
and army supplies, were forced, by necessity, to make im- 
pressments; in doing which, among others, they took the 
property of one Bazadone, who claimed to be a Spanish 
merchant doing business at Vincennes. Impressments for 
army use were not so unusual at that period, and had 
frequently been resorted to against the French inhabit- 
ants, and it is said that property was impressed in Ken- 
tucky, before the troops crossed the Ohio, which, although 
causing some slight dissatisfaction at the time, good judges 
considered legal and justifiable. 

Digitized by 




Armies, it must be admitted, are generally not over-nice 
about taking what they actually need, if unable to supply 
themselves otherwise, and a prudent and considerate com- 
mander would hardly allow his men to starve with supplies 
within reach. lie would naturally be expected to take 
them, with the intention that substantial justice would be 
done afterwards, and he would probably not devote much 
time considering the question of ownership. Governor 
Patrick Henry, in the letter to Clark last quoted, said, 
^^ there is a cargo of goods at a Spanish post near you be- 
longing either to the continent or the state. Rather than 
let your troops be naked, you are to take a supply for them 
out of these goods. But this not to be done but in case of 
absolute necessity. Let an exact account be kept of what 
is used and let me receive it." 

That is exactly what Clark did, on this occasion, and he 
did nothing more. The cases were substantially the same, 
except that some of the goods taken were claimed to be- 
long to a Spanish merchant doing business in Vincennes. 
The supplies thus taken were for the public service, being 
receipted for, and accounted for, by a duly appointed com- 
missary of the garrison, John 
Rice Jones, a man of great 
ability and high character, who 
faithfully and efficiently served 
the people in many honorable 
positions afterwards, both in 
Indiana and Missouri, and left 
a long line of worthy descend- 
ants, who also have filled hon- 

Digitized by 


Clark's action unjustly criticised. 809 

orable positions— one of them, Honorable George W. 
Jones, still living (1895) — ^^ ^^^ acquaintance of the 
author, and a native of Indiana, having long served in the 
senate of the United States. Mr. John J. Craig was also 
appointed a commissary. 

For the reason that a considerable amount of the prop- 
ert}^ impressed belonged to Bazadone, who claimed to be a 
Spanish subject, and because the western people at that 
time were extremely bitter against the Spaniards on account 
of being denied free navigation of the Mississippi, and there 
was a possibility of war on that account, which was not fa- 
vored by a portion of the people of the east, an outcry was 
raised in that section, and a portion of the west, against 
Clark's action, and he was charged with intending to make 
war on the Spaniards, without authority. 

Irresponsible and anonymous scribblers have always been 
found to attack the prominent and successful militar}' men 
of this country from Washington to Grant, and it is not 
surprising that General Clark should have shared the same 
fate. It is surprising, however, and, in the author's judg- 
ment, to be regretted, that a paper, without name of writer 
or receiver, apparently an extract from a private letter 
written by one citizen to another, and not for publication, 
assailing General Clark in the most violent terms, should 
have found a place in such a publication as the ^ ^Calen- 
dar of Virginia State Papers." As far as appears it was 
not a state paper, or connected with a state paper. In 
what sense was this attack, of a nameless person, upon 
the private character of this renowned son of Virginia, 
worthy of a place among her published archives? If it 

Digitized by 



had the responsibility of a name the name should have 
been given if it was to be put with the official state papers, 
otherwise it should have been consigned to the waste basket, 
and not handed down to posterity, through this official 
medium, to smirch the name and fame of a man who acted 
such a conspicuous part in the history of that state. And 
this is said without claiming that General Clark was 
entirely blameless in the matter referred to. 

The publication in this official and public manner having 
already been done, the injury will not be added to by referring 
to it here. The paper as it there appears is stated to have been 
extracted from a letter *^written December 12, 1786," from 
a gentleman in Kentucky to his friend in Philadelphia, 
neither name given, saying: ^^ Clark is playing hell. He 
is raising a regiment of his own, and has one hundred and 
forty men stationed at Opost, already, now under the com- 
mand of Dalton. Seized on a Spanish boat with twenty 
thousand dollars, or rather seized three stores at Opost 
worth this sum, and the boat which brought them up. J. 
R. Jones, commissary-general, gets a large share of the 
plunder, and has his family at Opost. Piatt comes in for 
snacks. He brought the baggage and a thousand pounds of 
small furs at the falls the day I left it. Plunder all . . . 
means to go to congress to get the regiment put upon the 
establishment. He is the third captain. The furs, he tells 
his associates, are necessary to bear his expenses; but he 
don't return. I laid a plan to get the whole seized and 
secured for the owners, and Buliett and Anderson will ex- 
ecute it. Clark is eternally drunk, and yet full of design. 
I told him he would be hanged. He laughed and said he 

Digitized by 



could take refuge among the Indians. A stroke is medi- 
tated against St. Louis and the Natchez." * 

The council of Virginia, without waiting to hear any 
explanation from General Clark, disavowed, not only his 
acts in impressing the ^* alleged'' Spanish property, but 
^'the existence of a power derived from them to the said 
Clark to raise recruits, appoint officers, or impress provis- 
ions." They also proceeded to immediately apologize, 
in advance, to his ^^ Catholic Majesty, the king of Spain," 
because this son of Virginia, who had done so much for 
her in former service, impressed a few thousand dollars' 
worth of Bazadone's property, to keep the suffering soldiers 
from want. 

These hastily adopted resolutions of the council were for- 
warded to the delegates in congress, and congress capped 
the climax by adopting a resolution ^^for dispossessing a 
body of men who had, in a lawless and unauthorized 
manner, taken possession of Post Vincennes in defiance of 
the proclamation and authority of the United States." 
Thus, it will be seen, that congress was anxious to con- 
ciliate ^^His Catholic Majesty, the king of Spain," as 
well as ^^His Christian Majesty, the king of France," 
notwithstanding both had favored leaving the country Clark 
had conquered from the British out of the boundaries of the 
United States, at the time of making the treaty of peace 
with Great Britain. However, this action of the two kings 
had been really facilitated by congress, as that body had 
instructed the American peace commissioners *^to make 
the most candid and confidential communications upon all 

♦Virginia State Papers, Vol. 4, p. 20a. 


Digitized by 



subjects to the ministers of our generous ally, the king 
of France; to undertake nothing in the negotiations for 
peace or truce without their knowledge and concurrence." 
Fortunately for their country the commissioners took the 
responsibility of acting *'in defiance" of these instruc- 
tions, and secured the great northwestern territory to the 
United States. 

Whatever the causes producing it, this action of congress 
seems to have been most unwise, as was also the further 
action, instructing the American commissioners to yield to 
his ^^ Catholic Majesty" all American right to the free navi- 
gation of the Mississippi river, and of the majority of still 
another congress favoring or consenting to a suspension of 
that right for twenty-five or thirty years. Congress, thus 
appearing not to be wholly free from error themselves, 
might have exercised a little more charity for the mistakes 
of others, especially of a man who had done so much for 
their country, and who apparently supposed at the time 
that he was acting in the interests of the people. He was, 
at least, entitled to a hearing before being subjected to the 
imputations implied in these hasty resolves. The charge 
that George Rogers Clark made mistakes may be well found- • 
ed, but in the estimation of many they were incomparably 
less mischievous than these of congress, and posterity will 
not fail to recognize that his deeds resulted in much greater 
benefit to the country than the deeds of the men who harsh- 
ly judged and traduced him. 

General Clark naturally felt deeply aggrieved over this 
action of congress and the Virginia council, and earnestly 
maintaining that his conduct was entirely justifiable wrote to 

Digitized by 



the governor of Virginia in December, 1786, demanding a 
court of inquiry. It does not appear, however, that any 
was ever held. In the same letter he explains that mature 
reflection satisfied him that, after the retreat, there was 
more necessity than ever to do something to protect Ameri- 
can interests in the Illinois country, and on that account 
he had recruited a number of troops for one year, fortified 
Vincennes, and, in the course of four weeks, brought the 
whole of the Wabash Indians to his own terms. He add- 
ed that, ^^the grand treaty would have been held this 
fall if we had known what articles to have agreed to; for 
the want of that knowledge from congress it's put off un- 
til the last of April next, to be held at St. Vincent, and is 
thought, by the best judges, that the greatest body of In- 
dians that ever appeared together in that quarter will be 
embodied. Now what will be done in this case it is im- 
possible for me to determine. If it is prosecuted, there 
must be a support of men, money and provisions. What 
the different Indian nations and myself have agreed to is 
to rest quiet until that time, when it is expected a final 
peace will take place." * 

Several disinterested persons, competent to judge cor- 
rectly, and near enough to understand the situation, gave 
accounts of the matter from actual knowledge and examina- 
tion, but only two of these can be given here from lack of 
space. It will be seen that these accounts differ materially 
from the statements on which some of the charges against 
Clark were founded. 

♦Virginia State Papers, Vol. 4, p. 213. 

Digitized by 



A committee was appointed, in Kentucky, presumably 
by one of the several constitutional conventions held about 
that time, to make a full investigation ^ ^respecting the es- 
tablishment of the corps at Post Vincennes, of the seizure 
of Spanish property made at that place, and such other 
matters as they might think necessary." This committee 
made the following report :* 

^^They find by inquiry, from General Clark and sundry 
papers submitted by him to their inspection, that a board 
of field-officers, composed from the corps employed on the 
late Wabash expedition, did, in council held at Post Vin- 
cennes, the 8th of October, 1786, unanimously agree that 
a garrison at that place would be of essential service to the 
district of Kentucky, and that supplies might be had in the 
district more than sufficient for their support, by impress- 
ment or otherwise, under the direction of a commissary, to 
be appointed for this purpose, pursuant to the authority 
vested in the field-officers of the district by the executive of 
Virginia. The same board appointed Mr. John Craig, Jr., 
a commissary of purchase, and resolved that one field- 
officer and two hundred and fifty men, exclusive of the 
company of artillery, to be commanded by Captain Valen- 
tine Thomas Dalton, be recruited to garrison Post Vin- 
cennes. That Colonel John Holder be appointed to com- 
mand the troops in this service. 

^4n consequence of these measures, it appears to your 
committee that a body of men have been enlisted, and are 
now recruiting for one year; that Greneral Clark hath taken 

* Dillon*8 History of Indiana, p. 199. 

Digitized by 



the supreme direction of the corps, but by what authority 
doth not appear; and that the corps hath been further of- 
ficered by appointments made by General Clark, who 
acknowledges that the seizure of the Spanish property was 
made by his order for the sole purpose of clothing and 
subsisting the troops; and that the goods seized were ap- 
propriated in this way. That John Rice Jones, who acts 
as commissar^' to the garrison, had passed receipts for the 
articles taken. 

^^The general alleges that the troops were raised for the 
security' of the district; that he considers them subject to 
the direction of this committee, who may discharge them, 
if they think proper, but conceives this measure may pre- 
vent the proposed treaty, and involve this country in a 
bloody war. He denies any intention of depredating on 
the Spanish possessions or property' at the Illinois, and de- 
clares that he never saw the intercepted letter from Thomas 
Green. That he understood Green's object was to estab- 
lish a settlement at or near the Gaso river, under the au- 
thority of the state of Georgia; that his view was, by 
encouraging the settlement, to obtain a small grant of land; 
and that he had no idea of molesting the Spaniards, or of 
attending Green in person. 

^^ He informed the committee that the garrison now at Post 
Vincennes is about one hundred strong, and that the mer- 
chants at the Illinois had determined to support it, for which 
purpose they had sent for the commissary, Jones, to re- 
ceive provisions. That Major Bosseron was sent to the 
Illinois to advise the settlers there of certain seizures made 
at Natchez, of American property, by the Spanish com- 

Digitized by 



mandant, and to recommend it to them to conciliate the 
minds of the Indians, and be prepared to retaliate any 
outrage the Spaniards might commit on their property; 
but by no means to commence hostilities. 

* 'Thomas Todd, Clerk Committee." 

Colonel Benjamin Logan, president of the board of 
officers at the Danville meeting at the time the campaign 
against the Indians was determined upon, led a branch of 
the expedition against the Indians at the Shawnee towns 
early in October, which was fortunately more successful 
than the main expedition. He led nearly eight hundred 
men, and met but little resistance, the principal Indians 
having gone to oppose Clark's troops. He, however, de- 
stroyed the cabins, corn and other provisions, killing ten 
of the savages and taking about thirty prisoners. The 
campaign lasted only a few weeks. 

Colonel Logan was a man of much experience in these 
matters and familiar with all the circumstances of Clark's 
campaign. He wrote a letter to the governor of Virginia 
December 13, 1786, in which he said: *'I have had the 
opportunity to be in company with General Clark since his 
return from the expedition on the north side of the Ohio 
river. He informs me he has agreed with the chiefs of 
the western tribes that hostilities should cease until the first 
day of April next, at which time he had appointed to hold 
a treaty with the nations of the Opost, and that he had 
ordered an officer to recruit two hundred and fifty men, 
which orders were nearly complied with. Those men were 
to keep possession of an American garrison at that place. 

Digitized by 



and to keep the Indians in terror until a treaty. These 
proceedings, I think, (were) wise and prudent."* 

The severity of the blows, that followed the failure of the 
campaign against the Wabash Indians, added to his previous 
dismissal from the service of Virginia three years before, 
told upon General Clark now with terrible effect. What- 
ever else may be said he had served his country faithfully 
and well, and had rendered valuable services, but every- 
thing seemed now to have turned against him. He felt 
that he was not only neglected, misunderstood and mis- 
represented, but treated with positive injustice. 

He now, more frequently than ever, endeavored to drown 
his disappointments and sorrows in drink, and at last, even 
his countenance took on a sterner and 
more forbidding look than it wore in his 
younger and brighter days. This is 
shown in his portrait taken at this pe- 
riod, now in the Vincennes University, 
and reproduced here. He was so thor- 
oughly soured and disgusted with it all 
GEORGE R. CLARK. that, it is Said, he at one time meditated 
removing from the country, and applied for a grant of land 
in the Spanish territory, with a view of establishing a 
colony there; but this was probably no more than an angrj^ 
impulse which he never really intended to carry out. But 
there is no doubt he was deeply piqued at the neglect and 
bad treatment which he felt that he had unjustly received. 
In a letter written Judge Innes of Kentucky, March 7, 
1 791, Mr. Jefferson, then secretary of state, said, ^'Wili it 

•Virginia State Papers, Vol. 4, p. 202. 

Digitized by 



not be possible for you to bring General Clark forward? I 
know the greatness of his mind, and am the more mortified 
at the cause which obscures it. Had not this unhappily 
taken place, there was nothing he might not have hoped; 
could it be surmounted, his lost ground might yet be recov- 
ered. No man alive rated him higher than I did and would 
again, were he to become again what I knew him. ^We 
are made to hope he is engaged in writing the account of 
his expeditions north of Ohio. They will be valuable 
morsels of history, and will justify to the world those who 
have told them how great he was.' " 

He never recovered from these blows, or regained a 
prominent military position. The nearest he came to it 
was in 1 793 when he accepted from agents of the French 
government, then in the United States, a commission, 
with the high sounding title of ^^major-general in the 
armies of France and commander-in-chief of the revolution- 
ary legions on the Mississippi." The acceptance of this 
commission was the greatest mistake of his career. Always 
before he had been an officer of his own country, and his 
sword had only been drawn in behalf of his own country- 

The ostensible object, as far as Clark was concerned, 
was to lead a force of two thousand men, in the name of 
the French republic, against New Orleans and the Spanish 
possessions on the lower Mississippi, with a view of revolu- 
tionizing the Spanish control and government of that region. 
It is not for a moment reasonable to believe that Clark 
meant that it should work any injury to his own country, 
but thought it would open the Mississippi river to American 

Digitized by 



use which had so long been denied by the selfishness and 
injustice of Spain. In fact opening the Mississippi to trade 
was one of the main objects contemplated, as will be seen 
from the ^^ proposals" for volunteers issued by General Clark 
which is given here entire. It is as follows: 


^'Major-general in the armies of France and commander- 
in-chief of the French Revolutionarj^ Legion 
on the Mississippi river. 

'^ Proposals 
^^For raising volunteers for the reduction of the Spanish 
posts on the Mississippi, for opening the trade of the 
said river and giving freedom to all its inhabitants, etc. 
''All persons serving the expedition to be entitled to one 
thousand acres of land. Those that engage for one year will 
be entitled to two thousand acres — if they served two years 
or during the present war with France they will have three 
thousand acres, of any unappropriated land that may be 
conquered — the officers in proportion; pay, etc., as other 
French troops. All lawful plunder to be equally divided 
agreeable to the custom of war. All necessaries will be 
provided for the enterprise, and every precaution taken to 
cause the return of those who wish to quit the service, as 
comfortable as possible, and a reasonable number of days 
allowed them to return, at the expiration of which time 
their pay will cease. All persons will be commissioned 
agreeable to the number of men they bring into the field. 

Digitized by 



Those that serve the expedition will have their choice of 
receiving their land, or one dollar per day. 

*^[A copy.] G. R. Clark.'' * 

The revolution in France had made an entire change in 
the relations existing between that country and Spain. 
Then the governments were friendly, now they were hostile. 
Genet, the minister of the French republic to the Amer- 
ican government, presuming upon the universality of rev- 
olutionary ideas at that time, as well as the previous 
friendship between France and the young republic, as- 
sumed a tone and an attitude justly offensive to the gen- 
eral government of the United States. 

As between France and Spain the sympathy of the Ameri- 
cans was generally with the former, not only because of 
the old friendly associations, but because of republican ideas 
then developing in France, the objectionable features of 
which were not yet known and understood in America; but 
the strongest reason of all was the dislike of Spain, because 
of her long and persistent denial of the free navigation of 
the Mississippi to the Americans. 

The Mississippi river was then the only practical route for 
the products of the west to find a market, and the free navi- 
gation of that river was a matter of paramount necessity to 
the western people. As a natural result their dislike of 
Spain was almost universal, at the time of this movement 
of General Clark. The failure of the general government 
to secure free navigation to the sea led some to believe 
the government indifferent to the essential interests of the 

•Copied into the Kentucky Gazette of February 8, 1794, from "the Centinel 
of the Northwestern Territory, Cincinnati, January 25, 1794." 

Digitized by 



west, to such an extent as to cause them to contemplate an 
independent western state, or some new combination that 
would secure free trade on that river. 

The general feeling against Spain and sympathy with 
France, for the reasons stated, induced the people to look 
on Clark's movement with indulgence, notwithstanding it 
was a technical violation of international law, and severely 
condemned by the general government, which had re- 
quested Isaac Shelby, the governor of Kentucky, to stop 
the expedition. Governor Shelby, like most Kentuckians, 
however, was in evident sympathy with General Clark, 
and he answered the request January 13, 1794, as follows: 

** I have great doubts, even if they attempt to carry this 
plan into execution, provided they manage their business 
with prudence, whether there is any legal authority to re- 
strain or to punish them, at least before they have actually 
accomplished it. For, if it is lawful for any one citizen of 
the state to leave it, it is equally so for any number of them 
to do it. It is also lawful for them to carry any quantity 
of provisions, arms and ammunition. And if the act is 
lawful in itself, there is nothing but the particular intention 
with which it is done that can possibly make it unlawful; 
but I know of no law which inflicts a punishment on in- 
tention only, or any criterion by which to decide what 
would be a sufficient evidence of that intention, even if it 
was a proper subject for legal censure. ... I shall 
also feel but little inclination to take an active part in pun- 
ishing or restraining any of my fellow-citizens for a sup- 
posed intention only, to gratify the fears of the minister of 
a prince who openly withholds from us an invaluable right. 

Digitized by 



and who secretly instigates against us a most savage and 
cruel enemy." 

On the 5th of June, 1794, congress enacted an addi- 
tional law, intended to prevent such an expedition as the 
one contemplated by General Clark. The necessity of 
this new legislation. Governor Shelby claimed, proved 
the correctness of his position, *^and that, until the passage 
of that law, the offense had not been declared, nor the 
punishment defined." The governor was also of opinion 
that the movement proved beneficial to the country, in 
showing the authorities of the general government that the 
people of the west were dissatisfied and terribly in earnest 
in determining, to have the Mississippi opened for com- 
merce and trade. It was regarded as fair warning that 
they intended to have it, no matter at what cost, and it no 
doubt spurred on the authorities to more speedy and effec- 
tive measures to secure it. 

Assurances, quietly given, that earnest efforts were now 
being made in that direction, doubtless proved quite as ef- 
fectual as anything else in causing the expedition to be 
abandoned. It is gratifying to believe that, after all, this 
contemplated expedition of General Clark, unauthorized 
b}- government, and irregular as it was, proved a benefit to 
his country. This was the common belief of the leading 
men of the west at that time, as well as of Governor 

The general government, finding that the governor 
would not interfere, issued a proclamation on the 24th of 
March following, declaring the proposed movement un- 
lawful, and followed it up by ordering General Wayne to 

Digitized by 



establish a force at Fort Massac, if needed, to prevent the 
expedition going down the river. It was not necessarj^, 
however; for, in addition to the reason already given, the 
sober second thought, coupled with the recall of Genet to 
France, and this action of the general government, caused 
the expedition to be abandoned. This was the last effort 
of General Clark's military career, and the last mention of 
him in connection with any military enterprise, contem- 
plated or otherwise. 

That Spain deserved little consideration from the gov- 
ernment of the United States is shown by the fact that 
for years her emissaries intrigued to induce the western 
people to inaugurate a separate government, using large 
sums of money to that end, and offering the much- 
coveted free navigation of the Mississippi, and other valu- 
able rewards. Fortunately for the republic, these efforts 
were not successful, and the free navigation was at last 
nominally secured by treaty in October, 1795, but never 
completely and satisfactorily so until the purchase of 
Louisiana by the United States in 1803. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 






5)T will be remembered that at the time the Illinois 
campaign was inaugurated, George Wythe, George 
Mason and Thomas Jefferson wrote a joint letter to George 
Rogers Clark, congratulating him upon his appointment to 
conduct so important an enterprise, and most heartily wish- 
ing him success. The letter then gave him this assurance : 
** We have no doubt that some further rewards in lands in 
the country will be given to the volunteers who shall en- 
gage in this service in addition to the usual pay, if they are 
so fortunate as to succeed. We think it just and reason- 
able that each volunteer, entering as a common soldier in 
this expedition, should be allowed three hundred acres of 
land and the officers in the usual proportion, out of the 
lands which may be conquered in the country now in pos- 
session of the Indians, so as not to interfere with the claims 
of any friendly Indians, or any people willing to become 
subjects of this commonwealth ; and for this we think you 
may safely confide in the justice and generosity of the Vir- 
ginia assembly." A fac-simile of this historic letter, dated 
January 3, 1778, has already been given in a previous 


Digitized by 



chapter, and these gentlemen, no doubt, exercised all their 
influence to carry out the assurances then given. 

On the 2d of January, 1781, the general assembly of 
Virginia adopted a resolution providing that, ^^as Colonel 
George Rogers Clark planned and executed the secret ex- 
pedition by which the British posts were reduced, and was 
promised if the enterprise succeeded a liberal gratuity in 
lands in that country for the officers and soldiers who first 
marched thither with him, that a quantity of land not ex- 
ceeding one hundred and fifty thousand acres be allowed 
and granted to the said oflScers and soldiers, and the other 
officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated into 
the said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length of 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such place on 
the northwest side of the Ohio as the majority of the of- 
ficers shall choose, and to be afterwards divided among the 
said officers and soldiers in due proportion according to 
the laws of Virginia." * 

In 1783 another act was passed by Virginia, ^^for locat- 
ing and surveying the one hundred and fifty thousand acres 
of land granted by a resolution of assembly to Colonel 
George Rogers Clark, and the oflScers and soldiers who 
assisted in the reduction of the British posts in the Illinois: 

^'Be it enacted by the General Assembly^ That William 
Fleming, John Edwards, John Campbell, Walker Daniel, 
gentlemen, and George Rogers Clark, John Montgomery, 
Abraham Chaplin, John Bailey, Robert Todd, and William 
Clark, oflScers in the Illinois regiment, shall be and they 
are hereby constituted a board of commissioners, and that 

•Hening, lo, 565. 

Digitized by 



they, or the major part of them, shall settle and determine 
the claims to land under the said resolution. That the re- 
spective claimants shall give in their claims to the said com- 
missioners on or before the first day of April, one thousand 
seven hundred and eightj^-four; and, if approved and al- 
lowed, shall pay down to the said commissioners one dollar 
for every hundred acres of such claim, to enable them to 
survey and apportion the said lands. The said commis- 
sioners shall appoint a principal surveyor who shall have 
power to appoint his deputies, to be approved by the said 
commissioners, and to contract with him for his fees. That 
from and after the said first day of April, one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-four, the said commissioners, or 
the major part of them, shall proceed with the surveyor to 
lay off the said one hundred and fifty thousand acres of land 
on the northwest side of the Ohio river, the length of which 
shall not exceed double the breadth; and, after laying out 
one thousand acres at the most convenient place therein for 
a town, shall proceed to lay out and survey the residue, and 
divide the same by fair and equal lot among the claimants; 
but no lot or survey shall exceed five hundred acres. That 
the said commissioners, in their apportionments of the said 
land, shall govern themselves by the allowances made by 
law to the officers and soldiers in the Continental army. 
That the said commissioners shall, as soon as may be, after 
the said one hundred and forty-nine thousand acres shall 
be surveyed, cause a plat thereof, certified on oath, to be 
returned to the register's office, and thereupon a patent 
shall issue to the said commissioners or the survivors of 

them, who shall hold the same in trust for the respective 

Digitized by 



claimants; and they, or the major part of them, shall there- 
after, upon application, execute good and sufficient deeds 
for conveying the several portions of land to the said officers 
and soldiers." * 

The land was selected on the north side of the Ohio river, 
extending from below the falls, a little below Silver creek, 
up the river to the upper end of Eighteen Mile Island. It 
is situated in Clark, Floyd and Scott counties, Indiana, but 
mainly in the first named county. It was, in early times, 
generally called ^'Illinois Grant," but now, more frequently, 
^^Clark's Grant," or,simply, ^^TheGrant." The location of 
the land was vested by the law ^^in a majority of the offi- 
cers," but the tract selected was always a favorite locality 
with General Clark, and his choice was adopted by common 

William Clark was appointed principal surveyor of the 
grant, and he proceeded with a corps of four assistant sur- 
veyors, Edmund Rogers, David Steel, Peter Catlett and 
Burwell Jackson, to lay it off into tracts, intended, gener- 
ally to contain five hundred acres each, but some of the 
surveys were very carelessly made. The errors, however, 
were almost invariably on the side of the soldier, as the 
tracts often over-ran in quantity, and but seldom if ever fell 
below it. 

Historians have been bothered a good deal to identify 
this William Clark. Some have supposed he was the Will- 
iam Clark, brother of General George Rogers Clark, who 
afterwards became very prominent in connection with Mer- 
riweather Lewis, in making the first exploration to the 
Pacific, under the auspices of President Jefferson; others 

*BIackford*8 Indiana Reports, Vol. i, Appendix. 

Digitized by 



have supposed he was the William Clark who was one of 
the first United States judges of Indiana Territory. He 
was neither. He was the William Clark heretofore re- 
ferred to as the son of Benjamin Clark, and was the 
brother of Marston Green Clark, and cousin of George 
Rogers Clark. He was decidedly a man of affairs and of 
fine abilit}'. He probably had more to do in formulating 
the boundaries and allotting the lands in Clark's Grant 
than any other one person. The official plat was his work, 
and, besides being principal surveyor, he was one of the 
commissioners, and sometimes clerk of the board. He was, 
in fact, the general utility man of the concern, and acquired 
a considerable estate in lands. His will has never been 
published as far as the author has been able to learn, and is 
given here in full, as it throws considerable light upon the 
members of his branch of the Clark family. He died in 
November, or early in December, 1791. 

The Will of William Clark, the Surveyor. 

*4n the name of God, amen. I, William Clark, of Jef- 
ferson county, and District of Kentucky, late of Clarksville, 
being of perfect memory and knowing the uncertainty of 
this life, do make and declare this to be my last will and 
testament in the manner following. First desiring that my 
body may be decently interred at the discretion of my execu- 
tors hereafter named. And as for my temporal estate after 
all my just debts are paid, I give, bequeath and dispose of 
in the following manner: 

''It is my will and desire that the bond payable to Will- 
iam Croghan may be discharged by a certificate now in my 

Digitized by 



possession, the residue of said certificate to be applied as 
far as it will go to the discharge of a bond given to Richard 
Morris, and that the balance of said bond be discharged by 
my executors in the most speedy manner they may devise: 

*^ It is my will and desire and I do hereby give my lov- 
ing brother Marston Greene Clark a tract containing two 
hundred and fifty acres of land in Jefferson county and 
lying on Bear Grass, to him, the said Marston Green, his 
heirs and assigns. 

*Mt is my will and desire, and I do hereby give to my 
loving brother Benjamin Wilson Clark and my loving sis- 
ter Lucy Pool a tract containing nine hundred and thirty 
acres of land, to them and their heirs and assigns, lying in 
the lands given by the state of Virginia to the officers and 
soldiers of the Virginia state line, it being a part of my 
claim for military services performed the last war, to be 
equally divided in quantity and quality. And if my brother 
Benjamin Wilson and sister Lucy can not agree on a divis- 
ion my executors are to have a division made for them. 

'^ It is my will and desire, and I do hereby give to my 
loving brothers Jonathan and Everard Clark, to them, their 
heirs and assigns, a tract containing one thousand acres of 
land lying on Russell's creek including a noted burning 
spring, to be equally divided as above. 

^Mt is my will and desire, and I do hereby give to my 
loving brother Benjamin Wilson Clark one tract containing 
four hundred acres in the Illinois Grant, it being part of 
number thirty-one, to him, his heirs and assigns. 

^Mt is my will and desire, and I do hereby give to my 
loving brother Jonathan Clark, to him, his heirs and as- 

Digitized by 



Signs, one tract containing five hundred acres in the Illinois 
Grant, number twentj'-four. It is my will and desire, and 
I do hereby give to my loving brother Everard Clark, to 
him, his heirs and assigns a tract containing five hundred 
acres of land in the Illinois Grant, number ninety-six. It 
is my will and desire, and I do hereby give to my loving 
sister Lucy Pool, to her, her heirs and assigns, one tract 
containing five hundred acres of land in the Illinois Grant, 
number one hundred and sixtj'. 

^^ It is my will and desire, and I do hereby give to my 
loving brother Marston Green Clark all my wearing ap- 
parel, a cow and calf, a sorrel mare, my desk, after my 
executors shall have finished the business of my estate ; also 
my lots and houses in the town of Clarksville I lend him 
for the term of three years from the date of my decease, 
and if either of my brothers or sister comes to this coun- 
try to live, within the space of three years after my de- 
cease, then he or she so coming shall have the lots and 
houses aforesaid, but if neither of them comes in that time 
then the lots, etc., are to remain the property of Marston 
Green Clark, to him, his heirs and assigns. Also I give to 
said Marston Green Clark one negro man, Lewis, for seven 
years, at the expiration of which time it is my wish said 
negro Lewis shall be liberated. It is my will and desire 
after my decease that my executors present my friend and 
relation Mrs. Elizabeth Anderson with my watch, as a 
memorial of my esteem and regard. 

*Mt is my wish and desire that the remainder of my estate, 
viz. : Five hundred acres of land in the Illinois Grant num- 
ber two hundred and seventy-two, two hundred acres in 

Digitized by 



said grant at the forks of Silver creek, the remainder of 
my military warrant, seven hundred and thirtj^-three and 
two-third acres, together with my gun, my surveyor's in- 
struments, my gray horse, saddle and bridle, be disposed 
of at the discretion of my executors and the money arising 
from such sale to be applied to the payment of the bond 
payable to Richard Morris, and the overplus, if any, be 
equally divided amongst the above legatees, Marston Green 
Clark only excepted. 

^^ Lastly, it is my will and desire, and I do hereby ap- 
point my trusty friends, Richard Clough Anderson, Will- 
iam Croghan and Richard Terrell, executors of this, my 
last will and testament, hereby revoking all other wills. 
Signed this eleventh day of November, one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety-one.'' 

This will was proven December 6, 1791, in Jefferson 
county, Kentucky, by the oaths of John Clark, George R. 
Clark and James O'Fallon, witnesses thereto, and ordered 
to be recorded. 

The Virginia law vested in the same commissioners one 
thousand acres of land to be platted into half acre lots, with 
convenient streets, for a town, to be called Clarksville. 
This was laid off just above where Silver creek empties into 
the Ohio at the falls, as will hereafter be more particularly 
shown, with other proceedings in relation to said town. 
After deducting the town site, one hundred and forty-nine 
thousand acres remained to be divided between *^the offi- 
cers and soldiers who assisted in the reduction of the British 
posts in the Illinois," and, after it was surveyed, a patent 

Digitized by 



was issued for the land, December 14, 1786, a fac-simile of 
which, reduced one-half in size, is given in this chapter. 
The original of this important document is on parchment, 
with holes eaten in it by mice, or insects, as shown in the 

The board met at Louisville, in 1784, for the purpose of 
allotting the land, and on the 3d of August of that year 
came to the following important conclusions as to the class 
of officers and soldiers entitled to share in the same, namely: 
''That all officers and soldiers who marched and continued 
in service till the reduction of the British posts on the north- 
west side of the Ohio, that all who engaged and enlisted in 
the Illinois regiment afterwards, and ser\^ed during the war, 
or three years, are entitled to a share of the grant under the 
resolution and act of assembly, and that those soldiers who 
have enlisted in said regiment since the 2d day of January, 
1 781, for three years, or during the war, are not entitled, 
as there seems to be no provisions made under the resolu- 
tion for those who should thereafter be incorporated in the 
said regiment; that the officers of the regiment are en- 
titled to a share of the land in proportion to the commis- 
sions they respectively held on the said 2d day of January, 
1 78 1, and not in proportion to the commissions they have 
since held in consequence of promotions, and that therefore 
officers commissioned since that period are not entitled at 
all; and that those soldiers who enlisted to serve twelve 
months after their arrival at Kaskaskia, agreeable to an act 
of assembly of the fall session of 1778, for the protection 
and defense of the Illinois country, who did not re-enlist in 
the regiment, are not included in said resolution; that 

Digitized by 


.^^^ J^^^ <^^^T,.. ^^^o^^jL^^,^J„,A 

it^** «wr^ . 

y^^^t-t^-ct^JI £^ •^—^^'-^ /^'^ <!'»*-• o^^^^^ ,^^Zi^ ^fl,,,-£i, ^^CLu. ^ 

PAC-SIMILE, rwlucMl om-haH, of 


Ja-NOTB.— ThU fac-slmlle occupies two pages. Sec opposite page. 

Digitized by 


17;' ^Z''f'^ 'f'j'^V >j^^^:^ 

PAC-SIMILE, rednoed oiwbaH, of 


j»°-NOTB.— This fac-5lmile occupies two pasres. See opposite pa^e. 

Digitized by 



those officers who were commissioned under said act and 
resigned before the expiration of the twelve months are not 
entitled; last that those who continued during the year and 
then retired, not having a command, are entitled." 

At a meeting of the commissioners, October 10, 1787, 
the scope of the order was enlarged so as to include "the 
officers and soldiers who were left at the falls by order of 
Colonel Clark, when the detachment were going against 
the Illinois, be allowed quota of land in the grant." 

In view of the way the troops were raised, the irregu- 
larity of the terms of service, and there being different 
campaigns, with not the same soldiers in each, it was a 
difficult and delicate matter to determine, exactly, who 
"assisted in the reduction of the British posts in the Illinois," 
or what officers and soldiers were entitled to the share in 
the land under the law. 

The commissioners, however, after long and careful in- 
vestigation decided who were entitled, and the quantity of 
land that should be allotted to each; but, in the meantime, 
many of the land claims had been sold and transf(erred by 
the persons designated, and deeds for the land, in such cases, 
did not issue in their names, but in the names of the per- 
sons then owning the claims. 

In consequence of this, and the mixing in of the names 
of persons who only served under Clark in his subsequent 
campaigns against the Indians, a correct list of the officers 
and soldiers of the Illinois Regiment who " assisted in the 
reduction of the British posts," and were allotted land 
under the law, has never before been published. At least 
the author, after the most diligent search, has never been 

Digitized by 



able to find any such list, although he has found several 
which were clearly misleading and erroneous. 

The following roll was made with great care and labor, 
tracing the title of every tract of land back to the person 
who served for it. It is confidently believed that it is cor- 
rect, and that it is the only full and complete list of those 
who were allotted land in the Illinois Grant, for services un- 
der General Clark, ever published. It is quite certain no 
one is on the list who did not serve, and it is not likely 
that many, if any, entitled to land, failed to receive it, 
either in person or by his heirs or assigns. While omis- 
sions are possible, they are not at all probable. The board 
of commissioners were prominent and honorable men, and 
it was continued in existence, by subsequent legislation, for 
at least sixty-five years, so that all having proper claims 
had abundance of time in which to apply. 

It will be seen by reference to the roll that opposite the 
name of each person is given the quantit}^ of land allotted 
to him, with its descriptive numbers, so that the reader, by 
referring to the fac-simile of the original plat, which imme- 
diately follows the list, can see the exact location of the 
land ; or, by giving the number of any tract, it can, in like 
manner, be learned who served for it. For example, if it 
is desired to learn what land was allotted to the celebrated 
Simon Kenton, a reference to the list and map will show 
that it was ^Metter E, tract 198.'' Or if the reader wishes 
to know who served for number one, the tract on which 
the city of Jeffersonville is situated, a similar reference will 
show it was Lieutenant Isaac Bowman. And so on as to 
any tract or person. 

Digitized by 



It will be impossible for the general reader to compre- 
hend the great labor involved in making this list. It was 
equivalent to making three hundred partial abstracts of 
title, — aggravated by the fact that the certificate of claim 
was often assigned before the issuance of the patent, and 
that the patent frequently issued in the name of the as- 
signee, and not of the soldier. The work is entirely orig- 
inal, and it is hoped its value will compensate for the labor 
required in its preparation. 

Digitized by 


roll of officers and soldiers who were allotted 
land in clark's grant (indiana) for services un- 
der george rogers clark, "in the reduction of 
the british posts in the illinois." with the 
quantity, and descriptive numbers, of the land 
received by each. 


Clark, George Rogers, Brigadier-General — Nos. 27, 56, 

62, 84, 165, 168, 185, 208, 212, 223, 227, 229, 242, 285, 

288, 297; 4 acres in 74, and 45 acres in 141. Total, 

8,049 acres.* 
Montgomer}^, John, Lieutenant-Colonel — Nos. 35, 40, 51, 

143, 167, 202, 239, 270, 283 and B. 141, 351 acres. 

Total, 4,851 acres. 
Bowman, Joseph, Major — Nos. 5, 49, 97, 125, 140, 186, 

193, 237, and B. 32, 312 acres. Total, 4,312 acres. 
Lynn, William, Major — Nos. 12, 93, 105, 132, 181, 217, 

218, 291, and B. 216, 312 acres. Total, 4,312 acres. 
Quick, Thomas, Major — Nos. 21, 70, 163, 204, 215, 233, 

265, 284, and B. 276, 312 acres. Total, 4,312 acres. 


Note. — All captains were allotted 3,234 acres each. 

Bailey, John — Nos. i6, 22, 24, 81, 225, 226 and A. 194, 
234 acres. 

♦Each number contains 500 acres unless otherwise indicated. Where a letter 
precedes a number it indicates that tract is subdivided and the subdivisions lettered. 


Digitized by 



Brashear, Richard — Nos. 68, iii, 112, 114, 134, 236, and 

B. 194, 234 acres. 
George, Robert — Nos. 17, 137, 146, 159, 172, 275, A. 149, 

234 acres. 
Harrod, William — Nos. 91, 99, 164, 234, 261, 264, A. 148. 
Helm, Leonard — Nos. 66, 147, 201, 266, 269, 279, 149. 
Kellar, Abraham — Nos. 71, 120, 156, 173, 238, 295, B. 148. 
McCarty, Richard — Nos. 6^^ 80, 90, 228, 251, 259, A. 190. 
Rodgers, John — Nos. 11, 72, 207, 235, 282, 296, A. 248. 
Ruddell, Isaac — Nos. 14, 34, 77, no, 153, 179, and B. 190. 
Shelby, James* — Nos. 42*, 43, 88, 89, 95, 249, and B. 248. 
Taylor, Isaac — Nos. 109, 129, 144, 151, 253, 293, loi. 
Todd, Robert — Nos. 3, 36, 48, 55, 122, 203, and A. 246. 
Williams, John — Nos. 9, 75, 115, 152, 166, 240, and loi. 
Worthington, Edward — Nos. 33, 67, 69, 131, 176, 199, 

and B. 246. 


Note. — All lieutenants were allotted 2,156 acres each. 

Bowman, Isaac — Nos. i, 158, 213, 289, and A. 32. 
Calvit, Joseph — Nos. 41, 50, 61, 161, and A. 216. 
Carney, Martin — Nos. 38, 192, 250, 263, and C. 154. 
Chapline, Abraham — Nos. 145, 180, 222, 267, and A. 276. 
Clark, Richard — Nos. 15, 18, 191, 274, and part 160. 
Clark, William — Nos. 96, 103, 272, 287, and part 160. 
Dalton, Valentine Thomas — Nos. 76, 104, 206, 247, C. 155. 
Davis, James — Nos. 39, 136, 187, 257, and B. 154. 
Floyd, Henry — Nos. 65, 107, 230, 280, and A. 154. 
Gerault, John — Nos. 82, 117, 175, 189, and A. 133. 
Harrison, Richard — Nos. 102, 135, 139, 183, and B. 133. 

Digitized by 



Merriweather, James — Nos. 26, 92, 150, 214, and A. 106. 
Montgomery, James — Nos. 6, 83, 127, 252, and C. 133. 
Perault, Michael — Nos. 23, 78, 256, 277, and C. 106. 
Robertson, James — Nos. 25, 200, 260, 294, and B. 106. 
Slaughter, Lawrence — Nos. 8, 58, 157, 221, and A. 271. 
Swan, John — Nos. 37, 98, 100, 209, and B. 156. 
Todd, Levi — Nos. 29, 46, 87, 290, and C. 271. 
Williams, Jarrott — Nos. 197, 241, 258, 268, and part 160. 
Wilson, Thomas — Nos. 10, 45, 47, 298, and A. 169. 


Vanmeter, Jacob — Nos. 7, 64, 182, 232 and 156 acres in 
B. 155. Total, 2,156 acres. 


Thurston, John — Nos. 53, 244, 278, 292, and 156 acres in 
A. 155. Total, 2,156 acres. 


Note. — All sergeants were allotted 216 acres each. 

Brand, John — 16 acres in 169 and 2ooacresinD.andE. 130. 
Brown, James — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in D. and E. 273. 
Crump, William — 16 acres in 169 and 200 acres in A. 184. 
Dewit, Henry — 16 acres in 196 and 200 acres in 1 21 . 
Elms, William — 16 acres in 169 and 200 acres in 108. 
Irby, James (or Irley) — 16 acres in 169, 200 in A. andB. 138. 
Kellar, Isaac — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in C. and D. 245. 
Key, Thomas — 16 acres in 194 and 200 in B. and E. 245. 
Merriweather, William — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in 4. 
Miles, Michael — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in A. and B. 35. 

Digitized by 



Moore, John — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in A. and B. 126. 
Morgan, Charles — 16 acres in 196 and 200 acres in 178. 
Oreer, John — 16 acres in 160, 100 in C. 211 and 100 in 31. 
Parker, Edward — 16 acres in 169 and 200 acres in part 4. 
Patterson, Robert — i6acres in 169 and 200 in D. and E. 1 77. 
Pittman, Buckner — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in D.and E. 171. 
Prichard, William — 16 acres in 169 and 2ooin C.and D. 124. 
Rubey, William — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in C. and D. 118. 
Strode, Sam — 16 acres in 169 and 200 acres in 19. 
Treat, Beverly — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in A. and B. 142. 
Vaughan, John — 16 acres in 196 and 200 acres in 178. 
Walker, John — 16 acres in 169 and 200 in A. and B. 130. 
Williams, John — 16 acres in 169 and 200 acres in B. and 
E. 124. 


Note. — All privates were allotted io8 acres each. 

Allen, David — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 188. 
Anderson, Joseph — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 178. 
Ash, John — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in 19. 
Asher, William — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 59. 
Bailey, David — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in B. 195. 
Barnet, Robert — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 162. 
Batten, Thomas — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 273. 
Baxter, James — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 273. 
Buckley, William — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in D. 162. 
Bell, William — 8 acres in part 210 and 100 acres in 184. 
Bell, Sam — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 162. 
Bentley, James — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 184. 
Bentley, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 184. 

Digitized by 



Bethey, Elisha — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in E. 108. 
Biggar, James — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in 262. 
Bilderback, Charles — 8 acres in 2 10 and 100 acres in D. 85. 
Blackford, Samuel — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 20. 
Blankenship, Henrj^ — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in B. 

Booton, Travis — 8 acres in 248 and 100 acres in C. 85. 
Booton, William — 8 acres in 248, and 100 acres in B. 44. 
Bowen, Ebenezer — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 128. 
Boyles, John — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 60. 
Bryant, James — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres 188. 
Bulger, Edward — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 195, 
Burk, Nicholas — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in 113. 
Bush, William — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 219. 
Cameron, Angus — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 281. 
Camp, Reuben — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 86. 
Campbell, John — 8 acres in 248 and 100 acres in D. 60. 
Camper, Moses — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in E. 52. 
Camper, Tilman — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 52. 
Conore, Andrew — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 170. 
Chapman, William — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 205. 
Chenowith, Richard — 8 acres in loi and 100 acres in C. 30. 
Clark, Andrew — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 231. 
Clark, George — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in E. 205. 
Clifton, Thomas — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 188. 
Cofer, William — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in B. 286. 
Choheren, Dennis — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 231. 
Copland, Cornelius — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 60. 
Consule, Harman — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in C. 205. 
Cowan, John — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 231. 


Digitized by 



Cox, Richard — 8 acres in 2 10 and 100 acres in B. 59. 
Cozer, Jacob (or Coger) — 8 acres in 210 and 100 in B. 205. 
Cozer, Peter (or Coger) — 8 acres in 210 and 100 in B. 52. 
Craze, Noah — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in A. 52. 
Crosley, William — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in D. 52. 
Curry, James — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in D. 205. 
Curtis, Rice — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in B. 60. 
Davies, Asael — 8 acres in 246 and 100 acres in C. 220. 
Davis, Robert — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in E. 59. 
Dawson, James — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in 113. 
Doherty, Frederick — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in A. 220. 
Doherty, Neal — 8 acres in loi and 100 acres in D. 30. 
Doran, Patrick — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in E. 220. 
Dudley, Amistead — 8 acres in 210 and 100 acres in E. 60. 
Duff, John — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in 86. 
Elms, James — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in D. 220. 
Elms, John — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in A. 59. 
Evans, Charles — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in B. 220. 
Paris, Isaac — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in B. 94. 
Fear, Edmund — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in C. 73. 
Finley, Samuel — 8 acres in 32 and 100 acres in D. 30. 
Finn, James — 8 acres in 32 and 100 acres in E. 94. 
Flanaghan, Dominick — 8 acres in 141 and 100 in A. 73. 
Floyd, Isham — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 188. 
Foster, William — 8 acres in 32 and 100 acres in A. 30. 
Freeman, William — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres inE. 73. 
Flogget, William — 8 acres in 32 and 100 acres in 121. 
Frost, Stephen — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in B, 73. 
Funk, Henry — 8 acres in 141 and 100 acres in D. 73. 
Garrot, Robert — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in C. 224. 

Digitized by 



GaskinSj Thomas — 8 acres in 276 and 100 acres in B. 273. 
Gagnia (or Gassnia), Lewis — 8 acres in 196 and 100 in 1 13. 
Gaylor, Gasper — 8 acres in 194 and 100 acres in D. 224. 
Gilmore, George — 8 acres in 276 and 100 acres in C. 94. 
Glass, Michael — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 121. 
Glenn, David — 8 acres in 2 16 and 100 acres in 20. 
Godfrey, Francis — 8 acres in 276 and 100 acres in A. 94. 
Goodwin, William — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 262. 
Gray, Greorge — 8 acres in 216 and 100 acres in E. 224. 
Greathouse, William — 8 acres in 216 and 100 in B. 224. 
Green, John — 8 acres in 276 and 100 acres in D. 94. 
Grimes, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in A. 124. 
Guthrie, William — 8 acres in 216 and 100 acres in A. 281. 
Gwin, William — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 224. 
Hacker, John — 8 acres in 148 and 100 acres in B. 28. 
Hammet, James — 8 acres in 133 and 100 acres in E. 138. 
Hardin, Francis — 8 acres in 133 and 100 acres in D. 138. 
Harland, Silas — 8 acres in 190 and 100 acres in D. 13. 
Harris, James — 8 acres in 190 and 100 acres in D. 28. 
Harris, John Maline — 8 acres in 106 and 100 acres in E. 1 28. 
Harris, Samuel, Sr. — 8 acres in 106 and 100 acres in D. 128. 
Harris, Samuel, Jr. — 8 acres in 106 and 100 acres in C. 128. 
Hatten, Christopher- — 8 acres in 148 and 100 acres in A. 28. 
Hayes, Thomas — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 188. 
Henry, David — 8 acres in 154 and 100 acres in A. 57. 
Henry, Hugh — 8 acres in 154 and 100 acres in B. 57. 
Henry, Isaac — 8 acres in 154 and 100 acres in A. 13. 
Henry, John — 8 acres in 154 and 100 acres in B. 13. 
Higgins, Barney — 8 acres in 190 and 100 acres in D. 57, 
Holms, James — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in E. 13. 

Digitized by 



Honaker, Henry — 8 acres in 133 and 100 acres in C. 57. 
Honaker, Peter — 8 acres in 133 and 100 acres in E. 57. 
Hooper, Thomas — 8 acres in 149 and 100 acres in part 19. 
House, Andrew — 8 acres in 148 and 100 acres in E. 28. 
Hughes, John — 8 acres in 148 and 100 acres in C. 28. 
Humphris, Samuel — 8 acres in 190 and 100 acres in C. 13. 
Isaacs, John — 8 acres in 271 and 100 acres in B. 123. 
James, Abraham — 8 acres in 155 and 100 acres in D. 198. 
January, James — 8 acres in 271 and 100 acres in C. 198. 
Jarrald, James — 8 acres in 155 and 100 acres in B. 128. 
Johnson, John — 8 acres in 271 and 100 acres in E. 170. 
Johnston, Edward — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in part 113. 
Jones, Charles — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in A. 198. 
Jones, David— 8 acres in 271 and 100 acres in C. 138. 
Jones, John — 8 acres in 194 and 100 acres in B. 198. 
Jones, Mathew — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in C. 170. 
Joynes, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 219. 
Kendall, Benjamin — 8 acres in 155 and 100 acres in 245. 
Kendall, William — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in D. 44. 
Kenton, Simon — 8 acres in 155 and 100 acres in E. 198. 
Key, George — 8 acres in 246 and 100 acres in C. 79. 
Leare, William — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in A. 54. 
Lemon, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in A. 119. 
Levingston, George — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 86. 
Lindsay, Arthur — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in D. 79. 
Lockart (or Lockett) , Pleasant — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres 

in D. 54. 
Lovell, Richard — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 219. 
Lunsford, George — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 86. 
Lunsford, Mason — 8 acres in 246 and 100 acres in E. 44. 

Digitized by 



Lunsford, Moses — 8 acres in 246 and 100 acres in E. 119. 
Lusado, Abraham — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in A. 79. 
Lutterell, Richard — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in B. 79. 
Lines, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in C. 119. 
Lyne, Joseph — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in E. 79. 
McBride, Isaac — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 130. 
McDermet, Francis — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in B. 54. 
McDonald, David — 8 acres in 248 and 100 acres in A. 21 1 . 
McGar (orGann), John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 219. 
Mclntire, Alexander — 8 acres in loi and 100 acres inC. 130. 
McManus, George — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 286. 
McManus, John, Sr. — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 286. 
McManus, John, Jr. — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in C. 286. 
McMuUen, Samuel — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in A. 254. 
McNutt, James — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in E. 126. 
Mayfield, Micajah — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in D. 184. 
Mahoney, Florence — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres inE. 281. 
Manifee, Jonas — 8 acres in 106 and 100 acres in E. 254. 
Marr, Patrick — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 219. 
Martin, Charles — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 254. 
Mershorn, Nathaniel — 8 acres in 74 and 100 in C. 254. 
Millar, Abraham — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in C. 54. 
Montgomery, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 231. 
Monroe, James — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in D. 254. 
Moore, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in C. 126. 
Moore, Thomas — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in A. 123. 
Murphy, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 86. 
Murry, Edward — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in E. 54. 
Myers, William — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in D. 126. 
Nelson, Enoch Gerrard — 8 acres in 74 and 100 in E. 85. 

Digitized by 



Newton, Peter — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 20. 
Oakley, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in 4. 
O'Harrow, Michael — 8 acres in 149 and 100 in B. 211. 
Oreer, Daniel — 8 acres in 160 and 100 acres in 31. 
Oreer, Jesse — 8 acres in 160 and 100 acres in 31. 
Oreer, William — 4 acres in 210, 4 in 196 and 100 in 31. 
Osburn, Ebenezer — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 211. 
Oundsley, Charles — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 211. 
Pagan, David — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 19. 
Paintree, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 177. 
Patten, James — 8 acres in loi and 100 acres in B. 30. 
Paul, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in 123. 
Peters, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 281. 
Phelphs, Josiah — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 177. 
Pickens, Samuel — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in 121. 
Piner, Jesse — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 171. 
Prather, Henry — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in C. 171. 
Priest, Peter — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 171. 
Pniitt, Josiah — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 170. 
Purcell, William — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 123. 
Pulford, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 31 . 
Ramsey, James — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 119. 
Ray, William — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 118. 
Rubey, William — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 1 18. 
Ruddle, Cornelius — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 118. 
Rulison, William — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in C. 177. 
Ross, Joseph — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 113. 
Sartine, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 116.. 
Sartine, Page — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in C. 116. 
Saunders, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 174. 

Digitized by 



Severns, Ebenezer — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 174. 
Severns, John — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 195. 
Shepard, George — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 116. 
Shepard, Peter — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 195. 
Sitzer, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 2. 
Sitzer, Michael — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 2. 
Simpson, Thomas — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 59. 
Slack, William — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 174. 
Smith, Greorge — 8 acres in 149 and 100 acres in A. 2. 
Smith, William — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in C. 44, 
Sworden, Jonathan — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 116. 
Snow, George — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in C. 174. 
Spear, Jacob— 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 174. 
Spilman, Francis — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 2. 
Spilman, James — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 262. 
Stevens, Shep — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 108. 
Stephenson, Samuel — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 286. 
Swan, William — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 44, 
Swearingen, Van — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B, 116. 
Talley, John — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 142. 
Taylor, Abraham — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in C. 142. 
Teall, Levi — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 170. 
Thompson, WilHam — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in 262. 
Thornton, Joseph — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in C. 2. 
Tygert, Daniel (or Lygert) — 8 acres in 196, 100 in 108. 
Taylor, William (or Tyler) — 8 acres in 74, 100 in E. 142. 
Vance, Hanley — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 243, 
Vanmeter, Isaac — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in C. 243. 
Venshioner, George — 8 acres in 74 and 100 in B. 119. 
Walker, Thomas — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 210. 

Digitized by 



Watkins, Samuel — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 243. 
Walen, Barney — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 255. 
Welch, Dominque — 8 acres in 149 and 100 acres in B. 255. 
White, Layton — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in D. 255. 
White, Randall — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in E. 195. 
Whitecotton, James — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in 123. 
Whitley, William — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in 262. 
Whitehead, Robert — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 20. 
Whitehead, William — 8 acres in 196 and 100 acres in 20. 
Wilson, Edward — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in A. 255. 
Williams, Daniel — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in E. 243. 
Witt, Robert — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 243. 
Wood, James — 8 acres in 169 and 100 acres in C. 255. 
Yates, Isaac — 8 acres in 74 and 100 acres in B. 210. 
Zockledge, William (orZackledge) — 8 in 210, 100 inE. 162. 

Recapitulation : 

I Brigadier-General - « - - 8,049 acres. 

I Lieutenant-Colonel « - - 45851 acres. 

3 Majors (4,312 acres each) - - 12,936 acres. 

14 Captains (3,234 acres each) - 455^76 acres. 
20 Lieutenants (2,156 acres each) - - 43,120 acres. 

23 Sergeants (216 acres each) - - 4,968 acres. 

I Ensign - - - - - -2,156 acres. 

I Cornet - - - - - 2,156 acres. 

236 Privates (108 acres each) - - - 25,488 acres. 

300 Men ------ 149,000 acres. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


^N0TB.~Thi8 fac-simile occupies two pages. See opposite page. 

(reduced in size one half) 










.^ h 

Digitized by 


PAC-SIMILE (Reduced in size one-lialf) 


Official Plat 



•NOTE.— This fac-simile occupies two pa^cs. Sec opposite pajfc 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



It will be observed that the quantity of land allotted the 
private soldiers w^as only one hundred and eight acres each. 
It should have been no less than ^'three hundred," which 
was the quantity those great statesmen Jefferson, Wythe, 
and Mason mentioned in their joint letter to Clark at the 
inception of the campaign, as being ''just and reasonable," 
and what they were likely to receive if it proved successful. 
There was certainly an implied moral obligation created 
by that letter which everybody ought to have respected; 
but even without it ''three hundred acres" to each of the 
men, who aided so materially in acquiring a territorial em- 
pire, would have been little enough. More land should have 
been included in the grant, but even as it was, a division 
of the one hundred and forty-nine thousand acres, which 
gave one hundred twenty-three thousand five hundred 
and twelve acres to sixty-four officers, and only twenty-five 
thousand four hundred and eighty-eight acres to two hun- 
dred and thirty-six privates, does not seem to have been 
exactly as equitable as it should have been. 

As the men who acted as commissioners in the allotment 
of the land in Clark's Grant were generally men of historic 
character, it may not be without interest to briefly mention 
who they were, or at least those who, from time to time, 
acted as chairmen of the board. 

missioners who were selected to divide and allot this land, 
Walker Daniel, a native of Virginia, who had emigrated, 

Digitized by 




only a few years before, to what was then Lincoln county, 
Kentucky, seems to have been chairman of the board. 
He was an enterprising business man, a lawj^er, and pro- 
prietor, or one of the proprietors, of the town of Danville. 
The minutes of the board show that he was killed by the 
Indians sometime between August 7th and i6th, 1784, and 
part of the papers of the board could not be found for some 
time after his death, and some were probably never found. 

At a meeting August 16, 1784, 
a brother-in-law of General Clark 
was selected to succeed Daniel as 
commissioner. A sketch of Major Croghan will appear 
further on. He was at one time chairman of the board. 

who succeeded 
Walker Daniel as 

chairman, is presumably the John Edwards who was in the 
United States Senate, from Kentucky, 1792-5, and who 
before that was several times a member of the state legis- 
lature from Bourbon county, and of several conventions, 
including the one held to ratify the federal constitution; 
and he was also one of the commissioners to locate the seat 
of government of Kentucky. He was a native of Virginia. 

Louisville, and became quite wealthy. 

who succeeded 
Edwards, was 
one of the orig- 
inal proprietors 
of the city of 
Was an Irishman 

Digitized by 



by birth, and a man of much force of character. Was a 
member of the legislature, and of the convention of 1792, 
which formed the constitution of Kentucky, and died with- 
out issue. 

After Campbell came James F. Moore, Alexander Breck- 
enridge, Richard Taylor, and Robert Breckenridge, with 
William Clark serving as chairman at one session only.* 


y, had been a soldier 

"O^^^^-L^t^^ ^^;^^:,^^^^?^/2^ under Clark and was 

^C 7^* \^ M^ 111^, _ also a member of 

the Kentucky house of representatives, from Jefferson 
county in 1793, and of the senate in 1808. 

/"^ ^ was a native of Virginia 

/^j^ ^^^^'^/^ y^ ^^^ removed to Kentucky 

'-^ •• O^^^^^^^^^^iniyss. He was a soldier 
y^ in the War of the Revolu- 

tion, holding the rank of lieutenant-colonel at its close. 
He also rendered important services in campaigns against 
the Indians; held several responsible positions in civil life, 
and had the further distinction of being* the father of 
General Zachary Taylor, the twelfth president of the United 

was a member of the 
/^C^ /K^^^^^'^jjTC-^ legislature of Ken- 
tucky from Jefferson county, 1792-6, and speaker of the 

♦Andrew Heth and Richard Terrell acted as commissioners for a time to fill 

Digitized by 



house of representatives several times. He held many 
other responsible public positions. It may fairly be inferred 
that he was a kind-hearted man from a provision in his 
will in which he sets his slaves, ^^ Isaac, old George, and 
Polly free.'' 

and Robert werebroth- 
^ ers. The author found 
the will of the latter recorded in Will Book No. i, Jeffer- 
son county, Kentucky, page no. It is dated May 16, 
1797, and probated June, 1801, and bequeaths to his 
brother Robert 3,000 acres of land on northwest side of 
the Ohio river, between the Miami and Sciota, being the 
land granted for services in ^^last war"— one-third thereof 
to be retained by his said brother Robert for his services in 
locating the land and the other two-thirds to be divided 
equally between the three sons of the testator, viz.: James, 
Robert, and Henry Brown Breckenridge, and also to said 
sons a thousand acres, part of same warrant, 'Mocated on 
the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Saline." 

General George Rogers Clark acted as chairman of the 
board at various times, and seems to have been an attend- 
ant of the sessions, with but few exceptions, from the be- 
ginning in 1784, down to March 14, 1810, when he signed 
the minutes for the last time. 
This was after he had been 
stricken with paralysis and^ 
was scarcely able to write his name, as shown by the fac- 


Digitized by 



simile of his signature here given.* Although he did not 
die for eight years afterwards, he lingered in a compara- 
tively helpless condition for some time, and finally became 
entirely so, as will be related further on. 

This brings the record down to 1 820, by which time nearly 
all the business had been transacted, but the commission was 
kept alive by appropriate legislation. The meetings thus far 
had been held at Louisville, but none was held there after- 
wards. The next meeting was held at Jeffersonville, 
August 20, 1825, but there was scarcely anything done at 
that, or subsequent meetings, only a few being held. The 
commissioners were new but very substantial men, and all, or 
nearly all, Indianians, viz.: James Beggs, Benjamin Fer- 
guson, Stephen Hutchins, Orlando Raymond, John D. 
Shryer, Samuel McCampbell, David W. Dailey, Alexander 
Mars, and Christopher Cole. 

General Joseph Bartholomew, who 
was wounded at the battle of Tippe- 
canoe, and otherwise distinguished in 
Indiana history, was chairman in 
1825. A county in Indiana bears 
his name. He was in early days a 
member of the legislature of that 
state, serving both in the house of 
representatives and senate. The original of the portrait 
here given was furnished the author by his son, W. M. 
Bartholomew, of Dakota, in 188S. 

♦This and the other fac-similes of signatures in this chapter, with the excep- 
tion of Walker Daniel, were taken from the original proceedings of the board. 


Digitized by 



In 1846, Doctor Andrew P. Hay, at 
one time a member of the Indiana Legis- 
lature, was chairman, and he was the last 
as far as the author is informed. Dr. Hay 
left descendants who are prominent citi- 
zens of Indiana. He was at one time re- 
ceiver of the United States land office at 
Jeffersonville. His sister Ann was the first wife of Jona- 
than Jennings, the first governor of Indiana. 

The full proceedings of this important board, never before 
published, will be found in the appendix to this volume. 

There will also be found in the appendix lists of persons 
who served under General Clark in some of his campaigns, 
but who were not allotted land in Clark's Grant; no such 
claim to accuracy, however, can be made for these rolls, as 
can justly be made for the one in this chapter of the officers 
and soldiers who were allotted land in Clark's Grant, for 
services in reducing the British posts as provided by the 
law of Virginia. The service rendered by those mentioned 
in the list in the appendix was mostly against the Indians, 
and although not falling within the provisions of this law was 
undoubtedly of great benefit to the country. They each 
and all deserve to be gratefully remembered. 

Digitized by 





Clarksville, Indiana, and vicinity — George Rogers Clark's connection therewith 
— Is stricken with paralysis at that place — Amputation of his leg — Virginia 
presents him a sword and pension — The subject of sword presentations to 
him considered — He lingers long in a feeble, and finally helpless, condition — 
Dies at his sister's house in Kentucky in 1818 — His will — Controversy in 
relation thereto, and other events connected with his illness and death. 

jT will be remembered that the law of Virginia granting 
land to the officers and soldiers of the Illinois regi- 
ment provided that one thousand of the one hundred and 
fifty thousand acres should be set apart for a town. The 
commissioners appointed by the law, at their meeting, 
August 4, 1784, '^ordered that John Campbell, George R. 
Clark, and John Bailey, or any two, with the surveyor, fix 
on the most convenient place in the grant for the town and 
lay off the one thousand acres appropriated for the purpose 
and also draw up and report a plan for the same," The place 
selected was opposite the lower part of the Ohio falls, above 
the mouth of Silver creek. The law, most appropriate- 
ly, required the town to be called Clarksville, but simply 
'^Clark" without the ''ville" would have been more fitting. 
Great expectations were formed as to the future of the 
place. It was near the foot of the falls, at the head of an 


Digitized by 



immensely long line of deep-water navigation, and at a 
time that transportation by water was the best method 
known, and it was confidently believed that it was des- 
tined to become a great city. General Clark was, of course, 
much interested in it, and its expected future prosperity was 
another of the bright dreams of his life which was never 
to be realized. Coupled with the distribution of the land 
in Clark's Grant, it, however, gave him employment for 
many years. Thus, being occupied was in itself a great 
solace and comfort to his restless spirit. 

One of the greatest needs of the time and place was a 
mill, and one was constructed under the auspices of General 
Clark. At one of the earliest meetings of the commissioners 
of the town an order was made, that: ^' Leave is given Gen- 
eral Clark to erect the mill he is now building on a branch 
above the lots already laid off in Clarksville, and if com- 
pleted and of public utility the right of the soil to so much 
land as shall be deemed sufficient for the water shall be 
confided to him." The mill was built and remained in 
existence a long time. The author has now in his possession 
an original letter 

written by Colonel s^^^^^ C^'Ty^^^^ 
Abraham Bow- dP^ 

man, October lo, 1784, from Lincoln county, Kentucky, 
to his brother Isaac, in Virginia, in which he relates, among 
other interesting items of western news, that ^'General 
Clark has laid off a town (Clarksville) on the other side 
of the Ohio, opposite the falls, at the mouth of Silver 
creek, and is building a saw and grist mill there." * The 

•This was the Abraham Bowman who was colonel of the celebrated Eighth 
Virginia German Regiment after Colonel Muhlenburg was promoted to be a 
general in the continental service. 

Digitized by 




1 ? 


letter also says, ^^ twenty or 
thirty families have moved 
there already." Many 
years ago J. Gardner, Es- 
quire, of Bedford, Indiana, 
made a drawing of an old 
ruin in the locality, which 
was supposed to be the re- 
mains of this old mill. It is 
reproduced here by his per- 

About the same time, the 
same gentleman made a 

sketch of an old stone chimney 
standing, solitary and alone, 
above Clarksville, near the head 
of the falls, in what is now the 
lower part of the city of Jeffer- 
sonville. It is believed this was a 
part of old Fort Finney which 
was constructed in that locality 
about 1 ^85 , and named after an 
officer of the regular army of that 
name, but the name was after- 
wards changed to Fort Steuben. 
Colonel John W. Ray, of In- 
dianapolis, who went to Jeffer- old chimney which formerly 
sonville a boy, in 1836, informed 
the author that the site of this 
old fort was the play ground for the boys of the vicinity about 




Digitized by 




that time, and that he found buttons, buckles, bullets and 
other military relics in the locality. His step-father, Samuel 
Patterson, made brick on a portion of the site, and the 
relics were mostly found when the ground was dug up for 
brick-making purposes. Such quantities were found as 
to indicate that they were part of a stock intended for trade 
with the Indians. 

In the same locality stood, within the recollection of the 
author, the house occupied by General Thomas Posey, 


while governor of Indiana territory for several years pre- 
ceding the organization of the state government in 1816, 
It was the grand mansion of the place at that day, but dis- 
appeared probably a third of a century ago. Colonel Ray 

Digitized by 



and the author both recognize the cut here given as a cor- 
rect representation of the old historic residence of the last 
governor of Indiana territory; a man who acted well his 
part in both war and peace, and about whose life lingers 
much interesting romance, which will probably never be 
fully unveiled. 

The law creating Clarksville required that the lots should 
be sold from time to time at public auction, ^'the purchasers 
respectively to hold their said lots subject to the condition 
of building on each a dwelling-house twenty feet by 
eighteen, at least, with a brick or stone chimney, to be 
finished within three years from day of sale." A failure 
to build forfeited the lots, and the trustees were to use the 
money derived from the sales ^Mn such manner as they 
may judge most beneficial for the inhabitants of the said 
town." The preliminaries were all of the most favorable 
character, but the town would not and did not prosper for 
all that, and the grant and matters connected with it have 
been a source of much vexatious litigation.* There were 
about twenty houses in the place in 1797, and it made but 
slight progress afterwards. 

General Clark was a citizen of Clarksville many years, 
and took an active part in elections and public affairs, but, 
being a bachelor, he divided his time between the Indiana 
and Kentucky sides of the river, most of his relatives re- 
siding in and about Louisville. William Clark, the sur- 

* A remarkable decision of the supreme court of Indiana, where the subject 
of Clarksville and Clark's Grant was fully considered, will be found in Black- 
ford's Reports, Vol. , pp. 160-161, first edition. An extract from it is given in 
the appendix, from which it would seem that Virginia held the right to legislate 
in relation to the lands in these places in certain cases even after the admission 
of Indiana as a state. 

Digitized by 




veyor, resided on the Indiana side for a time, as did also 
his brothers, Evard and Marston G. The latter was a 
judge and member of the legislature in Indiana, and died 
in that state. All three were cousins of 
General Clark. The author has before 
him the original tally sheets of the vote 
taken at Jeffersonville, Indiana territorj^, 
September ii, 1804, on the question of 
whether the people desired the territory to 
be advanced to the legislative form of gov- 
ernment. Thirty-five voted for it and thir- 
teen against it. In the latter list the names of George R. 
Clark and Evard Clark appear. The full list, showing 
how every man voted on this question in Indiana terri- 
tory, will be given in a subsequent volume. It was carried 
by a small majority on a very light vote. At that time the 
viva voce system of voting prevailed and the tally sheets 
show not only the name of the voter, but how he voted. 

Josiah Espy, who published a journal of western travel, 
visited Clarksville and General Clark in 1805, and this is 
what he says about them: ^^At the lower end of the falls 
is the deserted village of Clarksburgh (Clarksville), in 
which General Clark himself resides. I had the pleasure 
of seeing this celebrated warrior at his lonely cottage seat- 
ed on Clark's Point. 

"This point is situated at the upper end of the village and 
opposite the lower rapid, commanding a full and delightful 
view of the falls, particularly the zigzag channel which is 
only navigated at low water. The general has not taken 
much pains to improve this commanding and beautiful spot, 

Digitized by 



having only raised a small cabin, but it is capable of being 
made one of the handsomest seats in the world. 

*^ General Clark has now become frail and rather helpless, 
but there are the remains of great dignity and manliness in 
his countenance, person and deportment, and I was struck 
on seeing him with, perhaps, a fancied likeness to the great 
and immortal Washington. Immediately above Clark's 
point it is said the canal is to return to the river, making 
a distance of about two miles." **There appears to be 
no doubt," adds Mr. Espy, ^*but that this canal will be 

Mr. Espy was not alone in entertaining the belief that a 
canal would be made on the Indiana side of the Ohio, but 
unfortunately it was not constructed, and since the decrease 
of water in the river, and the advent of railroads, its impor- 
tance has greatly lessened. For a long time, however, it was 
an all-absorbing question at the falls, and, to some extent, 
in the Ohio valley generally. 

The ^* lonely cottage situated on Clark's Point," where 
Mr. Espy saw General Clark in 1805, was an old-fashioned 
log house, located near the river. It remained there for about 
fifty years, and was then taken down, or, as another account 
says, was destroyed by the ground caving into the river. 
The spot where the house stood is said to have been about 
opposite the middle of Rock island. The logs of which 
it was constructed were made to a smooth surface either by 
being hewed to a line by the ax, or sawed with a whip- 
saw, most likely the former. The view was, no doubt, 
very fine, but the roar of the water passing over the falls 

Digitized by 



must have been annoying, and the mist and fogs from the 
river sometimes unpleasant. 

In this humble, isolated home, the sturdy old soldier 
spent many wear}^ and lonesome days and nights, at the 


very period of his life when he most needed the tender care 
and solace of pleasant companionship. Female companion- 
ship he had none,* and the men who were about Clarks- 

* In his researches the author has found no evidence that General Clark was 
ever engaged in any affair of the heart. The nearest to it is a tradition that he 
was for a time fascinated with a Spanish lady in St. Louis who afterwards took 
the veil in a Catholic institution in New Orleans, greatly to the disturbance of 
his peace of mind. It is only tradition, however, and very vague at that. His 
four sisters all married, as did his brothers Jonathan and William; but the 
brothers Edmund, John, Richard and George Rogers, seem to have remained 

Digitized by 



ville at that time were generally of the free and easy sort, 
and a good deal given to dissipation. In fact the habit of 
drinking was general, everywhere, in that day, and it must 
be admitted that General Clark, at this period, indulged 
in it to an extent that was wholly unjustifiable. lie had 
greatly impaired his health by exposures in his military 
campaigns, and this was now being aggravated by dissipa- 
tion, and living about the falls, which was notoriously un- 
healthy in early times. 

The heaviest blow came at last, with terrible effect. A party 
of acquaintances from Kentucky made him a visit on a hunt- 
ing excursion, and, after spending some time with him 
in a jovial way, departed on their hunt, leaving him 
alone in his humble cabin. Some time after their de- 
parture he was stricken with paralysis and fell to the floor 
helpless, and, for a time, unconscious, without any one 
present to assist him. He fell in front of the old-fashioned 
log fire-place, in such a way as to burn one of his legs, 
which brought him to consciousness, but he never re- 
covered from this stroke of paralysis. He lived, however, 
about ten years after it, but in a helpless condition, and the 
burn on his leg finally turned into erysipelas, which made 
its amputation an absolute necessity. 

General Clark bore up, for a time, under this terrible 
infliction with remarkable firmness and braver}\ The am- 
putation was performed by Dr. Ferguson amid surround- 
ings that are probably without a parallel. 

His namesake. Colonel George Rogers Clark Floyd, 
afterwards distinguished at the battle of Tippecanoe, and 
the son of Colonel John Floyd, herein before mentioned. 

Digitized by 



caused drums and fifes to be played during the operation, 
in compliance with the request of General Clark to that ef- 
fect, and the brave old soldier kept time to the music with 
his fingers. It should be remembered that this was before 
the advent of anaesthetics. Finally the music stopped, and 
he asked, ''Well, is it off?" He was answered that it 
was, and the dissevered limb was shown him, which is said 
to have been the left leg. 

The incident of the playing of the drum and fife during 
the operation is well authenticated. George Rogers Clark 
Sullivan, who was honorably identified with Indiana his- 
tory during the territorial period, and left. a long line of 
prominent descendants, one of whom is Mr. Cauthorn of 
Vincennes, several times mentioned in this work, was with 
General Clark at the time, and remained with him several 
months afterwards. On the 24th of April, 1809, young 
Sullivan wrote a letter from Louisville to Mr. John O' Fal- 
lon, a young nephew of General Clark, in which he said: 

''Your uncle George is with us and in high spirits, and 
the wound healed up. I have staid with him every night 
since he has been in town, that is about five weeks. I 
never knew a man in my life to stand it so well as he, and 
the day it was taken off he sent for the drummer and fifer 
to come and play. Floyd then took the hint and had all 
the men placed around the house with two drums and two 
fifes, and played for about two hours, and his leg was 
taken off in the meantime. In the evening they returned 
and played for about an hour, and then ten at night four 
elegant violins, two drums and two fifes marched around 
the house for about an hour, playing elegant marches.'' 

Digitized by 



But General Clark's elated spirits were probably assumed; 
certainly they were of short duration. His paralysis re- 
mained and never after left him. About this there can 
be no question. It was even established in a court, by the 
testimony of many witnesses, as will be shown later on. 
He was now without money or resources and utterly help- 


It is a singular fact that two swords were presented to 
George Rogers Clark by the state of Virginia, and there 
have been numerous traditions upon the subject, and much 
uncertainty and conflict of statements, especially as to what 
became of the swords. Whyshould Virginia present General 
Clark with two swords, and why should there be any mystery 
or uncertainty as to what became of them? The author 
has investigated the matter as thoroughly as he could, and 
trusts he has succeeded in clearing up some of the mystery, 
and at least has been successful in finding one of the sup- 
posed lost or destroyed swords. It was in California, in 
the possession of Mrs. Rodgers,* a descendant of the 
sister of George Rogers Clark, at whose house he died. 
In this he was materially aided by William Hancock Clark, 
Esquire, of Detroit, Michigan. A picture of this sword has 
already been given at the close of Chapter XIII of this 
work, and two larger pictures of a portion of it are given 
here, for the purpose of showing the inscriptions on its 

* Mrs. Serena Livingston Rodgers, wife of Augustus F. Rodgers of the United 
States coast survey department, and grandson of Commodore Rodgers of the 
U. S. Navy. 

Digitized by 


By the State of Virginia. 

Digitized by 


(Reverse Side). 

Digitized by 



But while the discovery of this sword seems to overthrow 
some traditions and clear up some mysteries, it, at the same 
time, raises some other questions which remain to be con- 
sidered. The tradition is universal in the Clark family, 
as the author knows by direct inquiry, that at some time or 
other General Clark, feeling deeply aggrieved at what he 
considered bad treatment by Virginia, destroyed a sword 
that state had given him, but as to which sword it was, or 
when, or how destroyed, it varies and is uncertain. 

Outside of the family the matter has been related in differ- 
ent ways, but all ending in the statement that he destroyed 
a S7vord. The sketch of General Clark, in Appleton's 
American Biography, understood to have been written by 
Lyman Draper, Esquire, says, ^'he felt keenly what he 
considered the ingratitude of the republic in leaving him in 
poverty and obscurity, and when the state of Virginia sent 
him a sword he received the compliments of the committee 
in gloomy silence. Then he exclaimed, ^when Virginia 
needed a sword, I gave her one. She sends me now a toy. 
I want bread I' He thrust the sword into the ground and 
broke it with his crutch."* 

Another version is that he said, "Damn the swordl I had 
enough of that — a purse well filled would have done me 
some service." 

It will be observed that it is not definitely stated in either 
case when this occurred, or which sword was destroyed, 
although from the reference to his being in poverty, and 
breaking the sword with his crutch, it would naturally be 
inferred that it was the second sword, which was not pre- 

♦Vol. I, p. 627. 

Digitized by 



sented until 1812. The finding of the sword that is pict- 
ured here would, at first glance, seem to confirm this 
view, as it bears an inscription referring to 1779, but 
does it? 

Let us examine the subject further: Vincennes was cap- 
tured on the 25th of February, 1779, and on the 12th of 
the ensuing June the legislature of Virginia ordered that 
the governor be requested to transmit to Colonel George 
Rogers Clark, by the hands of Captain Rogers, ''an ele- 
gant sword, in testimony of the merit of his services.'' 
A copy of a portion of this law will be found on page 404 
of this work, and the letter of Lieutenant-Governor John 
Page, accompanying the sword, will now be given: 

''Williamsburg, in Council, September 4, 1779. 
'^ Lieutenant'-Colonel George Rogers Clark: 

"Sir — I have the honor to inform you, that by Captain 
Rogers I have sent the sword, which was purchased by the 
governor, to be presented to you by order of the general 
assembly, as a proof of their approbation of your great and 
good conduct, and gallant behavior. I heartily wish a 
better could have been procured, but it was thought the 
best that could be purchased, and was bought of a gentle- 
man who had used it but a little, and judged it to be elegant 
and costly. I sincerely congratulate you on your successes, 
and wish you a continuation of them, and a happy return 
to your friends and country; and am, sir, with great regard, 
your most obedient servant, 

"John Page, Lieutenant-Governor." 

It will be seen from this letter that the first sword was 

not made especially for George Rogers Clark, but had 

Digitized by 



been "bought of a gentleman who had used it but a lit- 
tle. '^ It was, therefore, a second-hand sword and, although 
"elegant and costly," as the lieutenant-governor says, he 
took care to add, " I heartily wish a better could have been 
procured;" and no doubt Clark was not enthused with the 
idea that a second-hand sword was exactly the thing for 
Virginia to give a man who had done so much for the state. 
In all probability Virginia came to the same conclusion 
thirty-three years later, and made reparation by sending 
him a new sword, manufactured expressly for him at the 
armory of the state, with all the engraving and ornamen- 
tation suitable to the period of his great achievements, as 
contemplated in the law of 1779. It is not likely Vir- 
ginia stopped to inquire whether the second-hand sword 
had been destroyed by Clark in a fit of anger, or would 
have treasured it against him if she had known it to be 
true. Nor is it presumable that the first sword, not made 
for Clark at all, but bought from a gentleman who had 
already used it as stated, contained such engraving and 
ornamentation as is on the sword reproduced in these vol- 
umes. And, lastly, it seems most probable that the sword 
now in existence, and pictured here, is //le sword ordered 
by the act of the Virginia Legislature of 181 2, and that 
its engraving and ornamentation was made to correspond 
with the period of the y?r^/ sword, and as a substitute for it. 
That law provided that, 

"Whereas, The General Assembly of Virginia have ever 
entertained the highest respect for the unsullied integrit}^, 
the valor, the military enterprise and skill of General 
George Rogers Clark, to whom, and to his gallant regi- 
ment (aided by the justice of their cause and the favor of 

Digitized by 



heaven), the state of Virginia was indebted for the exten- 
sion of her boundaries from the Atlantic to the Mississippi; 
and, whereas, the general assembly have been informed 
that the hand of misfortune has overtaken this veteran 
chief, and that he, whose name was once a host, filling his 
friends with confidence and his foes with dismay, is now 
himself a victim of age and of disease, and a dependent on 
the bounty of his relatives: 

'*Be it therefore enacted. That the governor of this com- 
monwealth shall be and is hereby authorized and requested 
to have manufactured, at the armory of this state, a sword, 
with suitable devices engraved thereon, and to cause the 
same to be presented to General George Rogers Clark, ac- 
companied with an expression of the gratitude and friendly 
condolence of the general assembly of Virginia. 

^*And be it further enacted. That General George Rog- 
ers Clark shall be and is hereby placed on the list of pen- 
sioners, and that he shall be entitled to receive annually 
from the public treasury one-half of the full pay which he 
received as colonel of the Illinois regiment; that is, imme- 
diately after the passage of this act, the sum of four hun- 
dred dollars, and annually thereafter, on the first day of 
January of every year, the sum of four hundred dollars; 
and the auditor of public accounts is required to issue his 
warrants therefor, payable out of any money in the treas- 
ury. This act shall be in force from the passage thereof. 

^^February 20, 1812.'' 

Some further interesting details in relation to the origin 
and passage of the bill directing the presentation of the 
second sword to General Clark are found in a letter from 

Digitized by 



Hon. Charles F. Mercer, the member who introduced it, 
to a friend in Kentucky. It is particularly valuable in 
showing that the sword then ordered ^*was intended to re- 
place the sword which had been given to him by this state 
many years ago, and which, under an impression that Vir- 
ginia had treated him with injustice, he had proudly broken 
and thrown away." This additional evidence would seem 
to be decisive as to the matter in question. The following 
is the letter in full: 

'* Richmond, Virginia, February 21, 181 2. 
''yoseph H. Hawkins^ Esq.^ Lexington^ Ky.: 

^'I have it in my power to communicate to you one of 
the most interesting events which has occurred to me in 
the course of my short public life. Our legislature ad- 
journed this morning, and, in doing so, terminated the 
longest session which we have had since the foundation of 
the commonwealth. Yesterday I asked leave to bring in 
a bill, to be entitled a bill concerning General George Rog- 
ers Clark. My object was to secure to him the half pay 
of a colonel for the residue of his life, and to replace the 
sword which had been given to him by this state many 
years ago, and which, under an impression that Virginia 
had treated him with injustice, he had proudly broken and 
thrown away. Notwithstanding the nature of my request, 
the lateness of the session, the prejudices always operating 
against appropriations of money, the speed with which the 
law must be hurried through the two houses if it passed at 
all, I had the happiness to secure its passage through both 
branches of the legislature on the same day. It was en- 
rolled last night, and subscribed by our speakers to-day. I 

Digitized by 



am sure this event will give you some part of the satisfaction 
which I have enjoyed, and I therefore communicate it to you. 
I have just enclosed to Major Croghan a copy of the law for 
General Clark. It announces to him that he is entitled to 
draw from our treasury, when he pleases, the sum of four 
hundred dollars; and on the first day of January, ever 
after, a like amount. It apprises him of the high sense 
which his native state entertains of his integrity as a man, 
and his undaunted courage and consummate skill and ad- 
dress as a soldier; and it informs him that the governor of 
this commonwealth will have manufactured, at the armory 
of Virginia, a sword, with suitable devices engraved upon 
it, and, when completed, will cause it to be presented to 
him, with an expression of the condolence of the general 
assembly of Virginia for his misfortunes, and their grati- 
tude for his meritorious services. I hope what I have done 
will meet with his approbation. I should not have delayed 
it till so late a period of the session, but the calamity which 
I have before mentioned, and other business, either en- 
grossed my time for the last fortnight or incapacitated my 
mind for any exertion, until yesterday; and I could not 
but resolve to avail myself of the only opportunity I might 
ever have, of being instrumental in the accomplishment of 
so signal an act of justice. That General Clark's feelings 
might not be hurt by the failure of such an effort in his be- 
half, I implored the house to deny me leave to bring in the 
bill which I read, on the motion, unless it would agree 
afterwards to pass it. Accordingly, on every question to 
which it gave rise we had a majority, after the leave was 

Digitized by 



granted, of more than two-thirds of all the members pres- 

*'I could not forbear communicating to you what has 
interested me so much, as even to withdraw my imagina- 
tion from the grave of my poor brother. 

^'Sincerely yours, C. F. Mercer." 

This action of the Virginia assembly was communicated 
to Greneral Clark by James Barbour, governor of that state, 
in the following eloquent and appropriate letter: 

^'Council Chamber, Richmond, October 29, 1812. 

*'Sir — ^The representatives of the good people of Vir- 
ginia, convened in general assembly, duly appreciating the 
gallant achievements during the Revolutionary War of 
yourself, and the brave regiment under your command, by 
which a vast extension of her empire was effected, have 
assigned to me the pleasant duty of announcing to you the 
sentiments of exalted respect they cherish for you, and the 
gratitude they feel at the recollection of your unsullied in- 
tegrity, valor, enterprise and skill. Having learned with 
sincere regret that you have been doomed to drink the cup 
of misfortune, they have requested me to tender you their 
friendly condolence. Permit me, sir, to mingle with the 
discharge of my official duty an expression of my own 

''The history of the Revolution has always engaged my 
deepest attention. I have dwelt with rapture upon the dis- 
tinguished part you acted in that great drama, being 
always convinced that it only wanted the adventitious aid 
of numbers to make it amongst the most splendid exam- 
ples of skill and courage which any age or country has 

Digitized by 



produced. I feel a conspicuous pride at the recollection 
that the name of Clark is compatriot with my own. I, too, 
most sincerely sympathize with you in your adverse fate, 
and deeply deplore that the evening of your life, whose 
morning was so brilliant, should be clouded with misfor- 
tune. The general assembly of Virginia have placed 
among their archives a monument of their gratitude for 
your services, and, as a small tribute of respect, have di- 
rected that a sword should be made in our manufactory, 
with devices emblematic of your actions, and have also di- 
rected that four hundred dollars should be immediately 
paid, as also an annual sum to the same amount. I lament 
exceedingly that any delay should have occurred in this 
communication. You will readily believe me when I as- 
sure you it arose from the tardiness of the mechanic em- 
ployed in completing the sword. It is now finished and is 
sent herewith. I shall take pleasure in obeying your com- 
mands as to the transmission of the money to which you 
are entitled. You will have the goodness to acknowledge 
the receipt of this as soon as your convenience will per- 
mit. I am, sir, with sentiments of high respect, 

''Your obedient servant, James Barbour. 

''General George Rogers Clark, Louisville, Kentucky. 

"N. B. — Having been disappointed in the conveyance 
calculated upon, for the present the sword will be retained 
for a new opportunity, or until I receive your commands. 

* Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia, 
1S12, p. 30. 

Digitized by 



After General Clark was stricken with paralysis he was 
taken to the residence of his sister, Mrs. Croghan, in Ken- 
tucky, near Louisville, where he remained the rest of his 
life. When Mr. Barbour's letter arrived General Clark 
was too much disabled to answer it in person, and it was 
replied to by his brother-in-law, Major William Croghan, 
from ''near Louisville, Kentucky, December 15, 181 2," as 

''Sir — General George Rogers Clark, by a paralytic 
stroke he received about three years ago, being deprived of 
the use of his right side, and unable to write, requests I 
would inform Your Excellency that by the last mail he re- 
ceived your very flattering letter of the 29th of October, 
where you do him the honor of approving in the highest 
manner his conduct as an ofl5cer in the service of the state 
of Virginia during the Revolutionary War. This letter of 
yours, with the very honorable manner his name is men- 
tioned by the general assembly in their law of last session, 
have engraved on his breast sentiments of the highest re- 
spect and gratitude. Flattering, indeed, he says, it is to 
him to find that his exertions, when doing his duty, should 
meet the approbation of so respectable a body of his fel- 
low-citizens as Your Excellency and the general assem- 
bly of Virginia. The general flatters himself that a con- 
veyance will soon offer, by which the sword, voted to him 
by the general assembly, may be forwarded. Should he 
hear of any person coming from Virginia to this state, he 
says he will get them to apply for it. He is much obliged 
by your polite offer of transmitting to him the money the 
assembly voted him last session, and says he will probably 

Digitized by 



take the liberty of troubling you. The general requests 
me to make a tender to you of his thanks for your very 
polite and friendly attention to him. I am, with great re- 
spect, Your Excellency's most obedient serv^ant, 

^^W. Croghan."* 

This letter of Major Croghan shows conclusively that 
General Clark was gratified at the action of the Virginia 
legislature, and that the traditions which attribute to him 
the destruction of the sword presented at that time are not 
well founded. It is much more likely that he destroj^ed 
the first sword presented him — that is the second-handed one 
— at about the time he was living on the charity of his rela- 
tives, sick and suffering; when, after long years of fruit- 
less appeals for a settlement of his account against Virginia, 
he wrote his brother, ''that it was as just as the book we 
swear by," but, at last, gave up in despair all hope of col- 
lecting it, saying he must look somewhere else for bread. 

It is said that the second sword was presented by General 
C. F. Mercer, the gentleman who had introduced the 
measure in the Virginia legislature, and that he made the 
presentation in a graceful way with some complimentarj^ 
remarks befitting the occasion. General Clark was then old 
and decrepit, one leg gone, the other paralyzed, and all the 
energy and ambition of his younger days had departed. 
Earthly honors could be of little moment to him then, as 
he sat there in his invalid chair and listened to the polished 
Virginian's eloquent words. He took the beautiful un- 
sheathed sword, and holding it before him on his two open 

•Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia, 1813, 
p. lOI. 

Digitized by 



hands, looked at it long and earnestly. Doubtless at the 
moment his memory dwelt upon the glories of Kaskaskia 
and Vincennes, and it is not likely he either broke the 
sword or received it with insulting or bitter words. 

It is much more probable that another version of the pre- 
sentation is true, and that he simply said, in a feeble voice, 
broken by tears, ''you have made a very handsome address, 
and the sword is very handsome, too. When Virginia 
needed a sword, I gave her one. I am too old and infirm, 
as you see, to ever use a sword again, but I am glad that 
my old mother state has not entirely forgotten me, and I 
thank her for the honor and you for your kindness and 
friendly words.'' 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 




At this time, however, General Clark was in such a fee- 
ble and failing condition that the honors of the world had, 
largely, if not entirely, lost their value to him. He was 
a paralyzed, and, already, partially dead man; and in 
that helpless and hopeless condition he lingered on until 
the final end came on Friday morning, February 13, 181 8, 
when he died at the house of his sister, Mrs. Lucy Croghan, 


at Locust Grove, near Louisville, which had been his home 
since his terrible affliction. The house is still standing 
in a fair state of preservation, and a picture of it, from a 
photograph, is here given. 

The death of General Clark, although not unexpected, cast 
a gloom over the whole community, and steps were promptly 
taken at Louisville to honor his memory by general attend- 

Digitized by 



ance and suitable ceremon}^ at his funeral. The newspapers 
of the day paid glowing tributes to his merit and gave 
voice to the general grief of the public at his loss. Extracts 
from only two of these notices will be given here. The 
Western Courier of Louisville, in its first issue after his 
death, said: 

''We are called upon to record the death of another 
Revolutionary hero! 

''General George Rogers Clark, with whose name should 
ever be associated the worth of philanthropy, the virtue of 
patriotism, the adroitness and humanity of a general, is 
no more! lie expired on Friday last at his late residence 
at Locust Grove, in his sixty-sixth year. 

"Were we able to represent the hero as he really was, 
could we make known to his countrymen the dangers, the 
difficulties he underwent, as a sacrifice for the blessings we 
now enjoy, what a monument of imerring gratitude would 
raise to his memor}^! Could they in any degree be familiar 
with the scenes of heroism and generalship which charac- 
terized him on his military campaigns in the west, the 
finger of justice would point to him as second only in skill 
and value of achievement to our immortal Washington. 

"Honored at an early period in our history with the 
command of an army, destined to operate against the 
British and savage allies, then the sole occupants of these 
(now) western states, undismayed b}^ the dangers and dif- 
ficulties that frowned upon him, as he and his little band 
gallantly sallied forth, he is to be seen at one period hum- 
bling the pride of Britain, by subduing her disciplined 
armies, at another routing the fiercer savages from their 

Digitized by 



haunts, preparing the fertile regions of the west for the 
residence of a population who were proud of him as a 
countryman, and were ready to improve upon a purchase 
with which his gallantry had blessed them. 

''The legislature of his native state testified by sev- 
eral acts their high admiration for him. He was pre- 
sented by them, on two different occasions, with an ele- 
gant sword, and on the last occasion were pleased to add: 
'The legislature of Virginia have ever entertained the 
highest respect for the unsullied integritj', the valor, the 
military enterprise and skill of General George Rogers 
Clark, to whom and to his gallant regiment (aided by 
the justice of the cause and the favor of heaven) the state 
of Virginia was indebted for the extension of her bounda- 
ries from the Atlantic to the Mississippi.' But enough; 
let the historian perform his part, and we will have the 
greater cause, in consideration of his character, to boast of 
our being Americans.'' 

The Kefitucky Reporter of Februarj- 25, 1818, an- 
nounced his death as follows: 

"I low are the mightj^ fallen. 

"At the shrine of grief we must once more offer up our 
sad devotion! It becomes our painful duty to record the 
death of the father of the western countrv, the illustrious 
General George Rogers Clark. He expired at his resi- 
dence, at Locust Grove, on Friday, the 13th instant, in the 
sixtj'-sixth 3'ear of his age. 

"Could our feeble talents enable us to delineate the dis- 
tinguished acts of patriotism, of valor, and philanthropy, 

Digitized by 



that characterized the existence of this illustrious chief, 
what a spectacle would we present to the admiring world. 
While banqueting in the sunshine of wealth and political 
glory, can we be unmindful that these are the proud tro- 
phies bequeathed us by the toils and valor of this illustri- 
ous man ? Early in life he embarked in the cause of his 
country. This western country was the great theatre of 
his actions. Bold and enterprising, he was not to be dis- 
mayed by the dangers and difficulties that threatened him, 
by a force in numbers far his superior, and removed to a 
region never before trodden by a civilized American. He 
estimated the value of its favorable result; he relied on his 
skill and courage; he knew the fidelity of his little band of 
associates, and for him it was enough. With this little band 
of Spartans he is seen piercing the gloom of the seques- 
tered forests, illuminating them in quick succession with the 
splendor of his victories, and earlj^ inviting his countrj^men 
to a residence his courage and skill had purchased for 
them. The fall of Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes, etc., 
will ever remain a monument of his skill and courage. 

''The exalted standing he enjoyed in the estimation of 
the citizens of this town was realized in the grief they dis- 
played on hearing of his death, and the exertions they 
made to honor the recollection of this distinguished man." 

The court of chancer}*, which was then in session, par- 
ticipating in the general grief, adjourned; and the follow- 
ing resolutions were adopted by the bar: 

' Louisville, Friday morning, February 13, 181 8. 

'The melancholy intelligence of the death of the illustri- 
ous and ever-to-be-lamented General George Rogers Clark, 

Digitized by 



having been announced, the court of chancery immediately 
adjourned for the day; and the members of the bar, hav- 
ing convened, adopted the following resolutions: 

'Resolved, That the members of the bar will attend the 
interment of General Clark. 

'Resolved, That John Rowan, Esq., one of the mem- 
bers of the bar, be and is hereby requested to deliver a 
funeral oration at the place of interment. 

'Resolved, That the members of the bar, as a testi- 
mony of their respect for the memory of General Clark, 
will wear crape on the left arm for thirty days. 

'Resolved, That James D. Breckinridge and Frederick 
W. S. Grayson wait on Major William Croghan, com- 
municate the foregoing resolutions to him, and request his 
approbation thereof. Worden Pope, Chairman. 

'Minor Sturgus, Secretary.' 

Notwithstanding the disagreeableness of the day of his 
interment, the crowd that assembled to pay this last tribute 
to his remains was very great. It was a source of melan- 
choly gratification to those present to see mingling with the 
crowd a few of his old Revolutionary associates. 

General Clark was buried on Sunday the i8th of Februar}\ 
We learn from the papers of the day that "the Reverend 
Mr. Banks officiated in his professional capacity by offering 
up an appropriate prayer to the throne of grace, and was 
succeeded by the Honorable John Rowan, in a pathetic and 
impressive eulogy on the character of the ever-memorable 
hero. The peal of artiller}^ announced the commencement 
of the procession which was to escort the remains of this 
renowned warrior to his last abode. Minute <2runs were 


Digitized by 



fired during the ceremony, and until the mound of earth 
was raised upon that form which was once the shield of his 
country and the terror of her foes." 

It is sad to lift the veil covering General Clark's deplor- 
able condition after the paralytic stroke but the requirements 
of the truth of history make it necessary, at least to a cer- 
tain extent. After that affliction he was never again sound 
in body, nor did he entirely retain his usual vigor of mind. 
On the latter point Samuel Gwathmey, who was a member 
of the legislative council of Indiana territory, and other- 
wise prominently connected with the early history of both 
Indiana territory and Kentucky, testified that ^'he fre- 
quently saw General Clark both before and after this afflic- 
tion of paralysis, and after said affliction his mind was 
impaired and memory defective." Mrs. Clark, another 
witness in the same case, testified that she knew General 
Clark ''well and intimately, for many years before his death, 
and that, after he was stricken with paralysis, his bodily 
infirmities and afflictions had been so great, and bore so 
heavily upon his mind, and had so impaired his faculties, as 
to render him almost a child. His afflictions also rendered 
him incapable of moving about. . . . His speech also 
became much impaired, so much so that his most familiar 
f rends could scarcely and with difficulty understand him." 
Testimony of other witnesses was of like import. 

So great was the wreck of this once powerful body and 
mind that for years before his death he could not even write 
his name. It will be seen from the following paper, pur- 


porting to be his will, that it is signed ''G. R. X Clark." 


Digitized by 



It is dated November 5, 181 5, two or three years before 
his death, and about the same time Major Croghan answered 
John Barbour's letter, for General Clark, because the gen- 
eral was then unable to write himself, showing, conclusively, 
that, for many years before his death, he was in a decrepit 
and helpless condition. 


On the 15th of November, 181 5, a paper was drawn up 
which was intended to bequeath a part of the propert}^ of 
George Rogers Clark to certain of his relatives. As this 
document was afterwards considered and its validity' deter- 
mined by the court of chancer}^ it is copied here in full: 

^'I, George Rogers Clark, of Jefferson county, of the 
state of Kentucky, being of sound mind, do constitute and 
make this my last will and testament. 

''Item. I do by these presents give and bequeath unto 
my friend William Croghan, Senior, three thousand six 
hundred acres of land situate, lying and being in the count}' 
of Bracken, on Locust creek, it being a part of a survey of 
eight thousand acres surveyed in the name of G. R. Clark 
and John Crittenden the 13th of June, 1797, on a treasury' 
warrant No. 15,147. Also three thousand nine hundred 
and twenty acres below Mayfield creek on the Mississippi, 
which I claim on an entrj' made in Lincoln office the 24th 
November, 1781, to him and his heirs and assigns forever. 

*'Item. I give and bequeath unto my brother William 
Clark all the lands and claims which I may own or be 
entitled to northwest of the Ohio river, to him and his heirs 
and assigns forever. 

Digitized by 



^4tem. I give and bequeath to my nephews, John O'Fal- 
lon and Benjamin O'Fallon, my fifteen hundred acre claim 
of land, part of warrant No. 2,292, allowed me for military 
services and entered loth of April, 1785, on Clark river, a 
branch of Tennessee, said to include a silver mine; also six 
hundred acres of land, a part of a fifteen hundred acre sur- 
vey on Cumberland river, at the mouth of Little river, in 
equal proportions to them and their heirs and assigns for- 

"Item. I give and bequeath to my brother William 
Clark, my friend Major William Croghan, Owen Gwath- 
mey, and Davis Fitzhugh, my claim to the locator's fees or 
part of an entry of one hundred and one thousand acres 
made by me in the surveyor's office of Lincoln county, 
which lands are situated between Tennessee river and the 
River Mississippi. Also all my lands and claims of every 
description not otherwise disposed of, to them and their 
heirs and assigns forever. 

^^In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
affixed my seal, this fifth day of November, 181 5. 


'^G. R. X Clark, [seal.] 


^^ Signed, sealed and acknowledged in the presence of 
Joel Carpenter, John Croghan, Wm. Christy. 
''State of Kentucky: 

''At a county court held for Jefferson county, in the state 
aforesaid, at the court-house in the city of Louisville, on the 
fourth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty, the foregoing instrument of writing purporting to be 
the last will and testament of George Rogers Clark, de- 

Digitized by 



ceased, late of said said county was produced in court and 
proved by the oath of John Croghan,a subscribing witness 
thereto, and estabHshed by the said court to be the last will 
and testament of the said George Rogers Clark and was 
ordered to be recorded and is recorded. And on the motion 
of George Woolfolk, who made oath according to law, ad- 
ministration of the estate of said Clark with his said will 
annexed was granted by said court to the said Woolfolk, 
whereupon he gave bond with George C. Gwathney and 
Samuel Gwathney, his securities, in the penalty of thirtj- 
two thousand dollars, payable to the commonwealth of 
Kentucky and with the condition thereto annexed required 
by law. Teste: Wordex Pope, Clerk. 

^'Attest: Geo. II. Webb, Clerk. 

''[A copy.] By G. C. Roberts, Deputy Clerk. 

^ ^August 10, 1894.'' 

This will was probably not written by a person learned in 
the law. It did not cover all the estate, but made specific 
bequests of certain land claims, and was silent as to his per- 
sonal property, which, in the absence of any provisions on 
the subject (if the will would stand at all), would be left to 
be divided among all his legal heirs, according to the law 
of descents of the state. It is possible, but not probable, 
that it was thought at the time that he had no other estate 
than that specifically disposed of by this document. His 
brother. General William Clark, and other of the principal 
heirs, understood it as only intending to dispose of the land 
claims specifically mentioned in it. 

That there was doubt about its validity as a will, and its 
legal effect, may be inferred from the fact that it was not 

Digitized by 



presented and proved in court until October 14, 1830, 
nearly thirteen years after General Clark's death; but, as 
there was no contest, it was recorded as a matter of course. 
In the meantime it had become known that large sums, 
which General Clark always claimed Virginia owed him, 
but which she failed to pay in his life-time when he was in 
financial as well as physical distress, might now be collected 
by the representatives of his estate. It was a similar case 
to that of the claim of Colonel Francis Vigo, referred to in 
a previous chapter. 

There was now a pressing necessity that it should be 
judicially determined how this money should be divided so 
as to do substantial justice between the legal heirs of Gen- 
eral Clark, and, to that end, in May, 1835, ^ ^^^^ ^^ 
brought in the Louisville Chancery Court, asking judgment 
of the court as to whether the paper, purporting to be the 
will, was a legal will or not, and, if found not to be that it 
be set aside, and the estate divided among the legal heirs as 
though it had never existed. It was, in the main, an 
amicable suit made necessary by the particular conditions 
which had arisen. The great number of the heirs, and 
the complications which arose by deaths, marriages, and 
interveninp" interests, kept the matter in court a great many 
years. Finally, at the November term, 185 1, the court, on 
the finding of the jury, set aside the alleged will; all of 
which is more fully set forth in the proceedings, which 
will be found in the appendix. These proceedings contain 
much valuable information as to General Clark's life and 
condition after he was stricken with paralysis, and as to 
who were his legal heirs. The author is under the im- 
pression that they have never before been published. 

Digitized by 



Burial place of George Rogers Clark — Location of the graves of the Clark 
family in Cave Hill Cemetery — Inscriptions on the grave-stones — Visit of the 
author to these graves — Reflections upon there being no monument to honor 
General Clark*s memory — Steps taken to secure one in connection with the 
great Indiana soldiers' monument at Indianapolis — Successful efforts in that 
direction — Description of the monument — Abortive movements of Ken- 
tucky and the United States to erect a monument — Opinions of eminent 
men of George Rogers Clark and his services to his country. 


^\^K- Sunday, February 15, 1818, in a private burying 
ground at Locust Grove, the country seat of his brother- 
in-law and sister, Mr. and Mrs. Croghan, situ?ted a few 
miles above Louisville. His body reposed in this beauti- 
ful but secluded spot for over half a century, when his rela- 
tives determined to remove it to the great public cemetery 
which had been established nearer the city, known as Cave 

Suitable preparations were made for the delicate and in- 
teresting event, and on the 29th of October, 1869, it was 
carried into successful execution. It was not done, how- 
ever, without some difficulty in finding the body at once, 
as the author was informed by Colonel Reuben T. Dur- 


Digitized by 



rett, of Louisville, who was present on the solemn occasion. 
The grave had neither monument nor head-stone to identify 
it. If there ever had been anything to mark the grave it 
had disappeared in the long lapse of years, and other graves 
had accumulated in the immediate locality where his was 
supposed to be. 

The fact that he had lost a leg, and had been buried in 
military clothes, made easier what otherwise might have 
been a difficult or impossible undertaking. It proved per- 
plexing enough, even with these unusual means of identifica- 
tion. A grave was opened, and, as the body was reached, 
all present were filled with respectful expectation, but it 
proved not to be the remains of George Rogers Clark. 
Grave after grave proved alike disappointing, and those 
engaged in the work were about despairing of success 
when the ninth grave was opened, and the light once more 
fell upon all that remained of the body of the conqueror of 
Kaskaskia and Vincennes. 

The military buttons and absence of the left leg above 
the knee made the identity absolutely certain, but there 
was nothing of the body left but the skeleton and hair, the 
latter being of reddish gray, which, it was thought, might 
have been partly stained b}^ the earth or decaying coffin. 
The remains were removed to the beautiful Cave Hill 
Cemetery in October, 1869, and reinterred without cere- 
mony in ground gently sloping to the north, near a prom- 
inent drive, section P, lot number 245. 

At the same time, or about the same time, the bodies of 
his brothers, General Jonathan Clark and Captain Ed- 

Digitized by 



mund Clark, and some other members of the family, were 
removed from other burj^ing grounds and placed by his side. 

While the removal of the remains of General George 
Rogers Clark to the great repository of the dead of the 
city of Louisville was proper, there is something sad in 
contemplating ;its separation from the bodies of his kindred 
at Locust Grove, where it had so long reposed, and es- 
pecially from that of his sister, at whose home he died, and 
where he lived many years before his death. The house 
is still standing as it was at that day, and a picture of it, 
from a photograph, has been given in a previous chapter. 

The author was told that the bodies of Mrs. Croghan 
and other members of the family still remain at Locust 
Grove, but whether from preference of the surviving rela- 
tives, or because the graves or the bodies could not be 
identified, he was not informed. 

These latter reasons are understood to have prevented 
the removal of the bodies of George Rogers Clark's father 
and mother from Mulberry Ilill, and they are still reposing 
on a beautiful elevation of the old homestead, from which 
the city of Louisville can be seen. 

Several other members of the Clark family are buried in 
the immediate vicinity of the grave of General George Rog- 
ers Clark in Cave Hill Cemetery, and a picture from a 
photograph of the locality is here given — also a rough dia- 
gram of the location of the graves, each grave being indi- 
cated by a number. 

The six graves are marked with head-stones of the usual 

Digitized by 





size and construction, being about two and one-half feet 

EUPHORBIA iriO" ALLEY ^Jg,^^ ^j^^y ^^^^^ ^^^ 

spectively, the following 

Grave No. i — Gener- 
al George Rogers Clark. 
Born O. S. November 
9, 1752. Died Febru- 
ary 13, 1818. 

Grave No. 2 — Cap- 

1 tain Edmund Clark. 

J Born September 25, 

1762. Died 1817. 

Grave No. 3 — General 

Jonathan Clark. Born O. 

S. August I, 1750. Died 

November 25, 181 1. 

Grave No. 4 — Sarah 
Hite, wife of Jonathan 
Clark. BornMayii,i758. 
Died October, 1818. 

Grave No. 5 — ^John Hite 
Clark. Born September 29, 1785. Died spring of 1820. 
Grave No. 6 — Isaac Clark. Born October 6, 1787. Died 
February 27, 1868. 

In the square marked 7 stands a family monument of 

General Jonathan Clark. It is of medium size, of reddish 

Scotch granite, and inscribed on the several sides as follows: 

South side — In memory of General Jonathan Clark and 

his wife Sarah Hite. 

Lot No. 245, Section P. 

No. OP 


Name of Deceased. 


Gen'l Geo. Rogers Clark. 


Capt. Edmund Clark. 


Gen'l Jonathan Clark. 


Mrs. Sarah Hite Clark. 


John Hite Clark. 


Isaac Clark. 


Gen'l Jonathan Clark's 

family monument. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



East side — ^William Clark. Born November 13, 1795. 
Died February 3, 1879. Francis T. Clark. Born July 4, 
1807. Died September 10, 1852. 

North side — Eleanor E. Temple, John H. Clark, Isaac 
Clark, Ann Pearce, William Clark, George W. Clark, 
children of Jonathan and Sarah Clark, erected by Isaac 

The west side has no inscription. 

Some distance east of General George Rogers Clark's 
grave are two graves with head-stones, marked ^ ^William 
Clark and F. T. Clark."* 

The author spent several hours, of a bright afternoon in 
the fall of 1891, in this beautiful cemetery; but, with all its 
attractions, found no spot in it so full of interest as the 
humble grave of George Rogers Clark, who rendered his 
country great service, without adequate reward while living, 
or a monument to mark his grave when dead, although it 
is in sight of the city he founded, and the territory' he 
conquered from a foreign foe. There was nothing but a 
little head-stone, costing less than one hundred dollars, to 
mark the last resting place of the man who had so largely 
contributed to the conquest of the great territory northwest 
of the Ohio. 

Recalling the generosity of Kentucky in building a monu- 
ment to Boone, the thought naturally followed as to why 
Clark had not been similarly recognized by that state; 
but reflection brought the realization that this was an ob- 

* Immediately north of these graves, the drive-way only intervening, the 
author found the grave of Lovel H. Rousseau, another general connected with 
Indiana history, he having been a member of the legislature of that state several 

Digitized by 



ligation resting quite as much on Indiana as Kentucky. 
The principal event of his military life, the capture of Vin- 
cennes, occurred on Indiana soil; he had for a time been 
one of her citizens, and her territory was composed entirely 
of country which he captured from the British. The au- 
thor as an Indianian felt that Indiana should, at least, do 
her share in honoring the memory of General George 
Rogers Clark. 

Fortunately, the state of Indiana, at that time, was en- 
gaged in the construction, at the center of its capital city, of 
one of the finest military monuments in the world, and the 
author determined to make an effort to secure, in connec- 
tion with it, the erection of a bronze statue of General 
Clark, as a representative soldier of the Revolutionary War 
period, in connection with similar statues of three other 
representative men of other important military epochs, as 
hereafter explained. 

The movement was inaugurated February 25, 1892, the 
one hundred and thirteenth anniversary of the capture of 
Fort Sackville, in an address by the author before the In- 
diana Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. 
Some extracts from this address and the proceedings which 
led to the success of the movement will be found in the 
appendix. The statue of General Clark, a picture of which 
will be seen on the opposite page, was placed on its pedes- 
tal February 25, 1895. 

The artist, J. H. Mahoney, Esq., ^^represents Clark at 
the supreme moment, when all the fire, energy and pa- 
triotism of his stern and earnest nature was aroused to ac- 
complish his purpose. 

Digitized by 


MoNi'MENn' Place, Ixdianapolls, Ixd. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



^^ Stepping rapidly forward and upward from the last 
flooded prairie that he had to cross to reach Vincennes, 
his sword drawn and grasped firmly in his right hand, his 
left arm and hand flung up with a beckoning gesture, call- 
ing and urging his followers up and on to victory; the 
head turned to left, looking in the direction of his soldiers; 
a face full of courage and determination is turned back- 
ward, and, looking downward, hurries on the forward 
movement of the figure. 

*^The face is a thin, determined aquiline visage, express- 
ing a vehement will that drags onward whatever it seizes 

*^The event and the action are well depicted: the figure 
is that of a tj^pical pioneer soldier of the colonial period, 
the uniform and accessories being simple and realistic. 
The figure itself is full of life, action and movement, and 
its attitude is suggestive of leadership." 

The statue is of standard bronze; its height is eight feet 
three inches to top of hat, and is mounted on a pedestal 
twelve feet high. 

A bronze plate, donated by the author to the state, is 
set into the face of the pedestal and bears the inscription 
in large raised letters: 


George Rogers Clark, 


OF THE Country 

Northwest of the River Ohio 

From the British, 



Digitized by 



The legislature of Kentucky many years ago provided 
for the removal of General Clark's body to the capital of 
that state, and for the erection of a monument there to his 
memory, but it was not carried into execution because, as 
understood, of the unwillingness of the family to have the 
remains removed to that place. 

With all the profuse expenditure by congress for the 
adornment of Washington City and the capitol building 
with paintings and statues of historic characters, one will 
look in vain for Clark, Bowman, Vigo, Gibault, or any 
one else, as far as can here be recalled, that would be es- 
pecially commemorative of the acquisition of the territory 
northwest of the Ohio river, which was certainly one of the 
most important events which has occurred in the history 
of the country. 

In 1888, when the attention of the country was specially 
called to the great value of the acquisition of the Northwest 
Territory by the centennial celebration at Marietta, Ohio, 
in July of that year, the senate of the United States, appar- 
ently inspired by the occasion, passed a bill, while the cele- 
bration was in progress, which provided, ^^That, in recog- 
nition of the eminent services to his country of General 
George Rogers Clark in the occupation and conquest of the 
northwestern territory during the Revolutionary War, the 
sum of twenty-five thousand dollars be, and the same is 
hereby, appropriated out of any money in the treasury not 
otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of erecting in the 
city of Louisville, in the state of Kentucky, a monument 
to his memory, to be expended under the direction and 
control of the secretary of war. And said monument shall 

Digitized by 



be located on a suitable site in said city; said site and the 
title thereto to be approved by the secretary of war.'' 

This meritorious bill went to the house and was referred 
to the committee on the library, and reported back favor- 
able on the 24th of the month, and was then referred to 
the committee of the whole. The centennial celebration 
had adjourned five days before, and the patriotic impulse 
which seemed to move congress for a time apparently sub- 
sided, as the bill, it appears, has never been heard of 
since. * 

The favorable estimate placed upon George Rogers Clark 
and his services by Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and 
other of the leading men who were contemporary with 
him, has already been stated, and a few opinions of men of 
high character of later periods will now be given, showing 
that the favorable impressions have been strengthened with 
time, and indicating that which will stand as the verdict of 

Judge Jacob Burnett, in his notes of ^^The Early Settle- 
ment of the Northwest Territory," re- 
lates that he visited General Clark in 
the latter part of December, 1779, at 
Locust Grove, Kentucky, and that at 
that time the general's health was 
much impaired, ^'but his majestic per- 
son, strong features and dignified de- 
portment gave evidence of an intelli- 
gent, resolute mind. He had the 
JACOB BURNETT. appcarance of a man born to com- 
mand and fitted by nature for his destiny. There was a 

* Vol. 19 Cong. Record, Pt. 7, 1st Sess. 50th Congress. 

Digitized by 



gravity and solemnity in his demeanor resembling that 
which so eminently distinguished 'the venerated father of 
his country.' A person familiar with the lives and charac- 
ter of the military veterans of Rome, in the days of her 
greatest power, might readily have selected this remark-- 
able man as a specimen of the model he had formed of 
them in his own mind; but he was rapidly falling a victim 
to his extreme sensibility, and to the ingratitude of his 
native state, under whose banner he had fought bravely 
and with great success. 

''The time will certainly come," adds Judge Burnett, 
''when the enlightened and magnanimous citizens of Louis- 
ville will remember the debt of gratitude they owe the 
memory of that distinguished man. He was the leader of 
the pioneers who made the first lodgment on the site now 
covered by their rich and splendid city. He was its pro- 
tector during the years of its infancy and in the period of 
its greatest danger. Yet the traveler who has read of his 
achievements, admired his character, and visited the thea- 
tre of his brilliant deeds, discovers nothing indicating the 
place where his remains are deposited, and where he can 
go and pay a tribute of respect to the memory of the de- 
parted and gallant hero." 

Colonel Reuben T. Durrett, in the "Centenary of Louis- 
ville," said of Clark: "He was a man of quick perception 
strong mind, unmeasured courage and untiring energy; 
and his capture of the British posts in the Illinois country, 
with an inadequate number of undisciplined troops, ranks 
him among the first captains of his age. None but a mili- 
tary genius of the first order could have planned and exe- 

Digitized by 



cuted the capture of Vincennes in the winter of 1779. It 
required a bold and comprehensive military mind to see 
and determine that, unless he should capture Governor 
Hamilton at Vincennes during the winter of 1779, that 
same Governor Hamilton would capture him at Kaskaskia 
so soon as the spring opened. Having reached his conclu- 
sion, neither the drowned lands of Illinois, over which he 
had to march one hundred and sixty miles from Kaskaskia 
to Vincennes, nor the disparity of numbers could swerve 
him from his purpose. He and his soldiers had to wade 
through overflowed lands breast-deep and swim rivers 
raging with icy waters until they reached their object. It 
was one of the boldest, most trying, most difficult and most 
hazardous expeditions ever undertaken and pushed to a 
successful conclusion. Louisvillians are justly proud to be 
of a cit}^ which can assign its origin to 
such a hero. . . . He was not onl}^ 
the founder of the city of Louisville, but 
his victorious arms conquered that vast 
territorj' out of which the great states of 
Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wis- 
consin, and that part of Minnesota on 
this side of the Mississippi, were made. 
REUBEN T. DURRETT. His wottdcrful insight into Indian char- 
acter won hostile tribes to the Revolutionary cause, in spite 
of the lavish gifts of the British; and, if his splendid mili- 
tary genius had had the support it deserved, his victories 
on this side of the Alleghanies would have shortened the 
War of the Revolution. . . . The time must come 
when a grateful people will recognize his glorious deeds by 
erecting to his memory a monument worthy of his fame." 

Digitized by 





John B. Dillon, the father of Indiana history, says of 
Clark's campaign that ^^with respect to 
the magnitude qf its design, the valor 
and perseverance with which it was car- 
ried on, and the momentous results 
which were produced by it, the expedi- 
tion stands without a parallel in the 
early annals of the Mississippi." 

^^His life and services," says Gov- 
ernor John Reynolds of Illinois, ^^stands 
unrivaled in the west during the Revo- 
lution, and will be handed down to 
the latest posterity with great honor 
and glory. He may with propriety 
be styled the Western Washington; 
and, as such, should have a monument 
erected in the west, to express the grati- 
tude of the people for his distinguish- 
ed and efficient services in defending 
the Mississippi valley in the Revolu- 

John Fisk, in his American Revolution, says: ^4n the 
-r^ gallery of our national heroes, George 
Rogers Clark deserves a conspicuous 
and honorable place. It was due to his 
boldness and sagacity that, when our 
commissioners at Paris, in 1782, were 
engaged in their difficult and delicate 
work of thwarting our not too friendly 
French ally, while arranging terms of 
JOHN FISK. peace with the British enemy, the forti- 


♦ Historical Magazine, 1857, Vol. i, p. 170. 

Digitized by 



fied posts on the Mississippi and the Wabash were held by 
American garrisons. Possession is said to be nine points 
in the law, and, while Spain and France were intriguing to 
keep us out of the Mississippi valley, we were in posses- 
sion of it. The military enterprise of Clark was crowned 
by the diplomacy of Jay." 

Judge Henry Pirtle, of Kentucky, says in the Ohio Valley 
Historical Series No. 3: ^^September 3, 1783, the definite 
treaty of peace and boundary between the United States 
and England was signed at Paris by Hartley for Eng- 
land, and Adams, Franklin and Jay 
for the United States. Surely all that 
had followed the campaign of Colo- 
nel Clark had been well debated and 
considered, and but for our holding 
the country under military and civil 
rule, as much a part of the United 
States as any other portion of its ter- 
ritory, we would have had our boun- 
dary, not the east bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, but the east bank of the 
Ohio, or the ridge of the Alleghanies. In contemplat- 
ing the depth of our gratitude, let us think whether New 
Orleans and St. Louis, and all the great country of Louisi- 
ana, would, in any reasonable probability, have been pur- 
chased of the first consul, and come to us through Mr. 
Jefferson, but for this campaign of Clark. No, certainly 
not. This magnificent country^, made of this and other 
purchases, now extending as one with us to the north Pa- 
cific, might to this hour have been broken from us at the 
mountain's summit or the river's shore." 


Digitized by 




In that interesting and valuable work recently issued, 
called **The Winning of the West/' Mr. Roosevelt, the 
author, says: ^^Much credit belongs to Clark's men, but 
most belongs to their leader. The boldness of his plan 
and the resolute skill with which he ^^.,.^j^^^^^^_^_.. ._^., 
followed it out, his perseverance i^fcj^l^^^. 1 

through the intense hardships of the 
midwinter march, the address with 
which he kept the French and In- 
dians neutral, and the masterful wa}- 
in which he controlled his own troops, 
together with the ability and courage 
he displayed in the actual attack, 
combined to make his feat the most 
memorable of all the deeds done 
west of the Alleghanies in the Revolutionary^ War. It was 
likewise the most important in its results, for, had he been 
defeated, we would not only have lost the Illinois, but in 
all probability Kentucky also." 

James A. Garfield, the twentieth president of the United 
States, said of General Clark, in a 
public address: *^The cession of that 
great territory northwest of the Ohio 
river, under the treaty of 1783, be- 
tween Great Britain and the United 
States, was due, mainly, to the fore- 
sight, to the courage, and the endur- 
ance of one man, who never received 
from his country any adequate recog- 
jAMEs A. GARFIELD. nition for his great services. That 
man was George Rogers Clark." 

Digitized by 



**There was no hero of the Revolution," said the lion. 

John W. Daniel, in a speech in the United States senate, 

*^who did a cleaner or better 
piece of work than George Rog- 
ers Clark; and there is none who 
can stand by him, or be men- 
tioned on the same page with 
him, who has been so much neg- 
lected." The same speaker said 
of him, in an address at the Ma- 
rietta Centennial: *'No monu- 
joHN w. DANIEL. mcut to him has been erected; 

no biography of him has as yet been written; but his merit 

is universally acknowledged by those who have studied his 


United States Senator George F. Iloar, of Massachusetts, 

said, in favorably reporting a bill 

to the United States senate for a 

monument in honor of General 

Clark, ^'It is enough to say that 

by one of the most daring and 

gallant exploits in our militar}^ 

history, where General Clark not 

only risked his life to capture a 

superior British force intrenched 

in a strong fortification, but also 

took the responsibility of raising upon the country the sup- 
plies needed for his expedition, our boundary as against 

the British possessions in this country was made the lakes 

instead of the Ohio river." 


Digitized by 




''He knew," says Collins's History of Kentucky, ''when 
to be mild and conciliating — when to be 
stern and uncompromising. The tact 
and promptitude with which he adapted 
his conduct to the exigency of the oc- 
casion has become proverbial. His ad- 
dress was wonderful — the fertility of his 
resources inexhaustible . ' ' 

Lyman C. Draper in "Appleton's 
Cyclopedia of American History," says 
"Clark was tall and commanding, brave 
and full of resources, possessing the affection and con- 
fidence of his men. All that rich domain northwest of 
the Ohio was secured to the republic, at 
the peace of 1783, in consequence of his 

John Law, an eminent Indiana jurist, 
statesman and historian, whose portrait 
is in a previous chapter, says, in his 
colonial history of Vincennes, "It was a 
conquest made under the most trying and 
adverse circumstances, and with a skill 
and bravery unsurpassed in the most glorious triumphs of 
the Revolution. I refer to the conquest of 'Post Vincennes,' 
and the capture of Hamilton and his troops on the memo- 
rable 24th of February, 1779, by General George Rogers 
Clark. To him, in my opinion, considering the results of 
that conquest, the vast addition of territory acquired by it, 
and the incalculable advantages to the people who now 
occupy it, and to the country at large, the United States, 


Digitized by 



are more indebted than to any other general of the Revo- 
lution — Washington alone excepted.'' 

Honorable Samuel Merrill, Senior, long prominently 
connected with early Indiana history, said: 
^^There are few names among the soldiers 
of the Revolution, so fertile in heroes, that, 
for meritorious and arduous services, can 
claim to be preferred to that of George 
Rogers Clark. Others were placed in more 
conspicuous situations, and they did not fail 
to perform brilliant achievements. Their "^^^^^^ merrill. 
friends, the public and history gave them full credit, and a 
grateful country remembered and repaid their services with 
offices and honors. But the theatre of General Clark's ex- 
ploits was then a distant and unknown region. Other 
exciting occurrences at the time occupied the public mind, 
and as he was never disposed to be the herald of his own 
fame, so, though he gained an empire for his country, 
without any other resources than his own great mind, his 
merits are even now but imperfectly understood and appre- 
ciated. He had sacrificed his private fortune for the public 
good, and as his services were too great to be repaid, they 
could not well be acknowledged, and therefore the remnant 
of his life was spent in poverty. In a new country, rapidly 
improving, and amid the hurry and bustle of care and busi- 
ness, when merit and service did not claim their reward, 
they were sure to be neglected. These circumstances are 
mentioned, not as an apology, but in explanation why the 
memory of General Clark has not been honored as it de- 
serves. He has long since gone where neither the praise 

Digitized by 



nor censure of this world is of any value; but the present 
generation owe it to themselves and to those who attempt 
to serve them, that well-deserved honor, however long de- 
layed, should at last be rewarded." 

Professor Burke A. Hinsdale in his history of the old 

northwest truly says that "it would 
not be easy to find in our history 
a case of an officer accomplishing 
results that were so great and far- 
reaching with so small a force. 
Clark's later life is little to his 

credit, but it should not be for- 

^ ^l^il^lB gotten that he rendered the 

American cause and civilization 
a very great service." 

Jacob P. Dunn, the author of one of the latest and best 
histories of Indiana, published in the 
American Commonwealth series, 
under the title of "Indiana, a Re- 
demption from Slavery," says it 
was "a most memorable campaign, 
by which the northwest was 
brought into the possession of the 
Americans, and 
secured to the 

Union, in the con- J^^^« ^'^^^ '"''''''• 

duct of which General Clark had fairly 
earned the title of ' the Hannibal of the 
West,' and which was afterwards be- 
joHN RANDOLPH, stowcd upou him by that eccentric gen- 
ius, John Randolph, of Roanoke." 

Digitized by 



James Parton, in his life of Thomas Jefferson, said: 
^^Virginia had in the field, at that time, two eminent heroes; 
one so known to all mankind that he need not be named; 
the other now almost fallen out of memory; one at the head 
of the armies in America, the other in the far west, twelve 
hundred miles from the capital of Virginia, with a band of one 
hundred and fifty kindred spirits, holding back by the force 
of his single will the Indians from the frontier of his native 
state. George Rogers Clark was the name of this other 
hero. He was a native of Jefferson's own county of Albe- 
marle, ^Our Colonel Clark,' he calls him, a neighbor of the 
governor; not twenty-six years old when 
Governor Henry sent him into the 
wilderness in the spring of 1778, to 
protect the border. This hero is not 
as famous as Leonidas or Hannibal only 
because he has not had such historians 
as they. But he defended the western 
homes of Virginia precisely as Hannibal 
would have done." . . . In sum- 
ming up Clark's campaign, which re- jamesparton. 
suited in the capture of Kaskaskia on the Mississippi and 
the Post of Vincennes, Parton says further: ^4t was Clark's 
audacity, fortitude and skill that won his victory, which in 
its consequences was one of the most important of the war; 
for besides relieving the whole frontier of apprehension 
from the Indians, it confirmed Virginia's claim to the 
country, and had its due weight in the final negotiations. In 
short, George Rogers Clark was lord of the west, vice Henrj^ 
Hamilton, deposed, and sent as a prisoner of war, with his 
chief officers, to the governor of Virginia." 

Digitized by 




''For this great and measureless em- 
pire that came to us in the northwest, 
we are indelited, in my judgment, to 
George Rogers Clark alone'' said the 
eloquent Senator Daniel W. Voorhees, 
of Indiana, on the floor of the United 
States senate. 

In an address delivered by U. S. Sen- 
ator David Turpie of Indiana, in Nov., 1889, he said: ^^Gen. 
George Rogers Clark ranks second only 
to Washington among the great soldiers 
and statesmen of our Revolutionary area. 
Indiana, the scene of his exploits and 
labors, may vie with the other states as 
the theatre of historic action and interest. 
During the contest for independence and 
years before its close, Clark had added to the dominion of 
the United States an area almost as large as the organized 
portion of the original thirteen colonies. Bunker Hill, 
Saratoga and Yorktown were notable victories but their 
effects were immeasurably enhanced by the capture of Kas- 
kaskia and Vincennes. The conquest of Clark touched and 
included the region of the great lakes as well as the rivers, 
and laid the foundation of the vast empire of the new and 
further west which we have since acquired. 

^*One very marked trait of his character was modesty. 
In his case the deed speaks for the man, the rest is silence. 
A silence which can hardly be broken with adequate words 
of admiration for the singular wisdom, valor and fortitude 
that achieved for us the conquest and possession of the 
northwestern territory.'' 


Digitized by 



John Sherman, a distinguished senator of the United 
States, paid a high tribute to General Clark, both on the 

floor of the senate and in an address 
before the Northwest Centennial at 
Marietta, in 1888. Here are a few 
brief and eloquent extracts: ^^He 
was a great Virginian, and among 
the illustrious names that have been 
furnished by that magnificent state 
to the history of our country there is 
no one among them all who will have 
a greater or a more poetic renown 

JOHN SHERMAN. 4.U i^ T> r-l 1 ? ? 

than George Rogers Clark. ' . . . 
^^This typical hero and founder of five great states was as 
distinguished in the neglect and injustice done him by his 
countrymen as in the brilliancy and importance of his serv- 
ice to his country. His native state was unable to pay the 
drafts drawn by their order for supplies. They were pro- 
tested and the private property of Colonel Clark was sold 
to partially pay for public supplies, and impoverished and 
ruined by his spirited achievements he lived and died a 
dependent . . . My countrj^men, there ought to be a 
feeling of gratitude to a hero like Clark that would cover 
his grave with monuments and preserve his memory in 
story and song.'' 

Scharf's History of St. Louis City and County says: ^*He 
prevented Spain and Great Britain from making a partition 
between them of all the country west of the Alleghanies. 
He rescued Kentucky from the Indians. He took Kas- 
kaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes, forcing the British frontier 

Digitized by 



back to Mackinac, Detroit and the lakes. He planted the 
first American fort on the Mississippi, founded Louisville, 
and by the sheer force of the terror his prowess, military 
genius and stern character inspired among them compelled 
the Indians of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to withdraw from 
their alliance with the English in Canada. In some respects 
he was the greatest general produced during the Revolu- 
tionary War, achieving the most positive results with the 
slenderest means, and always able to invent and apply new 
and original methods to novel and unexpected contingencies. 
His marches have never been excelled, either by Frederick 
the Great, Napoleon, or ^StonewalP Jackson, and no man 
ever had so much power over the Indians — a power due 
chiefly to personal presence and knowledge of Indian 
character, and one which, on these great and critical occa- 
sions, enabled him to save armies and prevent wars and 

This chapter could be enlarged with numerous similar 
quotations but it is deemed unnecessary, as the judgment of 
those most competent to determine seems to be incorporated 
in the extracts here given. 

Digitized by 




John Sanders — Major Thomas Quick — Captain Richard Brashear — Lieutenant 
Richard Harrison — Lieutenant John Gerault — Lieutenant Michael Perault — 
General Robert Todd — Captain Levi Todd— Ebenezer and John Severns — 
Edward Bulger — Captain Abram Chaplain — James Curry, Levi Teall and 
Joseph Anderson — Colonel William Whitley — John Paul — Buckner Pittman. 


It will be remembered that when George Rogers Clark 
was about to leave the Ohio river on his march across the 
wilderness to attack Kaskaskia, he happened to meet a 
party of friendly hunters familiar with that place, and em- 
ployed one of them, John Sanders by name, to act as guide. 
There were no established roads at that day, and the coun- 
try was entirely wild and unsettled; but Sanders claimed 
to know the way, and Clark, after consultation with his 
officers, employed him. All went smoothly, for a time, 
but the third day, when far out in the wilderness, poor 
Sanders became confused, then bewildered, and finally 
entirely lost. His condition was much aggravated by 
the distrust which speedily arose among Clark's men, some 
of whom boldly declared that they believed him to be a 
spy, and that he was purposely misleading them. It was 
a very serious and alarming condition for Clark's forces to 
be in, and Clark told Sanders, frankly, that he would cer- 
tainly be killed if he did not prove himself innocent by 
59 (923) 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



speedily finding the way. Sanders held up, under the 
trying circumstances, as best he could, and at last recog- 
nized some natural objects which enabled him to get in the 
proper route again. He not only proved faithful as a guide, 
but throughout the campaign; and he became so much at- 
tached to Colonel Clark that when that officer returned to 
the falls of the Ohio, and made his headquarters there, 
Sanders settled there also, and soon became, in his peculiar 
lines, quite a man of business for that day. In other times, 
and with other surroundings, with his peculiar attributes, he 
probably would have become a merchant prince, or a great 
banker. There was much originality and enterprise in his 
undertakings, and some of them were so novel as to be in- 
teresting, aside from their connection with Colonel Clark's 
military operations. At that day it was an exceedingly diffi- 
cult thing to supply the soldiers with meats, the chief reliance 
being game, and as the game grew scarcer and wilder the 
difficulty increased and became quite a serious matter. In 
this dilemma Sanders, ever fruitful of expedients, contracted 
with his old commander, Clark, and another, to establish 
a hunting agency ^'for the purpose of procuring beef (pre- 
sumably buffalo), bear meat, bear's oil and venison hams, 
and for curing them," etc. The original of this curious 
contract is in possession of Colonel Durrett, of Louisville, 
who has kindly permitted it to be copied into this work: 

"Articles of agreement entered into this i8th day of 
October, 1784, between Greneral George Rogers Clark and 
Alex. Skinnor, physician, on the one, and John Saunders 
of the other part, all of Jefferson county, in the state of 
Virginia, and county of Kentucky, witnesseth that the said 

Digitized by 


926 Sanders's curious contract with general clark. 

General G. Rogers Clark and Alexander Skinnor are to 
furnish on their part three men and one pack-horse, with 
salt and ammunition for the purpose of making a hunt, 
procuring beef, bear meat, bear's oil and venison hams, 
and curing them in a proper manner of keeping sound and 
fit for use during the winter and spring. That the said 
Sanders on his part is, as a hunter, to use every possible 
means to procure the said meats, etc., by pitching upon 
good hunting grounds and being assiduously industrious, 
and the said Saunders is to see that the meat is properly 
salted at the camp and send it from time to time to the falls 
of the Ohio. The bear's oil properly cured and the hams 
properly dried, the meat to be delivered to the said Skin- 
nor at the falls of the Ohio — to be disposed of, or put in 
bulk or dried as may be most convenient. The said Saun- 
ders, in consideration of this duly and faithfully to be per- 
formed, is to be entitled to one-third of all the meat and oil 
so to be procured, which third part shall either be sold when 
a market offers on its arrival at the falls or preserved 
with the rest, he paying his proportion of any further cur- 
ing that may be necessary when it arrives at the falls, or it 
shall be delivered to his order at the aforesaid falls. The 
said Saunders further to assist in building such boat or boats 
as are necessary for the business, and to furnish one pack- 
horse and engages not to spend his time in procuring and 
curing skins unnecessarily. But such as he may procure 
without any interruption to the other business he is to have 
clear to himself. To the just and faithful performance of 
the above from the ist of November, 1784, to the middle 
of January, 1785, if the hunting season should continue so 

Digitized by 



long. The parties aforesaid jointly and severally bind 
themselves in the penalty of one hundred pounds. In wit- 
ness whereof they have hereunto set their hands and seals 
the day and year above written. 

'*G. R. Clark. [seal.] 
*'Alex. Skinnor. [seal.] 
*'JoHN Sanders, [seal.] 
'^Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of Benjamin 
Roberts, Daniel Rhoads." 

^ ^ ^ This fac-simile of the 

(f j/^^y£^ ^i ^ ^ signature of Sanders 

\.^(rrn\ (y^tr^ujir^ ^^ ^^k^^ ^^^^ hissig. 

nature to the foregoing contract. 

Sanders executed other interesting papers, and a fac- 
simile is here given / ^N^^^ ^ 

of one he executed rj * /P ^""^Z ^ ^ a 

to the celebrated ^ /^ cX 

pioneer Daniel Boone, whose signature is on the back of 

the certificate. 

The original of this specimen of early pioneer currenc}^ 
for it was used as money, is also in possession of Colonel 
Durrett, who explains it, and Sanders's banking house, 
and system of banking, in this interesting way: 

^'A crude kind of banking was conducted in Louisville 
in early times by a man named John Sanders. In the 
spring flood of 1 780 a large flat-boat was floated to a lot on 
the northeast corner of Main and Third streets. Sanders 
made the boat fast to a tree, and when the water subsided 
it rested on dry land. Sanders then put a roof on the boat, 
and prepared it with doors and windows for a kind of 

Digitized by 


' o 


ur»^ O ^ ^ ^ <^ 


o -^ ^ ^ ^^<-: >> ^ 



Q> a" ^ f-c 
7< 1^ ~ 




O A. 


^ r^ ^ O ,;> ^ N 


Digitized by 



warehouse, which he called his 'keep.' Here he would 
receive the skins of fur-bearing animals from the pioneers, 
and issue receipts for them, which we would call certificates 
of deposit. These certificates circulated as a kind of cur- 
rency, and really did the work of modern bank notes. As 
the skins would accumulate the stock was depleted by 
traders, who readily bought them, or they were sent to the 
markets of the east or south as opportunity offered. When 
the skins for which a certificate had been issued were sold, 
the certificate was called in and paid off. The skins of the 
beavers were the favorites, and these animals were abun- 
dant in the neighborhood of the falls for many years. The 
remains of their work in enlarging some ponds and diminish- 
ing others, and in making dams across Beargrass and 
other creeks are still visible in the neighborhood of Louis- 
ville. A beaver skin was the unit of value in those early 
times, just as a silver dollar is now. A horse, a cow or any- 
thing for sale was worth so much in beaver skins, and so 
understood by everybody." 

Colonel Durrett might have added that while the skin 
of the beaver was the standard of value at that day and 
place, the skins of other fur-bearing animals of less value 
were also used for making change and other commercial 
purposes, and the respective values were thoroughly estab- 
lished by custom. 

It is not likely either that Sanders confined his dealings 
to the skins of fur-bearing animals, as the skins of other 
animals had an established value and were in considerable 
demand. In connection with these subjects it may be 
mentioned that Virginia issued bills payable in tobacco about 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



this period and they were very much better than continental 
and other paper forced on the people as money in those 
days. Some of these obligations to pay tobacco were issued 
to her soldiers and a fac-simile of one is here given. 

But fur-bearing and other skins were plentier about 
^^the Falls" in those days than tobacco, and quite as con- 
venient and more useful to the human family. As to metal 
coins there were comparatively none, and Sanders appears 
to have done the best he could, in his day and generation, 
'Ho relieve the stringency," and promote business by pro- 
viding a circulating medium of exchange. 

But Sanders's system, like some other banking systems, 
had radical defects. The security for the paper issued was 
left in 'Hhe keep" of the banker — not with some safe and 
disinterested third party. It was not always redeemable 
on presentation, and as it was based solely upon the skins 
of wild animals, presumably including ''wild cats," the 
author fears that, after all, it will have to be classed as a 
"wild-cat" institution. In this connection it may be pos- 
sible that banking on skins of wild animals originated the 
saying about "wild-cat banking." If not, what did origi- 
nate it ? 

The use of skins for currency, or paper payable in them, 
was not confined to the locality of the falls of the Ohio. 
The value of property was, more or less, estimated in those 
of wild animals in all the frontier country in early times, and 
it was not confined to fur-bearing animals. Other skins 
were also current, especially deer skins, which were largely 
used for moccasins, breeches and hunting shirts. In some 
parts of the countr}^ a deer skin was the equivalent of a 

Digitized by 



dollar, and this kind of currency was generally used in 
trades with the Indians, An agreement to pay '*ten bucks" 
meant the skins of ten male deer, of '^ten does," the skins 
of ten female deer. Notes and obligations were sometimes 
given payable in that way. Here is a specimen of one given 
by Colonel John Gibson, when he was in command of 
Fort Laurens in 1779, several years before Sanders estab- 
lished his ^^keep," or bank, at Louisville, viz.: 

^4 do certify that I am indebted to the bearer. Captain 
Johnny, seven bucks and one doe, for the use of the states, 
this 1 2th April, 1779. Signed, Samuel Sample, assistant 
quartermaster. The above is due to him for pork, for the 
use of the garrison at Fort Laurens. (Signed) John Gib- 
son, Colonel." 

This was the same Colonel John Gibson previously men- 
tioned as having been for many years secretary of Indiana 
territory, and at one time acting governor. 

^^Deer skins, well dressed and fitted for the purpose of 
making breeches," were receivable for certain taxes in 
Kentucky in John Sanders's day, as also in some other 
parts of Virginia under a law of that state passed in 1782, 
from which the language above quoted is taken. 

Another law passed the next year provided that taxes 
might be paid at certain places in '^skins of deer in the 
hair, well skinned, cleaned and trimmed, restricted to the 
seasons of red, blue and short gray, delivered at the houses 
provided for that purpose, at the said towns of Staunton, 
Winchester, Louisville, and at the stone house in the 
county of Botetourt, at the price of one shilling and eight 

Digitized by 



pence for gray skins, and two shillings per pound for red 
and blue skins." * 

In the pioneer days business was largely transacted by 
barter, and as an evidence of the enormous quantit}' of 
skins of wild animals used in commerce in the Ohio valley 
at this period, the following item from the Pittsburg 
Gazette of the 26th of August, 1786, is quoted: ''From 
the 6th of July last to the loth instant (a period of thirty- 
five days) the following peltry was bought up by one trader 
in this place, and mostly paid for in whisky and flour: 
Three thousand one hundred and seventy-three summer 
deer skins, seventy-four fall deer skins, forty-eight fawn 
skins, ninety-four bear skins, thirty-seven elk skins, eighty- 
four beaver skins, three hundred and eighty-seven rac- 
coon skins, twenty-nine fox skins, fourteen marten skins, 
fifteen wild cat skins, seventeen wolf skins, sixteen pan- 
ther skins, and sixty-seven pair of moccasins.'' 


When Major Bowman died, Captain Thomas Quick 
seems to have been promoted to be a major. He was 
originally a sergeant in Captain William Harrod's com- 
pany, and rendered some military service on the frontiers 
before and after the Illinois campaign. He was a brave, 
fine-looking Irishman, and died in Louisville, Kentucky, 
in the fall of 1803. A fac-simile of his signature will be 
found elsewhere in this volume. The name is sometimes 
printed Quirk, and is so used in an interesting account of 
a transaction between him and Captain Leonard Helm, in 

♦Hening's Statutes, Vol. ii, pp. 66, 300. 

Digitized by 



which he exchanged one hundred and sixteen thousand six 
hundred and sixty-six dollars and sixty-six and two-thirds 
cents in continental bills to Helm for fourteen hundred acres 
of land. A law suit grew out of the trade, wherein the court 
decided the continental bills worthless and set aside the 
sale '^for want of consideration," and the heirs of Helm 
recovered the land. The account referred to is in the ad- 
dress of Colonel R. T. Durrett before the Kentucky Bank- 
ers' Association in 1892, and was given as an example of 
how the paper money of the Revolution affected persons 
in Kentucky. It is copied here as illustrative of one of 
the greatest difficulties General Clark had to encounter in 
all his campaigns. It should constantly be borne in mind 
by every one desiring to comprehend the true situation of 
General Clark that the money he had to use was depre- 
ciated, and finally became entirely worthless. Colonel Dur- 
rett said: ^^As an example of how this paper money of 
the Revolution affected persons in Kentucky, the case of 
Captain Leonard Helm may be cited. Helm was the 
brave officer who, with a single private, stood with lighted 
torch over a loaded cannon at the entrance to the fort at 
Vincennes, in 1779, and defied the army of Governor 
Hamilton until he was assured that he could surrender the 
fort with honor. He owned fourteen hundred acres of 
land on Jessamine creek in the heart of the blue-grass re- 
gion. In 1 781, when paper money had declined as a thou- 
sand to one. Captain Thomas Quirk, another brave soldier, 
offered Helm thirty-five thousand pounds of it for his four- 
teen hundred acres of land. Helm, who believed that his 
country would come out right in the war, and make good 

Digitized by 



the depreciated money, accepted the offer. It was too large 
a sum to be refused. It was one hundred and sixteen thou- 
sand six hundred and sixty-six dollars and sixty-six and 
two-thirds cents. Helm died soon after the sale, and 
Quirk sued his heirs for the land. Our court of appeals 
set aside the sale, for want of consideration, and left Quirk 
with his big roll of continental bills, and Helm's children 
with the land.'' Captain Quick was allotted four thousand 
three hundred and twelve acres of land in Clark's Grant 
for his services in the Illinois campaign, being Nos. 21, 70, 
163, 204, 215, 233, 265, 284 and B 276. 



Was also originally of Captain Will- 
la^^C^ld^ iam Harrod's company, and probably 
"^ ^ from Pennsylvania. He is said to 

have married a Miss Brocus at Kaskaskia in 1782, was in 
Kentucky in 1785; then drifted south, remaining about 
Natchez for a time, and finally to southern Mississippi, 
where he died about 1822. The fac-simile of his signa- 
ture here given was taken from his receipt for three thou- 
sand two hundred and thirty-four acres of land allotted to 
him in Clark's Grant for his services, being for tracts num- 
bered 68, III, 112, 114, 134, 236, each for five hundred 
acres, and B 194 for two hundred and thirty-four acres. 


Was from Virginia, and from Caroline, the county of the 
Clarks. He was a member of the council of war held at the 
falls of the Ohio, and the report has his bold signature, a fac- 

Digitized by 



simile of which appears in Chapter XVI. He, like many 
other of Clark's men, finally followed the river south and, 
after spending some time at Natchez, is said to have finally 
located in Jefferson county, Mississippi, where he died in 
old age, leaving three sons and two daughters. He was 
allotted two thousand one hundred and fifty-six acres of 
land in Clark's Grant for his services in the Illinois cam- 
paign, being Nos. 102, 135, 139, 183 and B 133. 


Was born in London, England, February 24, 1755, his 
parents having gone there from France to escape religious 
persecution. When grown he sailed from Liverpool to 
America, with his elder brother, who died on shipboard 
with the small-pox, with which he was also attacked, but 
recovered. Remaining in business as a book-keeper in 
New York for a time, he finally drifted to Kaskaskia where 
he joined Clark's forces early in December, 1778, and con- 
tinued in service until the summer of 1 782. Was promoted 
to be a captain in 1781, and was a commissary at Fort Nel- 
son. He was a man of fair education, and speaking both 
French and Spanish was very useful to Colonel Clark in 
many ways. He, too, went to Natchez, where he became 
clerk of the court in 1794. He held many important of- 
fices afterwards in Adams and Pickering counties, Missis- 
sippi, down to 1809. He left a large family of sons and 
daughters. He was allotted two thousand one hundred 
and fifty-six acres of land in Clark's Grant, for his serv« 
ices in the Illinois campaign, being Nos. 82, 117, 175, 
189 and A 133. Charlestown, long the county seat of 

Digitized by 



Clark county, and place of residence of many prominent 
people, is located on tract No. 117. 


Lived at one time at or near Cahokia and was a lieutenant 
in Captain McCarty's company in the expedition against 
Fort Sackville. He was probably a Canadian. Moved 
to Louisville a few years later, where he died, leaving a 
widow and son. He received two thousand one hundred 
and fifty-six acres of land in Clark's Grant, for his services 
in the Illinois campaign, being Nos. 23, 78, 256, 277 and 
C 106. 


Who received one hundred and eight acres of land in 
Clark's Grant, for services in the Illinois campaigns, and 

whose signature is here re- 

^^ at, or in the neighborhood 

of, the falls of the Ohio, after the war. He is presumably 
the same Buckner Pittman who purchased five half-acre 
lots (Nos. 17, 18, 19 and 20), at the original sale of lots 
in Louisville. They were situated somewhere between 
Jefferson and Main and First and Twelfth streets, and cost 
£6 5s. per lot.* He was also the purchaser of another lot 
at the same time. 


Were all soldiers in the Illinois campaign, and were al- 
lotted land in Clark's Grant for their services. They were 

♦ Centenary of Louisville. 

Digitized by 



SO much pleased with the country about Kaskaskia that 
they settled in that vicinity and remained there the rest of 
their lives. They are all mentioned in the following ac- 
count given by Governor Reynolds of a thrilling event 
which occurred in that neighborhood: 

^4t was in this settlement, in the early part of the spring 
of 1788, that a most singular battle and siege occurred. 
David Pagan, one of Clark's men, had made a house two 
miles from Kaskaskia, on the east side of the river, and 
had finished it in a strong and substantial manner, so as to 
withstand an Indian attack. Levi Teel and James Curry, 
also two of Clark's soldiers, had been out hunting on the 
east side of the river and had encamped in this house for 
the night. The door of the house had three bars across it 
to secure it against Indian assault, and in the door was s 
hole cut for the cat to go in and out. Towards day Curry- 
informed Teel that there were Indians about the house, and 
that they must fix up their guns for defense. Teel was 
rather inclined to open the door and give up as prisoners, 
while Curry would not listen to it at all. Teel went to the 
door to either open it or to make discoveries, and stood 
with his foot near the cat hole. The Indians outside stuck 
a spear through his foot and fastened him to the floor. The 
Indians, in their war expeditions, always carry spears with 
them. By a kind of instinct, Teel put his hand to the 
spear to draw it out of his foot, and other spears were stuck 
in his hand. They cut and mangled his hand in a shock- 
ing manner, so that he was not only nailed to the floor of 
the house, but his hands were rendered useless. 

Digitized by 



*^It was ascertained afterwards that it was the Pianke- 
shaw Indians, and there were sixteen in the band. Curry 
was an extraordinary man: brave to desperation and inured 
to broil and feats of battle until he was always cool and 
prepared. He jumped up in the loft of the house to drive 
the enemy off before Teel would open the door, and by a 
small crevice in the roof he put his gun out and shot into 
the crowed of Indians. lie shot three times with great 
rapidity, for fear Teel would open the door. It was dis- 
covered afterward from the Indians that Curry had killed 
three warriors. lie then got down to see what Teel was 
about and found him transfixed to the floor, as above 
stated. He then got up again in the loft and tumbled the 
whole roof, weight-poles and all, down on the Indians 
standing at the door with spears in their hands. It will be 
recollected that in olden times the roofs of cabins were 
made with weight-poles on the boards to keep them down. 
The pioneers used no nails as they do at this day. The 
roof, falling on the enemy, killed the chief, and the others 
ran off. Day was breaking, which assisted also to disperse 
the Indians. Curry took both guns and made Teel walk, 
although he was almost exhausted on account of the loss 
of blood. They had a hill to walk up at the start, which 
fatigued Teel, and he gave out before they reached Kas- 
kaskia, although they had only two miles to travel. Curry 
left Teel and went to Kaskaskia for help, and at last saved 
himself and comrade from death. 

'^To my own knowledge, the houses in times of Indian 
wars were fixed so the roofs could be thrown down on the 

Digitized by 



enemy, and sometimes large, round timbers were laid on 
the tops of the houses on purpose to roll off on the Indians 

''James Curry came with Clark in 1778, and was an 
active and daring soldier in the capture of Forts Gage and 
Sackville. He was large, strong and active, and was 
always foremost on the list of those who contended for the 
prizes in foot-races, leaping, wrestling, etc. He was a simi- 
lar character to the celebrated Thomas Higgins of modern 
pioneer memory. In all desperate and hazardous services 
Clark chose him first to act in these perils and dangers. 

''The citizens of Illinois of olden times were compelled 
to hunt for a support. Curry and Joseph Anderson, who 
afterwards lived and died on Nine-mile creek, Randolph 
county, were out hunting, and the Indians killed Currj^, as 
it was supposed; as he went out to hunt from their camp 
and never returned. Thus was the closing scene of one of 
the brave and patriotic heroes, the noble-hearted James 
Curry, whose services were so conspicuous in the conquest 
of Illinois. Not only a burial was denied to this gallant 
soldier, but his remains are mingled with the mother-earth, 
so that even the place of his death is not known." 

James Curry was allotted one hundred acres in letter D, 
tract No. 205, and eight acres in No. 210. 

Levi Teall, one hundred acres, "B, No. 170, and eight 
acres in No. 74." 

David Pagan, one hundred acres, part of No. 19, and 
eight acres, part of No. 196. 

Joseph Anderson, one hundred acres, "C, No. 178, and 
eight acres in No. 210.'' 

Digitized by 




Among the pioneers of the west who served under George 
Rogers Clark in the capture of the British posts northwest 
of the Ohio, and became j^ ^ y^ 

prominent in early In- ^^r^9^ J-C C/^^C^-^^.'O 

diana history, the name ^i«fliBMHBBBHMfeK>»— 
of Colonel John Paul may be mentioned. He was born in 
Germantown, Pennsylvania, November 12, 1758; was the 
son of Michael Paul and Ann Parker. They were married 
in Germantown in 1 75 1 . Michael Paul was born in Holland. 
In 1776 he went from Germantown to Red Stone, now 
Brownsville, Pennsylvania, thence to Virginia, and in 1781 
to Hardin county, Kentucky. Ann Parker, his wife, was 
born in Germantown in 1724, and died in Hardin count}', 
Kentucky, in 1 8 1 3 , aged eighty-nine years. They had seven 
children, the fourth of whom was John Paul, the subject of 
this sketch. A gentleman conversant with Colonel Paul's 
history wrote the author that *'in 1794 Colonel Paul mar- 
ried Sarah T. Grover at Danville, Kentucky. She was 
born near Baltimore, Maryland, March 21, 1775, and with 
her parents removed in 1780 to Kentucky. They had 
four children, the eldest dying quite young. Ann Parker 
Paul was born in Hardin county, Kentucky, in March, 
1779; John Peter Paul in Green county, Ohio, December 
23, 1800. Ann Parker Paul married William Hendricks, 
the second governor of Indiana and for several years 
United States senator, and died at Madison, September 12, 
1887. Sarah Grover Paul, the youngest daughter, was 
born March 21, 1802, in Green count}-, Ohio, and died at 

Digitized by 



Madison, September 14, 1877, She married Dr. Robert 
Cravens in 18 18. Dr. Cravens died at Madison, Sep- 
tember 15, 1 821; his widow married Dr. Samuel M. Goosh, 
and for her third husband Reverend Benjamin C. Steven- 
son, of the Methodist Episcopal Church. John Peter Paul 
died near Corydon, Indiana, in 1835, while engaged on 
a surveying expedition. Mrs. Paul, the mother, died in 
Madison on the 8th day of May, 1866, in the ninety-sec- 
ond year of her age. Colonel Paul was the first clerk of 
Hardin county, Kentucky; afterwards removed to Green 
county, Ohio; was the first clerk of that count}^, also a 
member, in 1802, of the constitutional convention of that 
state, and was the proprietor and laid out the now citj^ of 
Xenia, where he resided for a few years afterward. Not be- 
ing altogether satisfied with his location, he attended the sale 
of lands in Indiana territory, in 1807, and purchased the 
land upon which New Albany stands. The following 
spring visited his new purchase with a view of erecting a 
house there, but on reaching it found heavy fogs over- 
shadowing it, and being fully persuaded that the falls of 
the Ohio were in part responsible for this fact, and think- 
ing it probable that the locality would not be a very healthy 
one, sold the lands and prospected up the Ohio to where 
Madison now stands, and regarding it as the most health- 
ful locality, concluded to purchase there. In the following 
spring he attended the sale of lands at Jeffersonville, and 
purchased the land in and about where Madison now 
stands, and here he at once made his home, which has ever 
since been the home of his family and descendants. He 
was the first representative in the territorial assembly from 

Digitized by 



this part of Clark county, now Jefferson. He laid out 
and was the proprietor of Madison; was the first clerk 
and recorder of the county for several years. lie named 
the countj' in honor of one president of the United States, 
and the town after another. He was a member of the 
convention that framed the first constitution of Indiana, 
and represented Switzerland and Jefferson counties in the 
senate, and was elected its president. On the 6th day of 
June, 1830, he departed this life, leaving surviving him his 
widow, one son and two daughter, all of whom have since 
followed him to the other side. Colonel Paul was a man 
of energy, and enterprise and thrift, and successful in ac- 
cumulating a handsome competence which he left to his 
family. Of kindly disposition, he was fond of children and 
of active and energetic men. In the early days his house 
was the home of all strangers who visited Madison, and 
the success of his wife in making these feel at home was 
evidenced by their reluctance in parting with her kind hos- 
pitality and the good things she had always on hand to 
anticipate their comfort and pleasure. Hospitality in those 
days was not only a delightful virtue, but was also an ev- 
ery-day accomplishment, without which the true-hearted 
pioneer would not be the loving character which we know 
he was. In his benefactions he was always liberal and 
gave to every enterprise with a willing hand. He and his 
estimable wife were the foster parents of several children, 
whom they maintained and educated until marriage, or 
other circumstances, made them self-supporting and inde- 
pendent. His tenants, the renters of his farms, never had 
cause to complain that he was exacting or unjust when 

Digitized by 



sickness or failure of crops promised to make their rent a 
burden upon them. In stature Colonel Paul was full six 
feet, of large frame, without any surplus flesh; muscular, 
strong-nerved and tireless. Horseback was his favorite 
exercise, as it was in those early days when there were no 
roads, but bridle-paths the only means of travel and loco- 
motion. The horse and rider were fast friends, neither 
would desert the other, and the horse was always chosen 
for his speed, endurance and beauty. The horse, the dog 
and the rifle were the indispensable friends of the pioneer, 
and he was equally skilled in the use and control of each. 
He was in later life a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and so remained till his death. In business he 
was prudent and careful; in the social circle he was pleas- 
ant and popular; in the family he loved and was beloved. 
He was in everything a true pioneer, simple in his manner 
unostentatious in his intercourse with others, respectful to 
those with whom he differed, but always true to the prin- 
ciples which he entertained. He was an affectionate hus- 
band, a loving father, a kind neighbor, a safe counselor, 
a faithful public servant, and an honest man." 


Was a private in Captain Joseph Bowman's company in 
the Illinois campaign. This fact is shown by the original 
pay-roll of Captain Bowman's company at present in the 
author's possession. He is also on the roll of persons 
allotted land in Clark's Grant, for services in that campaign, 
lie was allotted one hundred and eight acres, viz.: loo in 
tract "A" 195, and 8 acres in 210. 

Digitized by 



He was an ensign in Captain William Harrod's company 
in 1780, and seems to have always been ready for service 
when needed. 

He was in Colonel John Bowman's expedition, and in 
General Clark's first expedition against the Indians in Ohio. 
He died at last in the public siervice, having been mortally 
wounded in the battle of the Blue Licks in 1782, at which 
time he seems to have been a major. 

He was one of the earliest explorers of Kentucky and 
probably went there with Hite, Bowman and others in the 
spring of 1775 or before. At all events it appears from 
Collins's Kentucky History that he was there with that 
party in June of that year. 

*'On the north side of Barren river," says that work, 
^^about a quarter of a mile above the old Vanmeter ferry, 
and three miles from Bowling Green, some beech trees are 
still standing which indicate the camping ground, in June, 
1775, of an exploring party of thirteen, from the new settle- 
ments at Harrodstown (now Harrodsburg) and Harrod's 
Station (both in now Mercer county). Of these, eight 
became prominent in the settlement and wars of central 
Kentucky, and one as a surveyor. One H. Skaggs had 
been with the ^Long Hunters' in 1770, to the southeast of 
this. These were probably the first white visitors to this, 
Warren, county — who remained as long as ten days. 

**One tree has engraven on its bark, on the north side, 
the names of the thirteen persons. The letters were hand- 
somely cut with some instrument adapted to the purpose. 
The highest name is about nine feet from the ground, the 
lowest four feet. They stand in the following order, be- 

Digitized by 



ginning with the uppermost and descending to the lowest, 
to wit: J. Newell (or Neaville), E. Bulger, I. Hite, V. 
Harman, J. Jackman, W. Buchanan, A. Bowman, J. 
Drake, N. Nail, H. Skaggs, J. Bowman, Tho. Slaughter, 
J. Todd. The date is thus given: ^1775, June Th. 13.- 
The apparent age of the marks corresponds with the date. 
About five steps south of the above-named tree, and near 
the verge of the river bank, stands a beech, marked on the 
north side with the name of ^Wm. Buchanan,' and dated 
^June 14, 1775.' On the south side of the same tree, there 
is the name of ^J. Todd,' dated ^June 17, 1775/ About 
twenty steps north of the first tree, there stands a third 
beech, with the names of I. Drake and Isaac Hite engraved, 
and each with the date ^15 June, 1775.' Above the names 
the date ^June 23, 1775.' The names and dates of this 
tree seem to be as old as any, but made with a different 
instrument from that which cut the names on the first tree, 
and they are not so well executed. These dates, from the 
13th to the 23d, prove that the party encamped at' that 
place ten days. About fifty yards up the river from the 
first-named tree, there stands a beech with a name now 
illegible, cut in the bark over the date 1779. On the same 
tree, the name of H. Lynch is carved over the date 1796. 
''Where are now these pioneers? They have ceased to 
follow the deer, the elk, the bear, the buffalo and beaver, 
which were then abundant in this region; and their children 
are hunters no more. The animals which their fathers 
pursued have become extinct. The wilderness they traversed 
now blooms with the arts and refinements of civilized life." 

Digitized by 




Robert Todd, a captain under George Rogers Clark in 
the Illinois campaign, was a native of Pennsylvania, but 
removed to Virginia when quite young, where he had rela- 
tives. From thence he went, in the spring of 1 776, to what 
is now known as Kentucky, where he continued to reside 
until his death, about the year 1820, at his residence in the 
city of I^xington. He was a participant in public affairs 
there from the time of his arrival. 

He was in McClellan's Station, at Royal Spring, where 
Georgetown, Kentucky, is now situated, when it was at- 
tacked by Indians, and was badly wounded. This was in 
December following his arrival; so he had a practical ex- 
perience in Indian warfare from the beginning. This 
experience continued to the close of the important cam- 
paign of General Anthony Wayne, in 1794, in which Ro- 
bert Todd was a distinguished brigadier-general. 

He also rendered efficient services in previous expedi- 
tions against the Indians under General Charles Scott. Of 
these important campaigns General Todd kept a diary, the 
original of which is now in the possession of the author. 
It has never been published, but will be given in whole, or 
in part, when these campaigns come to be narrated. At 
the same place will be found the fragment of an account 
written by General Todd, in 1803, of some events which 
occurred in Kentucky shortly after his arrival there in 1776, 
with a fac-simile of a portion of it, to which his signature 
is attached. 

Digitized by 
















IS no 


J: > 



Digitized by 



General Todd was distinguished in civil as well as mili- 
taty affairs. He was at one time a delegate from Ken- 
tucky county to the Virginia legislature, and also a delegate 
to at least one of the conventions called to adopt a consti- 
tution for Kentucky. He represented Fayette county in 
the first senate of that state after her admission to the 
Union, and was a circuit judge for many years. He was 
also one of the commissioners selected to divide the land 
in Clark's Grant among those who had served in the cam- 
paign against the British at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, and 
he was one of the original trustees of the town of Clarks- 
ville. He was likewise one of the commissioners who 
located the capital of Kentucky at Frankfort, and it is stated, 
as an evidence of his nice sense of honor, that when the 
vote was a tie between Frankfort and Lexington he voted 
for Frankfort, because he owned a thousand acres of land 
near I.^xington, and did not wish to seem to be governed 
by selfish considerations. 

He had six children, all of whom were respected and 
prominent in their respective localities. His daughter 
Mary married Doctor Witherspoon, and Eliza married 
General William O. Butler, of Kentucky, with whom the 
author had the pleasure of a personal acquaintance. He 
was truly one of ^^nature's noblemen," and was loved and 
esteemed by all who knew him. He was a member of con- 
gress, major-general in the Mexican War, and on the 
Democratic presidential ticket for vice-president in 1848 
with General Cass. 

The four sons of General Robert Todd were John, Da- 
vid, Levi L., and Thomas J. The first two lived and died 

Digitized by 




in Kentucky, but the other two removed to Marion county, 
Indiana, about 1834, where they became leading citizens 
and died in old age, leaving numerous respected descend- 
ants, to one of whom, Dr. Levi Luther Todd, named after 
his father, the writer is greatly indebted for much valuable 
information about the family and earl}^ historical events 
with which they were prominently and honorably con- 

The father of this Dr. Todd, who bore exactly the same 
name, was a member of the Indiana state senate in 185 1-2, 
and judge of the common pleas court of 
Marion count)^ for several years. The 
author met him in honorable rivalr}^ for 
the position of secretary of the conven- 
tion which formed the constitution of 
Indiana in 1 850-1, and can knowingly 
bear witness to his many good qualities. 
LEVI L. TODD, sR. Hig gon, Robcrt N. Todd, now deceased, 
was also a distinguished citizen and physician of Indianapo- 
lis, and represented Marion county in 
the house of representatives in 1857. 

To go back another generation to the 
children of General Robert Todd, his 
youngest son, Thomas J. Todd, was 
also a member of the Indiana legis- 
lature, representing Marion count}^ in 
the senate from 1843 to 1846; so that it 
will be seen that this distinguished family were largely 
transplanted from Kentucky to Indiana. The Todds 


Digitized by 



about Madison, Indiana, are descendants of Owen Todd, 
a brother of General Robert Todd.* 

The wife of President Lincoln, it will be remembered, 
was a granddaughter of General Todd's brother Levi. 


*^Was a lieutenant under George Rogers Clark in the ex- 
pedition which captured Kaskaskia, in 1778, and he 
returned with the detachment which took the British com- 
mander, M. Rochblave, a prisoner to Virginia. He never 
returned to Illinois, but spent the balance of his life at Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, where he filled many important positions 
of trust and confidence. General Levi Todd is best known 
in Illinois by his descendants. His daughter Hannah was 
married to Rev. Robert Stuart, a distinguished Presby- 
terian divine, and a former professor of languages in Tran- 
sylvania University. From this union sprang Hon. John 
T. Stuart, a distinguished member of the Springfield, Illi- 
nois, bar, the preceptor and afterwards the law partner of 
Abraham Lincoln. 

^'General Todd's son, Robert S., was the father of Mrs. 
Ninian W. Edwards, Mrs. Dr. William S. Wallace, Mrs. 
C. M. Smith and Mrs. Abraham Lincoln, all of whom 
have lived in this state for many years, and those of the 
number yet living still reside in Springfield. Dr. John 
Todd, brother to these, emigrated to Edwardsville in 18 17, 
and afterwards, in 1827, to Springfield. The numerous 
descendants of Dr. Todd and his sisters rank among the 

♦A portrait of Thomas J. Todd, and a further sketch of General Robert Todd 
and his Indiana descendants, will be in a subsequent volume. 

Digitized by 



best people, socially and intellectually, about the state capi- 
tal. One of them, Robert Todd Lincoln, being at the 
present time (1887) secretary of war. — ^J. H. G." * 

Lieutenant Levi Todd was allotted two thousand one 
hundred and fifty-six acres of land in Clark's Grant on ac- 
count of his services in the Illinois campaign, viz.: tracts 
29, 46, 87, 290, and ^^C" in 271. 


Who has the honor of having two counties named after 
him, one in Indiana and one in Kentucky, was not onl}- 
a gallant soldier under George Rogers Clark in the Illinois 
campaign, but he was an Indian fighter in the early pioneer 
days, ranking with Kenton and Boone; and he lost his life 
leading the famous charge of the heroic forlorn hope at the 
bloody battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813. 

Here is a fac-simile of his receipt for one hundred acres 
of the one hundred and eight acres of land allotted him in 
Clark's Grant, for his services, as a private, in the Illinois 

Eight acres of the land were in tract No. 74 and one 
hundred acres in tract No. 262. 

After the Illinois campaign was over he settled in Lincoln 
county, Kentucky, and, in 1786, built what is claimed to 

"* Reynolds's Pioneer History of Illinois, 2d edition, p. 143, foot note. 

Digitized by^ 



have been the first brick house in Kentucky. It was located 
about five miles west of Crab Orchard. It was two stories 
high, the windows being high from the ground to prevent 
the Indians from firing through, and the window-glass was 
brought from Virginia in boxes on pack-horses. The house 
was profusely ornamented for that pioneer period, and 
whisky, even then, seemed to be an important commodity 
in Kentucky, as he, it is said, exchanged a farm, near his 
residence, for the whisky consumed by the numerous work- 
men in constructing it. He was a member of the house of 
representatives from Lincoln county, in 1797. 

^ ^William Whitley," says Collins's Kentucky, ^^was one 
of the most distinguished of those early pioneers whose 
adventurous exploits have shed a coloring of romance over 
the early history of Kentucky. He was born on the 14th of 
August, 1749, in that part of Virginia then called Augusta, 
and which afterwards furnished territory for Rockbridge 
county. Unknown to early fame, he grew to manhood in 
the laborious occupation of tilling his native soil, in which 
his corporeal powers were fully developed, with but little 
mental cultivation. He possessed, however, the spirit of 
enterprise, and the love of independence. In 1775, hav- 
ing married Esther Fuller, and commenced housekeeping 
in a small way, with health and labor to season his bread, 
he said to his wife he heard a fine report of Kentucky, 
and he thought they could get their living there with less 
hard work. ^Then Billy, if I was you I would go and 
see,' was the reply. In two days he was on his way, with 
ax and plow, and gun and kettle. And she is the woman 
who afterwards collected his warriors to pursue the Indians. 

Digitized by 



^'Whitley set out for Kentucky, accompanied by his 
brother-in-law George Clark; in the wilderness they met 
with several others, who joined them. 

**We are not in possession of materials for a detailed 
narrative of Whitley s adventures after his arrival in Ken- 
tucky, and shall have to give only such desultory facts as we 
have been enabled to collect. 

'4n the year 1785, the camp of an emigrant by the name 
of McClure was assaulted in the night by Indians, near 
the head of Skagg's creek, in Lincoln county, and six whites 
killed and scalped. 

^'Mrs. McClure ran into the woods with her four chil- 
dren, and could have made her escape with three, if she 
had abandoned the fourth; this, an infant in her arms, cried 
aloud, and thereby gave the savages notice where they were. 
She heard them coming; the night, the grass, and the 
bushes, offered her concealment without the infant, but she 
was a mother, and determined to die with it; the like feel- 
ing prevented her from telling her three eldest to fly and 
hide. She /eared they would be lost if they left her side; 
she hoped they would not be killed if they remained. In 
the meantime the Indians arrived, and extinguished both 
fears and hopes in the blood of the three children. The 
youngest and the mother they made captives. She was 
taken back to camp, where there was plenty of provisions, 
and compelled to cook for her captors. In the morning 
they compelled her to mount an unbroken horse and 
accompany them on their return home. 

^'Intelligence of this sad catastrophe being conveyed to 
Whitley's Station, he was not at home. A messenger. 

Digitized by 



however, was dispatched after him by Mrs. Whitley, who 
at the same time sent others to warn and collect his com- 
pany. On his return he found twent}^-one men collected 
to receive his orders. With these he directed his course to 
the war-path, intending to intercept the Indians return- 
ing home. Fortunately, they had stopped to divide their 
plunder; and Whitley succeeded in gaining the path in 
advance of them. He immediately saw that they had not 
passed and prepared for their arrival. His men, being con- 
cealed in a favorable position, had not waited long before 
the enemy appeared, dressed in their spoils. As they ap- 
proached, they were met by a deadly fire from the con- 
cealed whites, which killed two, wounded two others and 
dispersed the rest. Mrs. McClure, her child and a negro 
woman were rescued, and the six scalps taken by the In- 
dians at the camp recovered. 

^'Ten days after this event, a Mr. Moore, and his party, 
also emigrants, were defeated two or three miles from 
Raccoon creek, on the same road. In this attack, the In- 
dians killed nine persons and scattered the rest. Upon 
the receipt of the news. Captain Whitley raised thirty men, 
and under similar impression as before, that they would 
return home, marched to intercept them. On the sixth 
day, in a cane-brake, he met the enemy, with whom he 
found himself face to face, before he received any intima- 
tion of their proximity. He instantly ordered ten of his 
men to the right, as many to the left, and the others to dis- 
mount on the spot with him. The Indians, twenty in 
number, were mounted on good horses, and well dressed 

Digitized by 



in the plundered clothes. Being in the usual Indian file, 
and still pressing from the rear when the front made a halt, 
they were brought into full view; but they no sooner dis- 
covered the whites than they sprang from their horses and 
took to their heels. In the pursuit, three Indians were 
killed; eight scalps retaken; and twenty-eight horses, fifty 
pounds in cash, and a quantity of clothes and household 
furniture captured. Captain Whitley accompanied Bow- 
man and Clark in their respective expeditions against the 

'4n the years 1792, 1793 and 1794 the southern Indians 
gave great annoyance to the inhabitants of the southern and 
southeastern portions of the state. Their hostile incursions 
were principally directed against the frontiers of Lincoln 
coimty, where they made frequent inroads upon what were 
called the outside settlements, in the neighborhood of Crab 
Orchard, and Logan's and McKinney's Stations. Their 
depredations became, at length, so frequent, that Colonel 
Whitley determined to take vengeance and deprived them 
of the means of future annoyance; and, with this view, 
conceived the project of conducting an expedition against 
their towns on the south side of the Tennessee river. 

^4n the summer of 1794 he wrote to Major Orr, of Ten- 
nessee, informing him of his design, and inviting the major 
to join him with as large a force as he could raise. Major 
Orr promptly complied; and the two corps, which rendez- 
voused at Nashville, numbered between five and seven 
hundred men. The expedition is known in history as the 
'Nickajack Expedition,' that being the name of the princi- 
pal town against which its operations were directed. The 

Digitized by 



march was conducted with such secrecy and dispatch that 
the enemy were taken completely by surprise. In the 
battle which ensued, they were defeated with great slaughter, 
their towns burned and crops destroyed. This was the last 
hostile expedition in which Whitley was engaged during 
the war. 

^^Very soon after the general peace, he went to some of 
the southern Indian towns to reclaim some negroes, that 
had been taken in the contest, when he was put under 
more apprehension than he had been at any time during 
the war. A half-breed, by the name of Jack Taylor, who 
spoke English, and acted as interpreter, if he did not intend 
to procure Whitley's death, at least determined to intimidate 
him. The Indians being assembled, as soon as Whitley 
had declared the purpose of his visit, Taylor told him he 
could not get the negroes; and taking a bell that was at 
hand, tied it to his waist, then, seizing and rattling a drum, 
raised the war-whoop. Whitley afterwards said, when 
telling the story, 'I thought the times were squally; I looked 
at Otter Lifter; he had told me I should not be killed — his 
countenance remained unchanged. I thought him a man 
of honor, and kept my own.' At this time the Indians 
gathered about him armed, but fired their guns in the air, 
to his great relief. Whitley finally succeeded in regaining 
his negroes and returned home. Some time after the affair 
of the negroes, he again visited the Cherokees and was 
everywhere received in the most friendly manner. 

'4n the year 1813, being then in the sixty-fifth year of 
his age, he volunteered with the Kentucky militia, under 

Digitized by 



Governor Shelby, and fell in the decisive and victorious 
battle of the Thames on the 5th of October. 

'^Colonel Whitley was a man above the ordinar}^ size, of 
great muscular power and capable of enduring great fatigue 
and privation. I lis courage as a soldier was unquestion- 
able, having been foremost in seventeen battles with the 
Indians, and one with a more civilized foe. In the battle 
of the Thames he fell at the first fire. On the night before 
the battle he occupied the same tent with his old neighbor 
and friend — to whom he told his presentiment that he would 
be killed in the coming engagement, and urged him, but 
in vain, to have his scalp taken back to his wife, Esther, in 
Kentucky. The Forlorn Hope spoken of above was com- 
posed of twenty men. The command was given by Colonel 
Johnson to his old friend Colonel William Whitley, who 
thus addressed his Spartan band: 'Boys, we have been 
selected to second our colonel in the charge; act well your 
part; recollect the watch- word — victory or death P Fif- 
teen were killed in the charge or died of wounds." 


Was an ensign in Captain Joseph Bowman's company in 
the Illinois campaign, and was a lieutenant in Colonel John 
yp Bowman's expedition 

'^X^ ^:^^-t^- against the Indians in 
the Ohio country. He 
was also a captain at 
Fort Nelson in 1783, and an aid to General George Rogers 
Clark in the unfortunate campaign against the Wabash In- 
dians in 1786. 

Digitized by 



He often declared that Greneral Clark was so chagrined 
at the mutinous conduct of the soldiers on that campaign 
that he came near shooting himself. 

Chapline had seen some military service before the Illi- 
nois campaign, and was probably at the battle of Point 
Pleasant in 1774. 

He was prominent in affairs at Harrodstown in its early 
settlement. He was there at the temporary breaking up 
of the settlement at that place, ^'July 10, 1774, when the 
Indians fired upon a party of five of them (the settlers) at 
Fontainebleau (or Fountain Blue), a large spring three 
miles below Harrodstown (where corn had already been 
planted) . They (the Indians) instantly killed Jared Cowan 
while engaged in drying some papers in the sun. Jacob 
Sandusky and two others, not knowing but that the others 
had been killed, escaped through the woods, to the Cum- 
berland river, and thence went by canoe to New Orleans. 
The remaining men fled to Harrodstown and gave the 
alarm. Captains Harrod and Chapline and a strong part}' 
went down and buried Jared Cowan and secured his pa- 
pers, then collected up their scattered men and returned to 
Virginia by the Cumberland Gap."* 

He was one of the original board of commissioners to 
allot the land in Clark's Grant among those who served in 
the Illinois campaign. 

He settled in Mercer county, Kentucky, and was long a 
prominent and influential citizen there — representing that 
county in the house of representatives in 1807, and in the 
senate in 1808-9, and 1814 to 181 7. 

*Collins's Kentucky. 

Digitized by 



He left descendants, who, like himself, were prominent 
and respected. 

For his services in the Illinois campaign he was allotted 
as a lieutenant two thousand one hundred and fifty-six 
acres of land in Clark's Grant, Indiana, being tracts num- 
bered 145, 180, 222, 267, each for five hundred acres, and 
one hundred and fifty-six acres in tract A, No. 276. 


Ebenezer and John Severns, presumably brothers, were 
both soldiers in the Illinois campaign, and were allotted 
lands for their services. They probably came to the Ken- 
tucky country as early as 1773, and were consequently 
among the earliest emigrants. They came with Bullitt, 
Hite, Harrod and others, surveyors, and their assistants, 
and were engaged in that kind of work in the summer of 
that year, and for several years afterwards. 

*4n the fall of 1775 David Williams conducted Nathan- 
iel Randolph, Peter Higgins and Robert Shanklin from 
Harrodsburg to the country between Hinkston and Stoner. 
In the summer previous, he was on the Middle Fork, or 
Gist's (since known as Stoner's) creek, with Thomas Gist, 
James Douglass (the surveyor), James Harrod, Sigismund 
Stratton, Daniel Hollenback, John Severns, Ebenezer Sev- 
erns, Wabash, and others. These were engaged in 

surveying." * 

*^I775. This historic year," says the author of Falls 
Cities, ^^so rife with important events at the east, prelud- 
ing the war for American independence, was comparatively 

♦Collins's Kentucky, Vol. 2, p. 326. 

Digitized by 



quiet in the valley of the Ohio. In this region the daunt- 
less surveyors were still pushing their way through the 
tangled wildwood, leading the van of empire. Many of 
their movements, and perhaps of their surveys, remain un- 
known to this day; but, from depositions taken long after- 
wards, one may learn of a party at work in the middle of 
December on Harrod's creek, consisting of Abraham and 
Isaac Hite, Moses Thompson, Joseph Bowman, Nathaniel 
Randolph, Peter Casey and Ebenezer Severns, who were 

Their headquarters seems to have been at or about Har- 
rodsburg for some time before the Illinois campaign. 

The subsequent history of the Severns the writer has not 
been able to learn. 

Ebenezer Severns was alloted for his services in the Illi- 
nois campaign one hundred acres of land in Clark's Grant 
in D No. 174 and eight acres in No. 74, and John Sev- 
erns one hundred acres in No. 95 and eight acres in 196. 


Was allotted two thousand one hundred and fifty-six acres 
of land in Clark's Grant for his services as a * 'cornet'' in 
the Illinois regiment, a cavalry office now but rarely, if 
ever, used. 

He was of a distinguished Virginia family, tracing their 
ancestry back to Bristol, England. He was the oldest son 
of Reverend Charles Mynn Thruston and Mary Buckner, 
daughter of Colonel Samuel Buckner, all of Gloucester 
county, Virginia. His brother, Judge Buckner Thruston, 
was at one time United States senator from Kentucky, 

Digitized by 



and his brother, Charles Mynn Thruston, Junior, was 
the second husband of Frances, General George Rogers 
Clark's youngest sister. 

Rev. Charles M. Thruston, Senior, removed to Frederick 
county, Virginia, and settled near Winchester. His second 
wife was a Miss Alexander, by whom he had several children. 

This Charles Mynn Thruston, Senior, and John Mc- 
Donald, Edmund Taylor, John Smith, Charles Smith, 
John Hite and Isaac Hite were members of the first jus- 
tice's court of Frederick county, Virginia, that convened 
after the colony had thrown off British rule. It organized 
at Winchester under ''the Honorable the Convention of 
the Commonwealth of Virginia," August 6, 1776, and, 
all the above being present (except Charles Smith), pro- 
ceeded to take the oath of allegiance to the new govern- 
ment. Charles Smith was absent on account of illness, 
and at the meeting one month later a certificate of his 
death was filed. ''Isaac Hite and Charles Mynn Thruston 
administered the oath to John I lite, who took and sub- 
scribed the same, and then the said John Hite administered 
the said oath to all the aforesaid members." * Norris's 
"History of the Shenandoah Valley" (page 136), from 
which these court proceedings are quoted, after giving the 
names of the additional and minor court officers, says : 
"These are the old patriots who stepped up in those trying 
times and showed their colors." The justices in those 

* Isaac and John Hite were sons of Jost Hite, who settled the first colony in 
tlie country west of the Blue Ridge mountains. Charles Smith was an officer 
witli Washington at Great Meadows, and married the daughter of John Hite, 
and their daughter married Philip Eastin, a lieutenant in the War of the Revolu- 
tion, who was the grandfather of the author of this work. 

Digitized by 



days were the important and controlling officers of a coun- 
ty, and these gentlemen had up to this time been members 
of the court under the '^ Sovereign Lord, George III." 
Under the new order of things Lord Fairfax, president of 
the court, refused to take the oath, as did William Booth; 
while Warner Washington, Jr., after he '^did swear in, 
did not chuse to act." Isaac Zane appeared at the Sep- 
tember meeting and took the oath, but Thomas Bry^an 
Martin* ''never did swear in to the said commission," ac- 
cording to the ancient records of the court. 

Cornet John Thruston was bom August i8, 1761, and 
soon after the campaign against the British posts ended 
settled on a beautiful tract of land on Beargrass creek, a 
few miles from Louisville, Kentucky, containing a thousand 
acres, where he continued to reside until his death, Febru- 
ary' 19, 1802, his health having been much impaired by 
exposure in the campaigns against the British. He was 
highly respected a-nd was one of the judges of the court 
of common pleas at the time of his death. He married 
his cousin, Elizabeth Thruston Whiting, by whom he had 
a large family of children, as follows: 

1. Mary Buckner, born August 14, 1783; married Peter 
Jannay, of Lexington, Kentucky. 

2. Elizabeth Taylor, born February 13, 1785; married 
Worden Pope, of Louisville, Kentucky, September 11, 

•Thomas Bryan Martin and George Washington were together elected mem- 
bers of the house of burgesses from Frederick county in 1758. He was a nephew 
and heir of Lord Fairfax, and one of the executors of his vast estate. Martins- 
burg, West Virginia, is named in liis honor. 

Digitized by 



3. Thomas Whiting, born November 6, 1786; married 
Mary Dorsey Luckto, August 30, 1808. 

4. Sarah, born November 8, 1788; died early. 

5. Catherine, born September 17, 1790; married Saul 
N. Luckto. 

6. George Mynn, born February 26, 1793; married 
Eliza Lydnor Cosby, oldest child of Judge Fortunatus 
Cosby, of Louisville. 

7. Fanny Badella, born March 7, 1795; married, first, 
Colonel Elias Rector and, second, General Trigg. 

8. Alfred, born April 16, 1797; never married. 

9. Lucius Falkland, born July 18, 1799; never married. 

10. Algernon Sidney, born May 19, 1801; married 
Harriet Jacques, of Texas, December 19, 1846. 

These were all people of excellent standing, and their 
numerous descendants are distributed over several states, 
many of them occupying prominent positions. 

The information in this sketch as to the family of Cornet 
John Thruston is largely derived from his grandson. Dr. 
John Thruston, of Louisville, Kentucky. 


The name ^^John Doyle'' is found on the roll of persons 
who served under George Rogers Clark, but not on the 
roll of persons allotted lands for service in the Illinois cam- 
paign. There were probably two persons of the same 
name who served under him. Reynolds's Pioneer History 
of Illinois says: 

^'John Doyle was a soldier in the expedition under Colo- 
nel Clark in the year 1778, and soon after the campaign 

Digitized by 



settled in Illinois. Doyle had a family and resided in or 
near Kaskaskia. He was something of a scholar, and 
taught school. He spoke French and Indian, and was 
frequently employed as an interpreter of those languages 
into the English. He was unambitious and lived and died 
without much wealth. He was considered an honest man, 
and was always respected while alive — as he is now when 
dead — as one of the brave men who assisted Colonel Clark 
in the conquest of Illinois." * 

But it is asserted that another John Doyle served under 
Clark and lived and died in Kentucky. The name of the 
last mentioned appears to be now spelled Doyal, by his 
descendants, and the following account of him is from a 
letter written by his grandson. Judge Samuel H. Doyal, of 
Frankfort, Indiana, as follows: 

^^Your kind letter requesting a brief sketch of my grand- 
father, John Doyle, who served with Clark in the Illinois 
campaign, received, and in reply will say, that my grand- 
father joined Clark's command when a very young man. 
He was born in Albemarle count}', Virginia, September 
20, 1 760, and, after serving to the close of Clark's famous 
campaign in the west, he returned to his home near Char- 
lottesville, Virginia, re-entered the service as a private and 
served until the close of the Revolutionary War. 

^4n the spring of 1782 he enlisted as a private in that 
lU-fated expedition against the Sandusky Indians that was 
commanded by Colonel William Crawford. He shared 
the hardships of this campaign and was one of the fortunate 
ones that returned home. In 1786 he emigrated to Ken- 

* Edition of 1852, p. no. 

Digitized by 



tucky and located near Limestone, now Maj^ville, and 
soon became the friend and associate of Simon Kenton, 
whom he afterwards joined in some raids against the In- 
dians. Later, and before the power of the hostile Indians 
was broken by General Wayne, he was employed three 
years as captain of the scouts or spies, as they were called, 
to patrol the Ohio river on the Kentucky side from Mays- 
ville to the mouth of the Sciota river. This work was 
perilous and he had many thrilling adventures. 

'4n 1790 he raised a company, was chosen captain, and 
joined, with many other Kentucky troops. General Har- 
mer in his campaign against the Indians. In 1794 he 
again entered the service as captain under the leadership of 
General Charles Scott, of Kentucky, who joined General 
Wayne in his campaign against the Indians, and took part 
August 20, 1794, in the battle of Fallen Timbers. At the 
close of this service he adopted the life of a farmer and set- 
tled in what became Lewis county, Kentucky, a county 
taken off of Mason on the east. Upon the formation of 
this county he was appointed the first justice of the peace, 
and for more than twenty years he held that office, and 
presided over the council of magistrates, that met at the 
county seat at stated times and transacted the count}^ busi- 
ness. In 1 81 3 he became so incensed at General Hull's 
surrender that he again enlisted as a soldier under General 
Isaac Shelby, who joined General Harrison's army, and, 
as a private, was present and took part October 5, 18 13, 
in the battle of the Thames. This ended his services as a 
soldier. He often said to his children that he was at the 
beginning and ending of the Indian wars of the northwest. 

Digitized by 



He was a strong, vigorous man, seldom ever sick, and in 
all his soldier life was never wounded. He died near 
Vanceburg, Kentucky, in May, 1847, lacking but a few 
months of eighty-seven years of age. He often said that 
General George Rogers Clark was the ablest general that 
ever appeared in the west, and that he accomplished more 
with a small body of men than any other officer of his 
time. I heard the storj^ of the Illinois campaign from his 
own lips two years before his death. His admiration for 
Clark was unbounded." 

Fac-similes of signatures of seven persons not sketched 
who performed military service under George Rogers Clark. 


Digitized by 



I oil painting in possession of Coionel 
T. Durrett. of Louisviiie. Kentucky. 

Digitized by 





The region of the falls always a favorite place of resort — Abundance of fish and 
game — Battlefield and burying ground of some unknown race near Clarks- 
ville — Ancient stone fortifications at the mouth of Fourteen -mile creek — Other 
forts and stations — Bland Ballard's escape — Lieutenant Isaac Bowman — 
Richard Rue. 

jHE grant of lands opposite the falls of the Ohio on the 
Indiana side of the river, known in early times as the 
Illinois Grant, but in modern times more generally as Clark's 
Grant, because donated to George Rogers Clark's soldiers, 
has always been regarded as historic ground of peculiar 

That it was devoted to this patriotic purpose would, of 
itself, forever blend it with the interesting story of the ac- 
quisition by the United States of the great country known 
as the **Territory Northwest of the River Ohio" — one of 
the most important events in its history. 

Even before the advent of the first white visitors, in 
modern times, the rapids of the river and its other natural 
and attractive features, including the abundance of game, 
made it always a favorite resort of the Indians. It must 
have been so, indeed, at a period earlier than there are any 
existing records or traditions of, for some of the most re- 


Digitized by 



markable prehistoric ruins in this country are to be found 
within the boundaries of Clark's Grant. 

On the river, near the lower "line of the grant," the 
earliest white visitors found an immense burying ground of 
some unknown race. 

Dr. McMurtrie, in his Sketches of Louisville, says: 
"About the time General Clark first visited this country 
an old Indian is said to have assured him that there was a 
tradition to this effect : that there had formerly existed a 
race of Indians whose complexion was much lighter than 
that of the other natives, which caused them to be known 
by the name of the White Indians; that bloody wars had 
always been waged between the two, but that at last the 
black Indians got the better of the others in a great battle 
fought at Clarksville, wherein all the latter were assem- 
bled; that the remnant of their army took refuge in Sandy 
island, whither their successful and implacable enemies fol- 
lowed and put every individual to death. How true this 
may be I know not, but appearances are strongly in its fa- 
vor. A large field a little below Clarksville contains im- 
mense quantities of human bones, whose decomposed state 
and the regular manner in which they are scattered, as 
well as the circumstance of their being covered with an al- 
luvial deposition of earth six or seven feet deep, evidently 
prove that it was not a regular burial-place, but a field of 
battle in some former century." 

Professor William W. Borden, of the Indiana geolog- 
ical bureau, who has lived in the neighborhood all his life, 
says that "during high water large masses of the bank are 
undermined and topple into the river, exposing the skele- 
tons, which lie about two feet below the surface." 

Digitized by 



Overlooking the Ohio river just above the mouth of 
Fourteen-mile creek the first white visitors found the ruins 
of an immense stone fort, with all the requirements and 
surroundings of a fortification of the most formidable 
character. It is believed to have been the work of some 
forgotten race, as the oldest Indians in the earliest times 
knew nothing of its origin. Fourteen-mile creek is so 
called because it empties into the Ohio fourteen miles above 
the falls, and the ruins are situated upon a very high point 
overlooking the river and the country for a great distance. 
It is on tract No. 76 of Clark's Grant. A full descrip- 
tion of these interesting remains will be found in the Indiana 
Geological Survey above quoted from. Professor E. T. 
Cox, ex-state geologist, a gentleman of learning and obser- 
vation, speaks of this ruined fort as one of the most remark- 
able stone fortifications which ever came under his notice; 
and of the country generally, he says: ^^This seems to have 
been eminently fitted to the habits and wants of the mound- 
building race. Here we find some of the most interesting 
works which are left as monuments of their skill and industry. 
From the great fortified town at the mouth of Fourteen- 
mile creek to the fortifications at Wiggin's Point on Big 
creek, a distance of about thirty miles, there appears to be 
a line of antiquities that mark the dwelling places of inter- 
mediate colonies, and these, when pushed to extremes by 
an invading foe, may have sought protection in the strong- 
holds at either end of the line. 

^'At this place I have frequently found human bones 
protruding from the bank. The skeletons are enclosed by 
pieces of slate placed on edge. They are buried in a sit- 

Digitized by 



ting posture, and are covered with shells and fragments of 
pottery.'' The same gentleman says of the region of 
Clark's Grant, generally, that ^^almost every elevation of 
the low lands, or peaks of the knobs, show some evidence 
of having been occupied by a prehistoric people. . . 
The margin of the streams appears to have been the favorite 
camping ground of this wonderful race, and upon nearly 
every rise of ground in the neighborhood one found unique 
relics, illustrating their habits and modes of living." Pro- 
fessor Cox, while state geologist, made a careful survey 
and description of the region of Clark's Grant, with Pro- 
fessor Borden as assistant, and in his official report for 
1873 said, that *^at Clarksville, just below the falls of the 
Ohio river, in Clark county, there is a shell heap extending 
for a mile or more up and down the river. This locality 
must have been a favorite place of resort — an ancient Long 
Branch, where it was possible to find enjoyment and pass 
a pleasant summer catching fish at the foot of the falls, 
where they congregated at certain seasons of the year in 
such vast numbers as to become an easy prey to the bone- 
hooks and spears used for their capture by these prehistoric 

Near the upper line of Clark's Grant, and a few miles 
above the ruins at the mouth of Fourteen-mile creek, ihe 
river is very shallow at a point now called '^the Grassy 
Flats," and it was consequently an important crossing place 
for Indians between the rich hunting grounds of Indiana and 
Kentucky, and in later times was useful to them in certain 
seasons for making raids on the white settlers in Kentucky. 
To place a check upon this a station was established on the 

Digitized by 




Indiana side, known as Armstrong's Station, of which more 
will be said elsewhere. This was one of the earliest white 
settlements in Indiana other than those made by the French. 
After the white people began to settle about the falls of the 
Ohio there were many outrages perpetrated by the Indians 
within the limits of Clark's Grant, and many exciting in- 
cidents occurred there, a few of which it may be interesting 
to relate. Clark's soldiers, it will be seen, were generall}- 
involved in them. 


The name of Bland W. Ballard is not on the roll of 

persons who received land for 
services in the Illinois cam- 
paign, but he was undoubt- 
edly in service under General 
George Rogers Clark in sev- 
eral campaigns after the lat- 
ter returned to the falls of the 
Ohio and established his 
headquarters there. Ballard 
was often employed as a 
scout, or spy, and in that ca- 
pacity experienced many ex- 
citing and dangerous adven- 
tures. One of these occurred in Clark's Grant, and is 
worth relating. 

On one occasion when he was scouting on the northern 
side of the river he was captured by five Indians a few 
miles above the falls and carried back into the wilderness 


Digitized by 



some twenty miles to an Indian encampment. The In- 
dians happened to be in a frolicsome mood about the time 
of his arrival, having been lucky in securing plunder, in- 
cluding, probably, a little fire-water. 

At all events, they got to playing games, and running 
races. Finally a match was made for a foot-race between 
two old Indians, which occasioned much excitement and 
amusement. This was the day after Ballard's capture. 
The Indians were also engaged in horse racing, but the 
foot-race between the two old warriors was to be the grand 
climax of the occasion. 

Ballard, although strictly under guard, apparently joined 
in the merriment with as much zest as the rest, but he was 
secretly watching for an opportunity to escape. A chance 
opportunity soon presented itself, although a dangerous 
one. The Indians had some fine horses they had stolen 
from Kentucky, and Ballard had cast his eye on a particu- 
larly fleet-looking animal standing not far away. 

When the old warriors started on their foot-race the ex- 
citement of the Indians mounted to the highest pitch, and 
Ballard's guards, with the rest, pushed a little ahead of 
him to watch the contest and see the outcome. This was 
the opportunity he wanted, and, dangerous as it was, he 
embraced it. With a bound he reached the horse, sprang 
upon his back with the agility of a circus rider, and in a 
moment was making for the river with marvelous rapidity. 
The Indians had been so completely engrossed by the foot- 
race, and were so dazed by the boldness and audacit}^ of the 
act, that he had obtained a good start before they mounted 

Digitized by 


BLAND Ballard's escape from the Indians. 975 

— , their horses and start- 
ed in pursuit of him. 
Then, indeed, began 
a ride for life. The 
famous rides of John 
Gilpin and Tam O'- 
Shanter were small 
affairs in comparison 
to it. Well did poor 
Ballard realize his 

BLAND BALLARD^s ESCAPE. dauger. He kuew 

that recapture meant certain death, and he pushed his 
horse to the verj' utmost of its capacity. 

He had not misjudged the speed and bottom of the gal- 
lant animal, for although he was still in sight of the yelling 
savages when they started, he gradually widened the dis- 
tance between them, and finally was entirely out of sight. 
He did not know this to a certainty, however, and urged 
the horse on at its utmost speed, expecting every moment 
to hear the discharge of the guns of the pursuers, but at 
last the poor animal fell, completely exhausted. Ballard 
left the horse to its fate, and ran on towards the river, 
which was but a few miles distant. Reaching it he found, 
or rolled, a couple of logs in the water, and hastily bound 
them together with a grape vine. Mounting this impro- 
vised raft, he paddled, for dear life, towards the Kentuck}^ 
shore which he reached, at last, but almost dead from the 
strain, excitement and fatigue through which he had passed. 

Thus ended the most thrilling individual ride ever made 
across the territorj^ embraced in Clark's Grant. A ride 

Digitized by 



was made across southern Indiana on a larger scale during 
the War of the Rebellion, known as * 'Morgan's raid," 
which skirted along the northern border of Clark's Grant, as 
the author can testify, being an interested observer on that 
exciting occasion. 

In the spring of 1783, Ballard and his wife were in an 
ungarrisoned and almost unoccupied fort in Shelby count)^-, 
Kentucky, and his father and family were, at the time, 
occupying a cabin near the fort. One of the sons, who went 
out of the house in the morning with an ax to cut fire-wood, 
was suddenly shot at and killed. The door of the cabin was 
shut and fastened before the Indians could reach it, and 
Bland, who happened to be the only Indian fighter in the 
fort, hearing the shots rushed towards the cabin keeping 
himself out of view, and managed to shoot two of the party 
of Indians who were trying to get in by the front door. 
The other savages ran around the house and with the ax 
of the dead son broke in the door on the opposite side. 
Old man Ballard, who was also named Bland, his wife, 
and several children in the cabin were all ruthlessly stricken 
down by the remaining five Indians who instantly fled with 
the scalps of the victims as their trophies, but not without 
losing one more of their number by a shot from the cour- 
ageous Bland as they hastily departed. He could not, 
however, attempt to pursue them under the circumstances. 
Repairing at once to the cabin, the bodies of all the inmates 
were found to be lifeless and mutilated, except one little 
girl — a half-sister — who had been scalped and left for dead, 
but who revived and had strength enough remaining to 
crawl under the puncheon floor. But notwithstanding this 

Digitized by 



fearful ordeal she finally recovered and lived to become 
the mother of a large family of children. 

A witness to these horrid butcheries of his own kindred, 
no wonder Major Ballard became the inveterate foe of the 
Indian race. This account of the massacre of these mem- 
bers of the Ballard family was given to the author by R. 
C. Ballard Thruston, Esquire, who is a member of the 
family, and he received it from sources understood to be en- 
tirely authentic and reliable. 

Bland Ballard was engaged in many other adventures 
with the Indians, and in one, which occurred a few miles 
below the falls, he succeeded in killing three as they were 
attempting to cross to the Kentucky side in a canoe, not 
knowing that he was concealed in some willow bushes within 
shooting distance. General Clark warmly commended his 
bravery and adroit management on this occasion, besides 
rewarding him with presents, one of which is mentioned in 
the accounts of the time as "a linen shirt," from which it 
may be inferred that that article was then a scarcity and 
highly prized. He was captain of a company in the war of 
181 2, and was wounded and taken prisoner in Canada, but 
this time he was too far away from home to make another 
horse-back ride, for *'life and liberty," even if he had the 

When the author was about eighteen years old, and, no 
doubt, much fuller of political zeal than knowledge, he was 
one of a considerable number who went across the Ohio 
river, in the presidential canvass of 1840, to a big political 
barbecue at West Port, Kentucky — a kind of interstate 
**grand rally" of the Democratic party — which it was vainly 

Digitized by 



hoped might revolutionize things in favor of the Democrats, 
or, at least, prevent the Whigs from revolutionizing them. 
Thomas J. Ilenly, soon after elected to congress, and some 
other ^*big guns," were of the Indiana party, and made 
speeches, but the guns of the greatest execution and the 
largest caliber — the Krups and the Catlings, so to speak — 
were furnished by Kentucky, and were such well-known 
speakers as James Guthrie and Pilcher, a very popular and 
witty speaker, who later changed his political associations. 

At this barbecue, * 'where pigs were roasted whole and 
beef by the quarter," the big crowd was expected by steam- 
boat from Louisville, and the expectation was fully realized. 
It came, and with it some famous Kentucky pioneers, the 
most prominent being Major Bland Ballard, the hero of 
the foregoing story, who speedily became the hero of the 
barbecue also, for the crowd followed and loudly applauded 
him, and ''the boys" were as much excited as during a 
circus parade. He was old, probably eighty,* but active 
and agile for his age, and had the picturesque dress of the 
early pioneer period, including the leather hunting shirt. 

This was not the only leather hunting shirt the author 
saw worn during ''the hard cider and log cabin" campaign 
of 1840. At that time the venerable Marston G. Clark, 
cousin of George Rogers Clark, lived in southern Indiana. 
He was a tall, fine-looking man, and when dressed in his 
frontier costume, which included a becoming leather hunt- 
ing shirt with long fringes, he was a splendid specimen of 
the early pioneer. He was a great friend of Willian Henry 
Harrison and the Whigs often played him and his taking 
costume as a trump card at their political meetings in that 

* Major Bland W. Ballard died in Shelby county, Kentucky, September 5, 
1853 — aged ninety-two years. His remains are interred in the state cemetery at 

Digitized by 



region. An immense Whig barbecue was to come off near 
the falls of the Ohio, some ten or fifteen miles distant, and 
great preparations were made for the event in Clark's 
neighborhood. An enormous canoe fifty feet long was 
mounted on wheels and filled with pretty girls to wave 
^ ^Tippecanoe and Tyler too" banners, and sing that ''Lit- 
tle Van is a used-up man" and other popular campaign 
songs of the day. It was drawn by fift}'^-two oxen, making 
a line a hundred yards long. Such was the enthusiasm 
produced by this immense and unusual outfit that when it 
moved forward with Clark in command in his leather hunt- 
ing shirt, it carried with it not only all the Whigs, but 
nearly the entire population along the route as well, much 
to the disgust and discomfiture of the Democratic leaders. 


Some account of the ancestors and relatives of Isaac 
Bowman has already been given in previous chapters. The 

standing in a fair state of preservation (1895), ^^^ ^^ 
situated on Cedar creek, near Strasburg, Virginia. He 
inherited the house from his father, George Bowman. 

His brothers, Colonel Abraham Bowman, Major Joseph 
Bowman and Colonel John Bowman were among the 
earliest visitors to Kentucky. 
The latter was the first county 
lieutenant of Kentucky, and thus virtually the first governor, 
but this was, of course, before the organization of the state. 
Isaac probably went with his brothers or a little later. The 

stone house in which he was 
born, April 24, 1757, is still 

Digitized by 



Bowmans and their kinsman, Isaac Hite, were of the party 
of thirteen whose names were cut on a beech tree in 
Warren county, Kentucky, in 1775, an account of which 
has already been given.* The Bowmans and Hites had 
large property interests in what is now Mercer county, and 
elsewhere, in Kentucky, a little later on, but Isaac was not 
a party, presumably on account of not then being of age. 

Isaac Bowman was five years younger than his brother 
Joseph. Both were officers under General George Rogers 
Clark in the Illinois campaigns of 1778-9; and Joseph, who 
was second in command at the capture of Fort Sackville, 
died in the fort, and was buried in Vincennes. 

Isaac was a lieutenant and quartermaster, and was one 
of the party who returned to Virginia in the summer of 
1778, in charge of Rochblave, the captured commandant 
of Kaskaskia. He was the bearer of letters to his relatives 
in Virginia, written by his brother Joseph, giving an account 
of the expedition up to that time. These important letters 
are given in full elsewhere in this work. How long he 
remained in Virginia is not known, but that he rejoined the 
army in the Illinois, and was there in 1779, is certain. 
He was probably at the capture of Vincennes, and at the 
funeral of his brother there in August, 1779. The original 
account of the expenses of his brother's funeral, which he 
paid, is now in the possession of the author. 

In the fall of that year, he started on an expedition 
which proved verj'^ disastrous. It is thus referred to in a 
letter of John Todd, then the county lieutenant of the Illi- 
nois country, to Thomas Jefferson, governor of Virginia. 
The letter is dated June 2, 1780, and says: ^^Mr. Isaac 

*Isaac, third nephew of Isaac Hite Sr., referred to elsewhere. 

Digitized by 



Bowman, with seven or eight men and one family, set 
off from Kaskaskia the 15th November last in a batteau, 
attended by another batteau with twelve men and three or 
four families in it bound to the falls of Ohio. I judged 
it safer to send to the falls many articles belonging to the 
commonwealth, by Bowman, then to bring them myself 
by land. Bowman's batteau fell into the hands of Chick- 
saw Indians and the other arrived in March or April at the 
French Lick on Cumberland, with the account that Bow- 
man and all the men except one Riddle (Ruddle) were 
killed and taken. 

^'I enclose Your Excellency a list of such articles as be- 
longed to the state, as well as I can make out from my 
detached memorandums, my books and many necessary 
papers being also lost." 

It was long supposed, as stated in Governor Todd's letter, 
that Lieutenant Bowman was dead. It turned out, how- 
ever, that he was not killed, but captured by the Indians, 
and experienced the most thrilling adventures during his 
captivit}', and the traditions on the subject among his de- 
scendants are uniform and positive. He was at first treated 
with great severity, being wounded several times, and sub- 
jected to every torture, short of death, that the cruel savages 
could devise. 

But there came a time when there was an entire change 
in their conduct towards him, and finally a chief took a 
fancy to and adopted him and selected him for a son-in-law. 
While there is no evidence that connects Lieutenant Bow- 
man with the circumstance, it is a singular coincidence that 
when Lewis and Clark made their expedition through the 

Digitized by 



wilderness to the Pacific, in 1804, they came across an In- 
dian woman in the far west with the name ^*J. Bowman" 
tattooed on her arm.* 

Through the intervention of an Indian trader, possibly a 
Spaniard, he escaped from the Indian country, and we hear 
of him next in the island of Cuba, whither it is possible he 
had gone with his rescuer. Another account is that his 
release was secured by a trader named Turnbull, a part of 
the consideration being a keg of rum, and that he remained 
in this trader's service until he had fully recompensed him 
for his outlay; then he returned to Virginia from Cuba, 
to the great surprise and joy of his numerous relatives and 
friends. Certain it is that he reached his old home in safety 
and was a prosperous and prominent citizen there the rest 
of his life. 

lie was twice married and left a numerous family of 
children, as follows: Philip, Abraham, Catharine and Susan 
by the first wife, Elizabeth Gatewood. Joseph, John, 
Eliza, Isaac, George, Robert, Mary, Washington and Re- 
becca, by the second wife, Mary Chinn. 

In the allotment of land in Clark's Grant among those 
who had served in the Illinois campaign. Lieutenant Bow- 
man was particularly fortunate. He was allotted tracts 
Nos. I, 158, 213, 289, each for five hundred acres, and 
one hundred and fifty-six acres in No. 32, amounting in 
all to two thousand one hundred and fifty-six acres. 

Tract No. i was on the river immediately opposite 
Louisville, and in 1802 the city of Jeffersonville was laid 
off on it, and made the county seat of Clark county, which 

*Coue*s Lewis and Clark, Vol. 2, p. 777. 

Digitized by 



had been created the year before. He donated the ground 
for the town site or for a portion of it. 

John Gwathmey, who had married a relative of Bow- 
man's, was his agent in looking after these lands, in plat- 
ting Jeffersonville, selling the lots, and in various other 
matters connected therewith, now of considerable local in- 
terest from an historical standpoint. 

Gwathmey was a fluent and prolific writer and explained 
all his transactions fully in letters to Bowman, which have 
been placed at the service of the author, and will be more 
or less used in speaking of the settlement of Jeffersonville 
and the early history of Clark county in a subsequent 
volume. There is much in the letters in reference to a canal, 
then expected to be made on the Indiana side of the river, 
about a mineral spring on Bowman's land back of Jeffer- 
sonville, and other matters of interest relating to affairs in 
that locality at that early day. 

The author happens to be quite familiar with the five- 
hundred-acre tract No. 289, which was one of the tracts 
allotted Bowman. It is situated in that part of Clark's 
Grant which is in Scott county, and was known in early 
times as ^^the Burnt Cabin Tract," from the fact that a 
cabin that was built on it and occupied in the pioneer 
period was partially destroyed by fire. The place was 
then abandoned and not occupied again for a period of fifty 
years or more, and the clearing around the house became 
a dense thicket of bushes and briers, which made, with the 
ruins of the cabin, a romantic picture of desolation. 

The man who settled it must have been a '' pioneer" in- 
deed, as there was not at that time another house in the 

Digitized by 



neighborhood. It was a ruin and a dense thicket as far back 
as 1850, and is vividly recalled as then being a weird and 
desolate-looking place. As to who had ventured to occupy 
this cabin in the wilderness, or what became of them, the 
oldest, then, inhabitant of the sparsely settled neighborhood, 
knew nothing, and as now recalled, for a long time, even 
the ownership of the land was unknown. It was in this 
neglected condition in 1852, when the author ascertained 
the owners to be Michael M. Clark and wife, of Wash- 
ington City, from whom he purchased it, and their quaint 
old-fashioned deed, with its historic recitals, is recorded in 
the recorder's office of Scott countj^, in Book ^^M," pages 


Another of Bowman's tracts of some celebrity was No. 

158, on Fourteen-mile creek, on which was a salt spring 
supposed to be of great value, and which proved a source of 
considerable litigation both in the Kentucky and Indiana 
courts. There was a great scarcity of salt in early days in 
this part of the country, and it was supposed could be made 
here to advantage, but the expectations were never realized. 
Lieutenant Bowman died in the year 1826, at his home 
in Virginia, leaving behind him an honorable record as a 
man and a citizen. He has numerous respected descendants 
in various parts of the country. His eldest son, Philip, 
located in Switzerland county, Indiana, where he left a 
large family; and the venerable and respected widow of his 
son and namesake, Isaac, is still living on the old home- 
stead in Virginia. Her maiden name was Eleanor Briscoe 
Hite, so that both herself and husband were direct descend- 
ants of the celebrated Jost Hite, who founded the first col- 

Digitized by 



ony that settled the Shenandoah Valley. Notwithstanding 
her eighty-two years, her bright mind is still strong and 
vigorous, and the author who is greatly indebted to her for 
kindly assistance in his researches as to the Bowman family 
has found her to be a most capable and interesting corre- 
spondent, possessing a rare fund of valuable information 
as to early Virginia history. A like tribute is due Mrs. 
Mary D. Bowman, of Harrodsburg, Kentucky, widow of 
Professor John B. Bowman, who turned overall her hus- 
band's historic family papers for the use of the author. 


Is not on the roll of persons receiving land in Clark's Grant, 
for services in the Illinois regiment, but it is known he served 

under the general, 
probably after 
Clark's return to the 
falls, from the following certificate of Levi Todd, one of 
Clark's officers: 

^'Fayette County, July 29, 1784. 
*4 do certify that Robert Patterson ser\^ed as a sergeant. 
That James January, James McNut, George Gray, Elisha 
Bathey, Richard Rue, John Severns, Arthur Lindsay and 
Samuel McMullan, served as soldiers under me (and were 
afterwards added to Captain Helm's company) in an expe- 
dition commanded by Colonel George Rogers Clark against 
the Illinois in the year 1778, and continued in that service 
until the reduction of the different posts in that country. 
^^Given under my hand, Levi Todd. 

(y\jicJia^ ^X^UA^ 


Digitized by 




All of the above received land in Clark's Grant except 
Richard Rue. It is possible he was entitled to land and 
did not claim it, but it is more likely he was not in service 
the requisite time to be entitled to land in that grant; but 
that he served under Clark, in some of his campaigns, is 
certain, as there is not only the evidence of the above cer- 
tificate, but his name is on the roll of Clark's soldiers which 
will be found in the appendix to this volume. When a 
young man he and several others, including George Hol- 
man, who subsequently became his brother-in-law, were 
captured by the Indians on the Kentucky side, and carried 
across the river to the Indian towns on the Wabash, 
Maumee and Auglaise, where they were at first treated 

with great 
severity and 
made to run 
the gauntlet 
several times. 
This was a 
species of sav- 
age amuse- 
ment where the 
prisoner was 
forced to run 
between two 


lines of Indians, each being privileged to strike him one blow 
if he could as he ran through. They did not, however, 
strike with deadly weapons, but generally with switches or 
clubs, and they always had suitable arrangements to prevent 
the escape of the prisoner. One of the party, Hinton by 

Digitized by 



name, who had a wife and children, attempted to escape, 
from love of them as he said, but unfortunately the Indians 
recaptured him and burned him to death at the stake, Hter- 
ally roasting him alive, which awful event the other prison- 
ers were compelled to witness, being told ^'that is the way 
Indians serve run-away prisoners." Both Rue and Hol- 
man were at one time on the point of being burned at the 
stake and barely escaped that dreadful fate by some of the 
Indians relenting and interfering in their behalf. They 
were carried from village to village and finally to Detroit, 
where Rue and several of the party escaped, and had the 
good fortune to reach the falls of the Ohio twenty days 
thereafter, having been in captivity several years. Sup- 
posing Rue to be dead, administration had been begun 
on his estate, which consisted mainly of a lot in Louisville. 
Holman again came near losing his life because of the ex- 
asperation at the escape of Rue and the other prisoners, 
and he saw them burn to death Richard Hoagland, another 
white prisoner. But he managed at last to get himself 
ransomed and returned to his home after three and a half 
years of terrible captivity.* He soon joined Rue and the 
two removed to Indiana territory in 1805, and settled on 
the same section of land in what is now Wayne county, 
about two miles south of Richmond, where they remained 
the rest of their lives and were among the most prominent 
and respected citizens of that locality. Rue represented 
that county in the territorial legislature and died about 1844, 
leaving many descendants. 

*A full and very interesting account of the captivity of Rue and Holman has 
been published by Sandford C. Cox, one of Rue's descendants. 


Digitized by 




George Holman, Rue's companion in captivity, lived to 

the remarkable age of one hundred, 

not dying until 1859. He also left 

numerous descendants some of whom 

became prominently identified with 

the history of the state, particularly 

Joseph Holman, a son of George, 

and William J. Holman, a grandson. 

Joseph was a member of the conven- 
tion of 181 6, which framed the first 
constitution of Indiana, and he was the 
last of that distinguished body to die. 
The author when young frequently met 
him and derived much interesting his- 
torical information from him. Another 
son, Washington, was a member of the 
Indiana legislature from Miami count}*. 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 




• o^ffnj'f 

flpONATHAN CLARK, the oldest brother of the chil- 
^^J|3 dren of John Clark and Ann Rogers, was born in 
Albemarle county, Virginia, August i, 1750 (old style). 

He received a fair English education, 
and, in time, became a lawyer, and a 
successful man of business. He was 
the prudent, practical business man 

y p ^^ y of the elder portion of the numerous 
^ya/iraA i^t^irHJ children of John Clark, as his brother 
William was of the younger. 

When quite young he spent some time in the office of the 
clerk of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, as deputy clerk, in 
which capacity he added much to his stock of information 
about practical affairs. 

In 1772 he removed to Woodstock, in the county then 
called Dunmore, but which was afterwards changed to 
Shenandoah, and was very soon taken into public favor by 
being selected, with the celebrated Peter Muhlenberg, to 
serve as delegate from the county in an important conven- 
tion held at Richmond in the interests of the colonies. 

About this time trouble began between the patriotic citi- 
zens of Virginia, and the royal governor. Lord Dunmore, 


Digitized by 



which culminated in the latter seizing the public powder 
belonging to the colony without authority. This led to an 
uprising of the sturdy colonists to regain possession of the 
powder, by force if necessary, and young Clark marched 
towards Williamsburgh, the then capital, as lieutenant of 
an independent company of riflemen for that purpose. 

Clark's company returned home, however, without blood- 
shed, and he and Muhlenberg were again sent as dele- 
gates to the convention which met at Richmond in Decem- 
ber, 1775. 

In the spring of 1776, Clark was promoted to the cap- 
taincy of a company (commissioned March 4), which 
advanced from Woodstock to Portsmouth, and was engaged 
in several skirmishes with the adherents of the royal gov- 
ernor, Dunmore, who, in the meantime, had fled the capital 
and taken refuge on an English ship. 

Early in the following summer, Clark marched with 
Muhlenberg's regiment and other troops to Charleston, 
South Carolina, at which place they arrived on the 24th of 
June, and were at once involved in the important military 
movements then going on at that place and vicinity. He 
continued there until in August when he was ordered fur- 
ther south, and at Savannah was seized with dangerous 
illness which so prostrated him that, for a long time, he 
was unable to perform military service, and returned home 
on furlough in the autumn of that year. When about re- 
covered from this long protracted sickness in the spring of 
1777, he had the misfortune to be taken down with the 
small-pox, which again disabled him for a considerable 

Digitized by 



As soon as his health permitted, he returned to the army 
under Washington, then at Bound Brook encampment, 
and with the Eighth Virginia Regiment, in the brigade of 
General Charles Scott, participated in the battles of Brandy- 
wine and Germantown, and aided in breaking the British 
right wing in the latter battle. 

He was also in the battle of Monmouth in 1778, and in 
1779 served with great distinction in the surprise of the 
enemy at Paulus Hook, on which important occasion he 
was second in command, having been previously promoted 
to be a major by congress. 

One hundred and fifty-nine of the enemy were captured 
in this affair, with a loss to the Americans of only two killed 
and three wounded. So important was the result that Gen- 
eral Washington hastened to communicate it to congress in 
a manner highly complimentary. He said ^^that a remark- 
able degree of prudence, address, enterprise and bravery 
was displayed on the occasion, which does the highest 
honor to all the officers and men engaged in it, and that 
the situation of the fort rendered the attempt critical and 
the success brilliant.'' Congress returned thanks and or- 
dered a gold medal to be made in honor of the event, and 
fifteen thousand dollars to be distributed among the rank 
and file who participated in the enterprise. 

Major Clark was highly complimented in letters from 
Lord Sterling and other officers, and in November follow- 
ing congress promoted him to be a lieutenant-colonel, to 
date from the previous May. 

In the following winter Clark and the Virginia regiment 
to which he belonged, together with other troops, marched 

Digitized by 



through terrible hardships to the south, reaching Charleston 
in the last of March, 1780, where they encountered still fur- 
ther trials and sufferings, until finally, on the 12th of May, 
the American army, then under command of General Lin- 
coln, was compelled to surrender to the enemy. Colonel 
Clark was held a prisoner in Charleston until the spring 
of 1 78 1, when he was paroled and returned to Virginia, but 
he was not formally exchanged until after the surrender of 

Abraham Bowman was the colonel of the eighth Vir- 
ginia regiment of which Clark was the lieutenant-colonel, 
and he was also the first cousin of an attractive young lady 
residing in Frederick county, Virginia, named Sarah Hite. 
She was the daughter of Isaac Hite, Sr., and granddaughter 
of Jost Hite, and her brother Isaac Hite, Jr., was likewise a 
major in the Revolutionary army. 

The friendship existing between the two comrades-in- 
arms led to an acquaintance between Colonel Clark and 
Miss Hite, which resulted in their marriage February 13, 
1782. He settled for a time in Spottsylvania county, and 
was commissioned a major-general of the Virginia militia 
in 1793. 

But his thoughts now turned to the great west, and in 
1802 he joined his distinguished brother, George Rogers 
Clark at the falls of the Ohio, settling finally at Trough 
Spring, near Louisville. Here he devoted himself to busi- 
ness with great success, accumulating a large fortune in 
real estate as well as personal propert}\ The inventory of 
the latter, returned by Abraham Hite, his wife's cousin, 
and John H. Clark, his son, his administrators, covers 

Digitized by 



eleven pages of book of inventories No. 2, Jefferson coun- 
ty, Kentucky. A glance over the long list shows that fifty- 
six of his slaves were mentioned by name. The following 
notice of General Jonathan Clark's death appeared in the 
Western Sun^ published at Vincennes, December 14, 181 1 : 
^'Another Revolutionary hero is gone — Died at his seat near 
Louisville, Kentucky, on Monday, the 25th ult. (Novem- 
ber, 181 1), General Jonathan Clark — He supped with his 
family on the 24th, retired at his accustomed hour to rest, 
and in the morning was found numbered with the dead." 

The marriage of Jonathan Clark and Sarah Hite was a 
happy one in every respect. She was the younger by some 
eight years and survived him about that time. They are 
resting side by side in Cave Hill Cemetery, and the fr.mily 
monument and the inscriptions thereon have already been 
described in a previous chapter. A list of their descendants 
was kindly furnished by one of them. Miss Ann J. Bodley, 
of Louisville, Kentucky, will be found near the close of 
the appendix. 

The following is an extract from an interesting notice of 
the death of General Jonathan Clark, which appeared in a 
leading newspaper of that time: 


At his seat, on Monday, the 25th ult. (November, 181 1), 
Greneral Jonathan Clark, aged sixty-one— one of the heroes 
who participated in the dangers of his country in those 
days when she struggled for her birthright amongst the 

Digitized by 



nations of the earth. He supped with his family on the 
evening of the 24th, retired at his accustomed hour to rest, 
and in the morning was found numbered with the dead. 
His death may be considered as truly enviable, for it was 
free from everj^ species of pain or those agonizing feelings 
that so often attend the last hours of our existence. (Here 
follows a brief narrative of the leading events in his life, 
which are omitted, as they have already been given.) 

On the religious character of General Clark it will not 
be necessary to enlarge. The principles of piety and vir- 
tue were early instilled by a strict education; nor do they 
appear ever to have lost their influence upon the general 
conduct of his life. He was too great a lover of truth not 
to make religion the object of his serious inquiry. The 
result of his investigation was a full conviction of the di- 
vine origin of the Gospel, and the nature of it to be such 
as demanded his warmest acceptance. In his person he 
was tall and well-proportioned; in his manners easy, uni- 
form and engaging, and in his conversation, oftentimes, 
sprightly — always agreeable. 

Thus has a fond wife been bereft of an affectionate and 
loving husband, children of a tender father, and society of 
a valuable member. 

December 6, 181 1. 

A pleasing form, a generous, gentle heart; 
A good companion, honest without art; 
Just in his dealings, faithful to his friend, 
Belov'd through life, lamented in the end. 
Reader attend, and copy if you can 
The noblest work of God — an honest man. 

Digitized by 




Whose portrait will be found in the frontispiece to this 
chapter, was the eldest sister of General George Rogers 
Clark. She was born in Virginia and became the wife of 
Owen Gwathmey in about the eighteenth year of her age. 
He was for a short time a soldier in the Revolutionary 
War, but removed west soon after and settled at, or near, 
Louisville, where he became a successful business man. 
They raised a large family of children, and among their 
descendants will be found the names of several persons of 
y . ^ distinction. It is notable 

r/Z^t/^ that three of their chil- 

^^ ^^mammam^m^mm,,^^ dren,viz.: John, Samuel 
and Ann, married three of the children of Colonel Will- 
iam Aylett Booth and his ^y^ y jc^ ^-^ 
wife, Rebecca Hite, viz.: /U^e^ccay /JcxtZ/l^ 
Ann, Mary and William. The mother was a sister 
y9yt^^^^^ ^ of General Jonathan Clark's 

Samuel Gwathmey, the husband of Mary Booth, was 

one of the trustees who laid off the town of Jeffersonville 

r— ' ^ in 1802, and was long a resident of that 

JfrSj^ place, and intimately connected with early 

«»1?^K Indiana history. He was appointed clerk 

ym^ jL of Clark county, Indiana territorj^, in 

^MJll^^^ 1801 and treasurer in 1802. He was a 

^^^^^^^k member of the first legislative council of 

^^■^^^^^ Indiana territory', and further mention 
SAMUEL GWATHMEY. ^.jj ^^ ^^^^ ^^ j^.^ .^ ^j^^^ conncction. 

Digitized by 



He held a number of offices, and on one occasion, at least, 
held two at the same time, which caused a curious question 
to arise, as to whether he could properly be the custodian 
of his own bond. He referred the matter to General John 
Gibson, the secretary of the territory, in an interesting let- 
ter, now before the author, and its tone clearly shows the 
nice sense of honor and propriety of the man. 

He was an Episcopalian in religion, a man of high char- 
acter, fine business qualifications, and was long the presi- 
dent of a bank in Louisville. He was the first register of 
the land office at Jeffersonville, and held it until he was 
removed by General Jackson for political reasons. He 
was the owner of slaves in Indiana during the territorial 
period. He had five children, Marie, William, Balor 
H., Rebecca and Mary Eliza. Rebecca became the wife of 
Henry Tyler and mother of Henry S. Tyler, at present 
mayor of Louisville (1895). Samuel Gwathmey died in 
1850, in the seventy-second year of his age. 
John Gwathmey, the other son, was also a man of fine 

business quali- 
fications and 
the author has 
in his posses- 
sion many of 
his letters, some of them of historic interest in relation to 
early events about the falls, and especially about Jefferson- 
ville and other parts of Clark's Grant. 


The son of John Clark and Ann Rogers, was born in 
Albemarle county, Virginia, September 15, 1757, and 

Digitized by 



when his eldest brother vacated his position of deputy clerk 
of Dunmore county, in 1776, John was given the place. 
He was then quite young, but had already been assisting his 
brother in the office for some time and was familiar with 
the duties. 

He left the position, however, in August, 1777, when 
he was appointed a lieutenant in the Fourth Virginia Regi- 
ment. The next month after Lieutenant Clark entered the 
service he participated in the battle of Brandywine, and in 
the next month after that was in the battle of Germantown, 
so that it was warm work for him from the beginning. In the 
latter battle the division of the army to which he belonged 
broke the British right wing and captured a considerable 
number of prisoners, but subsequently was forced to re- 
treat; and, being surrounded, a portion was in turn cap- 
tured, including Lieutenant Clark, Colonel George Math- 
ews and other Virginians. This Colonel Mathews is the 
same person mentioned in the fac-simile letter of Mr. Jef- 
ferson given in Chapter XIV. The capture proved a sad 
affair, indeed, to Lieutenant Clark, as he was kept a pris- 
oner a long time and subjected to such neglect and harsh 
treatment that it brought on a disease which occasioned his 
death. He was held as a prisoner at first in Philadelphia, 
then in possession of the British, and for a time was kept 
in what was called the ^^New Jail." In the summer of 
1778 he was removed to Long Island and kept there, or in 
the neighborhood, several years, and finally was confined 
in one of those loathsome prison-ships, which, to the dis- 
grace of the British authorities, caused the death of an im- 
mense number of American prisoners by barbarous treat- 

Digitized by 



ment, as shown in Chapter XIV. Poor Clark was one of 
the victims, and, although he did not die in the prison, yet 
when he was at last exchanged in 1782, he returned to his 
father's home in Caroline county, Virginia, a physical 
wreck from consumption, brought on by the treatment he 
had received while a prisoner. In the hope of averting the 
terrible disease he went to the West Indies, but it was in 
vain, as he was too far gone for anything to save him. He 
came back without material improvement, and his relatives 
and friends, with great grief, saw him gradually waste 
away, until he died at his father's house in 1784, in the 
twenty-seventh year of his age. The death, under such 
circumstances, of this bright and promising young man, not 
only occasioned much sorrow in the community, but greatly 
added to the indignation felt at the time towards the British 
for their cruel treatment of American prisoners. 


Joined his brother George Rogers Clark at Kaskaskia in 
March, 1779. He was then in his nineteenth year, having 
been born in Caroline county, Virginia, in 1 760. He served 
for a short time as a volunteer in Captain Robert Todd's 
company and was commissioned a lieutenant in June, 1779. 
He was one of the party that marched to the relief of Ca- 
hokia, in 1780, and also was in the campaign against the 
Indians about Peoria. He was stationed for some time at 
Fort Jefferson, but went to the falls of the Ohio in the 
summer of 1781, and the next year was with his brother 
in the campaign against the Indians. Lieutenant Richard 
Clark was allotted two thousand one hundred and fiftj'-six 

Digitized by 



acres of land in Clark's Grant, Indiana, for his services in the 
Illinois campaign, being Nos. 15, 18, 191, 274 and part 160. 
He lost his life in March, 1784, probably on Indiana soil. 
He started to make a journey on horse-back from the falls 
of the Ohio to Vincennes or possibly Kaskaskia. The 
strange part of the story is that he undertook this long and 
dangerous journey alone. There is but little wonder that 
he lost his life in the effort. The particulars are not 
known, but the probabilities are that he was drowned in 
trj'ing to cross some stream. His horse, saddle-bags and 
some other things were found on the bank of the White 
river which is pretty clear evidence that he was not killed 
by the Indians as they would have taken the horse. 
The family long entertained the hope that he might not be 
dead, and the mystery and uncertainty added greatly to 
their distress. There is another tradition which names the 
Little Wabash as the river where his horse was found, but 
this is not probable as it is not likely he was aiming to go 
further than Vincennes. 


Who is buried by the side of his distinguished brothers. 
General George Rogers Clark and General Jonathan Clark, 

in the Cave Hill 
Cemetery at 
Louisville, was 
born in Virginia, 
September 25, 1762. At the time that state was exerting 
ever\' energy to raise troops for the relief of Charleston, 
Edmund Clark, then under eighteen years of age and at 

Digitized by 



school, was appointed a lieutenant in the Eighth Virginia 
Regiment of the continental army. This was the celebrated 
German regiment raised by Colonel Muhlenberg, and after 
his promotion to be a general it was commanded by Colonel 
Abraham Bowman, a brother of Joseph and Isaac Bowman, 
who were prominent officers in George Rogers Clark's 
Illinois campaign. The Eighth Virginia was distinguished 
in the war, but the extent of young Edmund Clark's partici- 
pation is not clearly known. It is said that he was held a the British for a time, and that he was not ex- 
changed until the close of 1782. When the war was over 
he returned to Caroline, his native county in Virginia, and 
engaged in business for several years. He was tendered a 
commission as captain in January, 1799, by President 
Adams, at the time some trouble was expected with France 
and served for some time, but it was found not to be as 
serious as was anticipated, and the troops were disbanded. 
He emigrated to Jefferson county, Kentucky, soon after 
this, where he remained with his many relatives already 
there, until his death, on the i ith of March, 1815. Like his 
brother George, he never married. 

The inventory of the personal property of Captain Ed- 
mund Clark was filed May 8, 181 5, in Jefferson county, 
Kentucky, by D. Fitzhugh, administrator of his estate, 
and was appraised at a total of $2,641.25. Book 2, pp. 
136, 137- 


Lucy Clark, whose portrait will be found in the frontis- 
piece to this chapter, was the second daughter of John and 
Ann Rogers Clark, and was born in Caroline county, Vir- 

Digitized by 



ginia, September 15, 1767. She was the wife of William 
Croghan, who came to America from Ireland when quite 
young. He was the nephew of the celebrated George 
Croghan, who was long in the employ of the British as In- 
dian agent under Sir William Johnson. Unlike his uncle, 
William Croghan took sides with the Americans and joined, 
with a company, the army of Washington, in the region 
of Pittsburgh. He was assigned to Colonel Weedon's 
Virginia regiment, shortly after the battle of Long Island^ 
and continued in active service for years. 

He was promoted to be a major in 1778, and was as- 
signed to Colonel John Neville's Fourth Virginia Regiment 
and participated in the battle of Monmouth. He marched 
with the Virginia troops to Charleston, South Carolina, 
where the whole American arm}^ at that place was com- 
pelled to surrender to the enem3\ In 1781 he was paroled 
and returned to Virginia, in company with his friend. Col- 
onel Jonathan Clark, and for a time was the guest of 
Colonel Clark's father at the family residence, in Caroline 
county. The transition from the exposures and hardships 
of army and prison life to the comforts and enjoyments of 
this hospitable Virginia home was doubtless most enjoyable, 
and all the more so, as he was brought into agreeable 
female society from which he had been long deprived. One 
of these young ladies was Miss Lucy Clark, the young 
and attractive daughter of the host, and it is not at all sur- 
prising that an attachment sprung up between them, which 
ended in their marriage a few years later. John Clark, her 


Digitized by 



father, removed with his family to the falls of the Ohio in 
1 784, and as Miss Lucy was there, Major Croghan came also 
in due season, and they were married soon after, and finally 
settled at Locust Grove, a few miles above Louisville, 
where they continued to reside the rest of their lives. He 
died in September, 1822, in the seventieth year of his 
age, and she in April, 1838, in her seventy-first year.* 
General George Rogers Clark died at their house where he 
had lived many years. Major Croghan witnessed the sur- 
render of Cornwallis at Yorktown, but took no part, as he 
was under parole. He was a delegate from Jefferson county 
to the Kentucky conventions in 1789 and 1790, and he was 
one of the commissioners to divide the land in Clark's 

The children of Lucy Clark and William Croghan, her 
husband, were six sons and two daughters, named as fol- 
lows: John, George, Charles, Nicholas, William, Ed- 
mund, Ann and Eliza. 

Charles and Nicholas were twins. 

Eliza married George Hancock, and Ann married Gen- 
eral Thomas Jessup, adjutant-general U. S. A. 

John was a prominent physician and long resided at the 
old family homestead where he was noted for hospitality 
and his care of historical family papers. 

♦January 12, 1830, Lucy Croghan^ sister of George Rogers Clark, made a 
will devising to her daughter Serina E. Croghan and her granddaughter An- 
gelick Croghan the "land the south of Tennessee" which had belonged to her 
brother George Rogers Clark, also fee-simple of certain property in Louisville, 
Kentucky, to her grandchildren, George and John Croghan. Will probated 
June 1, 1840. (Records of Jefferson county, Kentucky.) 

Digitized by 



George married Miss Livingston and greatly distin- 
guished himself as 
a soldier at Tippe- 
canoe in 181 I, in 
the War of 1812, 
and in the Mexican 
War. He was a 
major at the time 
of his successful de- 
fense of Fort Steph- 
enson at Lower 
Sandusky, in the 
War of 1812, and 
won great fame for 
his gallantry on 
that occasion. He 
was then barely 

twenty-one years of age. Congress presented him a medal, 

a picture of which is given here. 

General William Henry Harrison, in his official report 


Digitized by 



of this affair says: ^^It will not be among the least of Gen- 
eral Proctor's mortifications that he has been bafHed by a 
youth who has just passed his twenty-first year. He is, 
however, a hero worthy of his gallant uncle. General 
George R. Clark." 

^*The brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel was immediately 
conferred on Major Croghan by the President of the United 
States for his gallant conduct, and the ladies of Chillicothe 
presented him an elegant sword, accompanied by a suitable 
address." * 

A fine monument has been erected on the site of Fort 
Stephenson at Fremont, Ohio, in honor of Major Cro- 
ghan's gallantry in holding the fort. A picture of it will 
be found on the next page. 


Elizabeth, daughter of John Clark and Ann Rogers Clark, 
was born in Caroline county, Virginia, February ii, 1768. 
She married Richard Clough Anderson, also a native of 
Virginia, about the year 1787. Reentered the Revolu- 
tionary army, the head of a company, at the beginning of 
the war, and served in Colonel Parker's regiment, during 
the winter campaigns of 1776-7, in New Jersey, being at 
Trenton and Princeton. He participated in the battles of 
Brandywine and Germantown in 1777, and the next year 
was commissioned a major. He was also in the battle of 
Monmouth. His regiment went south in the summer of 1 779 
and he was wounded in the assault made on Savannah 
from which he never entirely recovered. Parker, the colonel 

♦McAfee History of the War of 1812. 

Digitized by 


Fkkmont, Ohio. 

Digitized by 



of the regiment, was killed at the siege of Charleston. 
Samuel Hopkins succeeded him as colonel, and Major 
Anderson was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel. This is 
the same Samuel Hopkins who subsequently conducted two 
expeditions against the Indians northwest of the Ohio river. 
Colonel Anderson was taken prisoner at Charleston, but 
finally succeeded in securing an exchange and served until 
the close of the war. He was appointed principal surveyor 
of the lands granted by the state of Virginia to the soldiers 
of the continental line by the act of December, 1783. He 
opened his headquarters at Louisville, Kentucky, in July, 
1784, and was a representative from Jefferson county to 
the conventions at Danville in 1784 and 1788. 

Colonel Anderson was twice married. His first wife, 
Elizabeth Clark, died in 1795, having been the mother 
of four children; a son, named after his father, and three 
daughters, Ann, Cecelia and Elizabeth. 

The second wife was Sarah Marshall, also of the Clark 
family,* and they had seven sons and five daughters, viz.: 
Fanny, Larz, Robert, William, Mary, Louisa, John R., 
Hugh, Charles, Lucelia, Matthew, and Sarah. Colonel 
Anderson died October 16, 1826, at Soldiers' Retreat, Jeffer- 
son county, Kentucky. Richard Clough Anderson, Junior, 
the son of the first ^ / 

marriage, was born in ^^Li^^cy^ia^^L^^>C O w<Ai^ oc^^^m^ 
1788, and was a member of congress from Kentucky from 
181 7 to 182 1. After that he represented the United States 
as minister to Colombia, in which country he lost his wife, 

*A descendant of the daughter of Jonathan Clark, Senior, who married Tor- 
quil McLeod. 

Digitized by 



who was his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Owen and Ann 
Clark Gwathmey, and it is notable that Elizabeth, his sister, 
married his wife's brother, Isaac R. Gwathmey. The next 
year after his wife's death, which was in 1825, ^^ ^^^^ 
of yellow fever, on his way to Panama, as a representative 
of the United States to a congress of American nations. 
He is represented as a gentleman of fine ability and un- 
blemished character. Of the children of the second mar- 
riage Colonel Robert Anderson was the renowned hero of 
Fort Sumter in the Civil War, whose historj' is so gener- 
ally known that it need not be repeated here, and Larz and 
Charles were prominent citizens and politicians in Ohio, the 

latter being lieutenant-governor of that state in 1864 and 
subsequently governor by reason of the death of Governor 
Brough.* In fact they were all people of high standing, 
as were also the children of the first marriage. 


Was the youngest sister of General George Rogers Clark, 
and all the traditions unite in declaring her to have been 
beautiful and accomplished. An interesting romance in 
relation to her marriages and life is told as part of these 

♦Governor Charles Anderson here referred to subsequently removed to Ken- 
tucky and died at his residence there a short time before the publication of this 
volume, and a letter written by him to the author in relation to this sketch, his 
daughter Katherine states, was the last he ever wrote. 

Digitized by 



traditions, but will not be related here as it does not fall 
within the line of this work. She was born in Caroline 
county, Virginia, January 20, 1773, was married three 
times, and had two children by each marriage. Her first 
husband was Doctor James O' Fallon, a finely educated 
Irishman, who came to America shortly before the Revo- 
lutionary War and soon became an active participant on 
the side of the colonies. He was an officer during the war, 
at one time in command of a company, but was employed 
most of the time as one of the directors of the hospital de- 

The two children of Frances Eleanor Clark and Doctor 
O'Fallon were sons named John and Benjamin. Before 
John was twenty years old he was in military service under 
General William Henry Harrison and was wounded in the 
Tippecanoe battle. He also served with distinction in the 
war of 181 2. 

The second husband of Frances Eleanor Clark was 
Charles Mynn Thruston, of the distinguished family of that 
name mentioned in a previous chapter. From this marriage 
resulted two children, Charles William, and Ann Clark, 
and from these have sprung a long line of descendants, many 
of them of prominence. Upon the death of Charles Mynn 
Thruston the widow married her cousin Dennis Fitzhugh, 
of the well known Virginia family of that name, and from 
this marriage there was a son and daughter named Clark 
and Lucy. Surviving all her husbands, this youngest sister 
of George Rogers Clark died in St. Louis, in June, 1825, 
at the house of her son, Colonel John O' Fallon. 

Digitized by 



A remarkable number of persons, bearing the names of 
prominent families, can be mentioned among the descend- 
ants of this estimable lady, such as the O'Fallons, Thrustons, 
Fitzhughs, Churchills, Ballards, Farrars, Popes, Kennetts, 
Polks, Hargraves, Burns, Potters, Belchers, Housers, 
Keeses and Peppers, as will be seen by reference to the 
genealogical list in the appendix. 


William Clark, the youngest brother of George Rogers 
Clark, was born in Caroline county, Virginia, August i, 
1770. He came west with his father and mother in 1784, 
and joined his brother and other relatives at the falls of the 
Ohio. His home was in this vicinity until his departure 
on the celebrated exploring expedition, led by him and 
Meriwether Lewis, across the country to the Pacific ocean 
in 1804-5, under the auspices of President Jefferson. The 
distinguished military history of his family naturally drew 
his attention to military matters from his early boyhood, 
and when he was only nineteen years old he marched 
against the Indians northwest of the Ohio river in an ex- 
pedition led by Colonel John Hardin. In 1790 he was 
sent on a mission to the Creek and Cherokee Indians, 
and in 1791 he served as an ensign and acting lieutenant 
with the expeditions under Generals Scott and Wilkinson 
against the Indians on the Wabash. Greneral Washington 
commissioned him a first lieutenant in the fourth sub. legion 
under General Wayne in March, 1793. 

He entered active service at once, aiding in constructing 
forts on the line proposed to be followed into the Indian 

Digitized by 



country, and in the latter part of the year he was dis- 
patched on an expedition up the Wabash to Vincennes, 
which lasted several months, his boat being blocked by ice 
at one time for a period of twenty days. 

He returned to Fort Washington, where Cincinnati is 
now situated, in the spring of 1794, having had several 
skirmishes with the Indians. He was next assigned the 
duty of escorting a large quantity of clothing and pro- 
visions to Fort Greenville. It required seven hundred 
pack-horses to carry the goods, and Lieutenant Clark had 
eighty men under his command on the journey. While 
on the way the advance guard of the party was attacked 
by Indians and five of the whites killed. Lieutenant Clark, 
who was with the main body of the troops, advanced rap- 
idly upon the Indians, when they retreated with some loss. 
He was thanked for his good conduct by General Wayne. 

He distinguished himself at the successful action of Au- 
gust 20, 1794, when in command of a company of rifle- 
men he drove a portion of the enemy on the left several 
miles, killing a number of Indians and Canadians. In 

1 795 he was dispatched 
on a military mission to 
New Madrid, on the 
Mississippi river. He resigned his commission in 1796, and 
for a time retired from the army, because of bad health. 

For the next seven or eight years he was most of the 
time about the falls of the Ohio, either with his parents 
and relatives on the Kentucky side, or with his brother. 
General George Rogers Clark, at Clarksville, on the Indiana 
side. It is stated in Dr. Coue's valuable edition of the his- 

Digitized by 



Of Lewis & Clark's Expedition to the Pacific, 

Youngest brother of Gen. George Rogers Clark. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



tory of Lewis and Clark's expedition that a commission was 
issued to him, January' 8, 1790, by Arthur St. Clair, '^gov- 
ernor of the territory of the United States northwest of the 
river Ohio," as ^'b, captain of militia in the town and vicin* 
ity of Clarksville.'' If this was the William Clark now 
being considered, he was evidently residing in Indiana at 
that time, and this commission is in possession of his de- 

But there were three William Clarks connected with In- 
diana history in the pioneer period, and this has been the 
cause of confusion and historical mistakes. William Clark, 
the subject of the present sketch, long survived the oth- 
ers, and from that cause, as well as the prominence he 
subsequently attained, matters pertaining to the other two 
have, more or less, been attributed to him. In other words, 
he has to some extent absorbed the others, and some have 
spoken of him as the surveyor-in-chief of Clark's Grant, 
and some as being the William Clark who was made judge 
of Indiana territory in 1801. 

Even so high an authority as '^Appleton's Encyclopedia 
of American Biography," a work of great value and gen- 
eral accuracy, states, on page 631 of volume i, under the 
head of ^'William Clark, Jurist," that ^'President Adams 
appointed him in 1800 chief-justice of the territory of Indi- 
ana, and he was afterward commissioned as the second 
governor of the territory' of Missouri." Governor William 
Clark, of Missouri, died and was buried at St. Louis, Sep- 
tember I, 1838, and William Clark, the judge of Indiana 
territory, never was governor of Missouri territory, and 
died and was buried at Vincennes, November 12, 1802, as 

Digitized by 



will be seen from the fac-simile of the entr}^ of his death 
in the records of St. Xavier's Church, which is reproduced 
on next page. 

A further sketch of Judge William Clark will be given 
in a subsequent volume. 

William Clark, the surveyor-in-chief of Clark's Grant, 
and one of the trustees of Clarksville, who spent much of his 
time at that place, a sketch of whom has already been given, 
was not the William Clark who was governor of Missouri 
territory, but his cousin. 

William Clark, the subject of this sketch, joined Captain 
Meriwether Lewis in conducting an expedition through 
the unexplored wilderness to the Pacific ocean in 1803, as 
already stated.* 

Captain Lewis had been the private secretary of Presi- 
dent Jefferson, and the expedition was undertaken at his 
request. The winter of 1803 was spent at the mouth of 
the Missouri river, and the party set out on the journey, 
from that point, early in the spring of 1804, numbering 
forty-three men. The long journey through to the Pacific 
and return was of great importance to the country, and 
thrillingly interesting. It is too well known, however, to 
be dwelt upon here. Some time after his return in Sep- 

*The perfect confidence President Jefferson had in the heads of this expedi- 
tion is shown in a remarkable letter of credit which he issued, a fac-simile of 
which is at this writing before the author, and not reproduced here because of lack 
of space. In it he says: "I hereby authorize you to draw on the secretaries of 
state, of the treasury, of war, and of the navy of the United States, according 
as you may find your draughts will be most negotiable, for the purpose of ob- 
taining money or necessaries for yourself or your men; and I solemnly pledge 
the faith of the United States that these draughts shall be paid punctually at the 
date they are made payable." It will be observed that there was a striking evi- 
dence of trust in those given charge of the undertaking. 

Digitized by 




s t 1 In! 








Digitized by 



tember, 1806, he visited Washington and, no doubt, the 
place of his former residence in Virginia at the same time. 
At or near Fincastle, in that state, on the 5th of January, 
1808, he married Miss Julia Hancock, who died June 27, 
1820; and on the 28th of November, 1821, he married Mrs. 
Harriet Kennedy Radford, who died December 25, 183 1. 

Some time after his return from the Pacific, Captain 
Clark was appointed to the then important position of In- 
dian agent at St. Louis, a place for which he possessed 
superior qualifications by reason of his acquaintance with 
the western Indian tribes, and intimate knowledge of the 
Indian character. He was later also made a brigadier-gen- 
eral of that territory, and in 18 13 was made its governor. 

In the War of 181 2 he was offered a commission as 
brigadier-general in the regular army, but did not ac- 
cept it, believing that he could be of more advantage in 
his position of governor and Indian agent in influencing the 
Indian tribes to neutrality, and there is no doubt but his 
services in this direction were highly beneficial. 

He was appointed superintendent of Indian affairs by 
President Monroe in 1822, and secured many important 
treaties with western Indian tribes. 

S. ( Translation of facsimile which appears on preceding page.) 

William Clark. 

In the year 1802, on the 12th of November, the body of William Clark, one 
of the judges of the supreme court of the territory of Indiana, was interred in 
the cemetery of this church. He died the day before, and although having re- 
ligious convictions, the last progress of his sickness was so rapid that lime was 
not left him to receive the Christian sacraments. An enlightened judge, firm, 
and incorruptible, he has taken with him the just regrets of all good people. 
Vincennes, 12th November, 1802. T. Sr. Rivete, 


Digitized by 




Governor William Clark died in St. Louis, September i, 
1838, in the sixty-ninth year of his age, universally esteemed 
by all who knew him. The highest 
respect was paid to his memor}\ He 
was buried with distinguished honors 
at a beautiful place he had himself se- 
lected near St. Louis, being the family 
cemeter}' on the plantation of his kins- 
man, General John O'Fallon. 

The only child now living (1895), 
of any of the brothers or sisters of 
General George Rogers Clark, is Gov- 
ernor Clark's son Jefferson K. Clark, of St. Louis, whose 
portrait is here given and who has freely contributed to the 
material used in this work. 



-.^<-^ '^K^S^i^^^ 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Digitized by 


cn.ARK'S STATl'E, 
In Mom'ment Place, Indianapolis. 

Digitized by 



(Indianapolis Journal, Sunday, March 3, 1895.) 





As the statue of George Rogers Clark recently erected in Monu- 
ment Place is attracting a good deal of attention, and is generally 
spoken of with commendation, it may be of interest to give some ac- 
count of its origin. The first formal movement in favor of the con- 
struction of the statue of Clark and other representative men of the 
principal war periods on Monument Place was made by Hon. William 
H. English in an address before the Indiana Society of the Sons of 
the American Revolution, February 25, 1892, being the anniversary 
of Clark's capture of Vincennes from the British in 1779. This was 
evidently a carefully prepared address, full of historical reminiscence, 
and an earnest appeal for the construction of these statues. Mr. 
English began the address with some general remarks upon the sol- 
diers' monument, which are worth reproducing. He said : 

"The object of the Society of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion is not alone to cherish the memories of honored ancestors who 
periled their lives for the independence and union of these states, but 
it extends, alike, to all who have fought in its defense or for its pres- 
ervation. Its purpose is to foster a love of our country, and respect 
and admiration for the men, of all wars, who have stood in its defense 
in times of danger. It was in this broad, patriotic spirit, no doubt, 
that Indiana was inspired to cause to be erected, in the center of her 


Digitized by 



capital city, a great monument that should stand for ages as a testi- 
monial in honor of the soldiers and sailors connected with her his- 

'*It was an undertaking worthy of any people, and especially no- 
ticeable and commendable in a young community, organized as a ter- 
ritory only ninety-two years ago, and existing as a state but a few 
months over seventy-five years. It was the dawning of a new era 
with a people but recently emerged from the hardships and privations 
of pioneer life. It was a bold, forward movement into the light of 
the grand and beautiful, of the most cultured and advanced civiliza- 
tion of the world. It was all the more encouraging because it was an 
indication of an awakening of state pride, where, before, it is to be 
feared, there was a sad deficiency. If this monument is completed, 
in the style it should be, with grounds, streets and approaches im- 
proved to harmonize with it, as they should be, we shall have here a 
great Indiana work of art, as an exponent of her military history, 
which may truly be regarded as a thing of beauty and a joy forever. 
It will go down the ages, growing in favor as the irresistible years 
sweep by and all who are now living have returned to dust. It will 
not only tend to inspire the present and future generations of Indiani- 
ans with patriotism and state pride, but it will in time be visited and 
admired by a multitude of strangers, thus causing the state to be more 
favorably and generally known in other countries. 

"But the monument is not yet completed. In fact, a great deal 
remains to be done to make it what it should be. The stone shaft 
alone is nearing completion. It is grand and beautiful, and, I pre- 
sume, faultless in construction. But, grand and beautiful as it is, it 
would not alone make a distinctive Indiana monument such as it 
should be. It would answer just as well for a Maine or a California 
monument if set down in either of those states. For that matter it 
would do just as well for a foreign country, if placed there. The 
important thing, then, to consider is the work which yet remains to 
be done. We must look to the bronze groups, the statuar}^ and other 
ornamentations, yet to be added, for any local identity or special illus- 

Digitized by 



tration of Indiana military history. It is here we shall find deficiencies 
or the crowning glory of this great work. And, oh, what a sad mis- 
fortune it would be to have mistakes made at this vital point! 

"Let us examine what the commissioners are proposing to do in 
this regard, and what they outline the monument is to be when com- 

Mr. English then proceeded to describe the ornamentation of the 
monument and grounds as then determined upon, and what would be 
the effect if there were no changes and additions to the plans as they 
then stood. He continued: 

*'The commissioners are to be commended for saying, as they have, 
in one place, that they want this to be an American monument. It 
should be more. It should be an Indiana monument, commemorating 
the great military events connected with her history. If it does not 
do this, a fearful mistake will have been made. It will not do it if 
nothing else is done but to finish it as it is now planned. Nothing of 
that kind will be specially commemorated but the Mexican and Civil 
Wars. I submit to you that it would be unjust and a grave mistake 
to send Indiana down to posterity, so far as her great military monu- 
ment can do it, as having no military history worth remembering, 
except as connected with the Mexican and Civil Wars. Indiana is not 
barren of great military events before that period, and of at least two 
her people are justly proud. It is not at all likely they expected these 
events would be ignored in the construction of this monument — that 
it would commemorate no event prior to 1846. They did not expect 
it would cover a few years only, or from the state organization only, 
but from the beginning of Indiana history, just as any historian would 
have to do to give a satisfactory account. They remember that in 
the darkest period of the War of the Revolution one of the most im- 
portant and far-reaching events of that war took place within the 
present boundaries of Indiana. 

"It was then a part of the British dominions, but by the brave and 
adroit management of George Rogers Clark and his little army, it was 
taken from them by the capture of Fort Sackville. at Vincennes. The 

Digitized by 



formal surrender took place February 25, 1779— one hundred and 
thirteen years ago this day. The British flag was taken down the 
night of the 24th, and at 10 o'clock the next morning the American 
flag was run up. Never, from that glorious hour, thank God ! has 
that flag been lowered to an enemy on Indiana soil. 

"Can it be possible that such an event as this is to be entirely ig- 
nored in the construction of a monument intended to honor and per- 
petuate Indiana military history? Why, the very ground on which 
this monument stands was acquired by reason of that great event The 
land given Clark and his brave soldiers as some recompense for their 
great services is Indiana land, situated in Clark, Floyd and Scott 
counties, and Clark himself was long a citizen of Indiana, residing in 
Clarksville, Clark county, as I have positive evidence to show. He 
built a house and erected mills there, and was an active participant 
in county affairs. I have the original poll-book of an election held 
in that county in the first decade of Indiana territory, when the vot- 
ing was done by word of mouth. The election referred to was one 
which had an important bearing in shaping Indiana affairs, and the 
poll-book, of course, shows how Clark voted. I shall not prodnce it 
now or explain further here, but hope to give to the public before the 
close of the present year, not only that, but much other original mat- 
ter relating to Clark and his great campaign which has never yet been 

*'My only object now is to point out that Clark, at one time, was a 
citizen of Indiana. That his great campaign is one of the most im- 
portant and well-known military events in her history, and should not 
be entirely ignored in the construction of this monument. That it 
was a campaign of vast importance is not my judgment alone. So 
far as I know it is the judgment of all who have written upon the sub- 
ject. As the wonderful development of the great northwest, which 
he enabled this country to acquire, becomes more manifest, it will be 
still more appreciated. John B. Dillon, the father of Indiana history, 
says of Clark's campaign that 'with respect to the magnitude of its 
design, the valor and perseverance with which it was carried on, and 

Digitized by 



the momentous results which were produced by it, the expedition 
stands without a parallel in the early annals of the Mississippi.'* 

"But I pass on to another great historical epoch intimately con- 
nected with Indiana's history, viz., the wars of iSii and 1812 with 
the Indians and the British. William Henry Harrison, the then gov- 
ernor of Indiana, was the hero in both. * * * * 

'*Do you think there should be no recognition of the capture of 
Vincennes and the battle of Tippecanoe? Is there a fair man or 
woman in the state who thinks they ought to be ignored ? I should be 
sorry to think there is one. I speak for the brave and patriotic dead. 
I ask that Clark's capture of Vincennes and Harrison's battle of 
Tippecanoe shall be recog^izied and commemorated in some suitable 
way in connection with the erection of this great Indiana monument. 
There were striking situations in both that could have been made 
thrillingly interesting in the hands of competent sculptors, and would 
have made appropriate and expressive adornments ; but in view of 
the large groups, of a general character, already ordered, I do not 
know that anything in that direction could now be done. Some suit- 
able inscriptions, however, or other proper recognition in appropriate 
places on the face of the monument, could yet be made at compara- 
tively little cost. Of course it should be done. 

"There is also another thing can yet be done that I think is of the 
greatest possible importance, and to which I now respectfully solicit 
your earnest attention. In my opinion it would prove to be a most 
expressive, popular and realistic illustration of the four greatest ep- 
ochs in the military history of Indiana. These I consider to be the 
capture of Vincennes, the battle of Tippecanoe, the Mexican War, 
the Civil War. I would commemorate each of these great epochs by 
a bronze statue of the principal actor in each. I would place these 
statues a suitable distance from the shaft of the monument, low 
enough down to be plainly seen — one on each side of the shaft, fac- 
ing out, east, west, north and south. 

♦Other opinions quoted have already been given in Chapter XXIII. 

Digitized by 



**The cost of these additions would not, probably, be over half the 
cost of the groups of peace and war. George Rogers Clark and 
William Henry Harrison should be two of these representative men. 
I am told there would be trouble in determining who would be the 
representative man for the epoch of the Civil War. I don't thmk so. 
Indiana's great military war governor, Oliver P. Morton, should be 
the man. No doubt about that at all. Morton's statue is already 
made, and a better could not be made. It is of proper size, a good 
likeness, and every way creditable. Let it be properly mounted 
under the shadow of the shaft of Indiana's great military monument, 
and there let it stand for ages in his honor, and as emblematic of the 
great war in which he bore so conspicuous a part. And let Clark 
and Harrison, and whoever is the representative of the Mexican War, 
stand in the same way, as emblematic of the great military events 
with which they were connected." 

Mr. English's address was formally indorsed by the Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, and on motion of Merrill Moores 
a committee of five was appointed, with Mr. English as chairman, to 
follow up the movement. 

Subsequent to this action of the society, the Grand Army of the 
Republic, at its annual meeting held at Fort Wayne, April 6 and 7, 
1892, adopted unanimously resolutions approving the suggestion 
made in said address that the four most prominent epochs in Indiana 
military history be commemorated by a statue of the principal repre- 
sentative man of each epoch. 

In the spring of 1893 Mr. English became one of the monument 
commissioners, which enabled him to carry his ideas into successful 
execution. The result was the construction, by J. H. Mahoney, of 
the beautiful statue of George Rogers Clark, and he is also to be the 
sculptor of a statue of William Henry Harrison. Mr. Mahoney is a 
citizen of Indianapolis, and his work thus far indicates that he is 
likely to occupy a high position in his profession. 

Digitized by 




Department of State, Washington, October 29, 1895. 
Honorable William H, English: 

Sir — I send herewith copy of a letter from George Rogers Clark to 
Dr. Samuel Brown, dated June 17, 1798, found in the Jefferson Papers, 
and for which you asked in your letter of the 22d instant. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, W. W. Rockhill, 

Third Assistant Secretary. 

[Jefferson Papers, Series 5, V.0I. i.] 

June 17, 1798. 
Sir — Your letter was handed to me by Mr. Thruston. The matter 
therein contained was new to me. I find myself hurt that Mr. Jeffer- 
son should have been attacked with so much virulence on a subject 
which I know he was not the author of, but except a few mistakes of 
names of persons and places, the story is substantially true. I was of 
the first and last of the active oflScers who bore the weight of that 
war, and on perusing some old papers of that date I find some memoirs, 
but independent of them I have a perfect recollection of every trans- 
action relative to Logan's story. The conduct of Cresap I am per- 
fectly acquainted with. He was not the author of that murder, but a 
family of the name of Greathouse. But some transactions that hap- 
pened under the conduct of Captain Cresap a few days previous to 
the murder of Logan's family gave him sufficient ground to suppose 
that it was Cresap who had done him the injury. But to enable you 
fully to understand the subject of your inquiry, I shall relate the inci- 
dents that gave rise to Logan's suspicion, and will enable Mr. Jeffer- 
son to do justice to himself and the Cresap family by being made fully 
acquainted with facts. 


Digitized by 


1030 Clark's letter concerning cresap and logan. 

Kentucky was explored in 1773; a resolution was formed to make 
settlements in the spring following, and the mouth of the Little Kana- 
wha was appointed the place of general rendezvous in order to descend 
the river from thence in a body. Early in the spring the Indians had 
done some mischief. Reports from their towns were alarming, which 
caused many to decline meeting and only eighty or ninety men assembled 
at the place of rendezvous, where we lay some days ; a small party of 
hunters which lay about ten miles below us were fired on by the Indians, 
whom the hunters beat off and returned to our camp. This and many 
other circumstances led us to believe that the Indians were determined to 
make war; the whole of our party was exasperated, and resolved not 
to be disappointed in their project of forming a settlement in Ken- 
tucky, as we had every necessary store that could be thought of. An 
Indian town called Horse-Head Bottom on the Siotho and nearest its 
mouth lay most in our way. We resolved to cross the country and sur- 
prise it. Who was to command was the question. There were but 
few among us who had experience in Indian warfare, and they were 
such as we did not choose to be commanded by. We knew of Captain 
Cresap being on the river about fifteen miles above with some hands 
settling a new plantation, and intending to follow us to Kentucky as 
soon as he had fixed his people ; we also knew that he had had experi- 
ence in a former war. It was proposed and unanimously agreed on 
to send for him to command the party. A messenger was dispatched 
and in half an hour returned with Cresap. He had heard of our reso- 
lution by some of his hunters who had fallen in with those from our 
camp, and had set out to come to us. We now thought our little army 
(as we called it) complete, and the destruction of the Indian town 
inevitable. A council was called and to our astonishment our intended 
general was the person who dissuaded us from the enterprise, alleg- 
ing that appearances were suspicious, but that there was no certainty 
of a war ; that if we made the attempt proposed he had no doubt of 
success, but that a war at any rate would be the result ; that we should 
be blamed for it and perhaps justly ; but that if we were determined 
to execute the plan, he would lay aside all considerations, send for his 

Digitized by 


Clark's letter concerning cresap and logan. 103 i 

people and share our fortunes. He was then asked what measure he 
would recommend to us. His answer was that we should return to 
Wheeling, a convenient post to obtain intelligence of what was going 
forward ; that a few weeks would determine the matter, and as it was 
early in the spring, if we should find that the Indians were not hostilely 
disposed, we should have full time to prosecute our intended settle- 
ments in Kentucky. This measure was adopted and in two hours the 
whole party was under way. As we ascended the river we met Kill- 
buck, and Indian chief (Delaware), with a small party. We had a 
long conference, but obtained very little satisfaction from him. It was 
observed that Cresap did not attend this conference, but kept on the 
opposite side of the river. He said that he was afraid to trust himself 
with the Indians ; that Killbuck had frequently attempted to waylay 
and kill his father and that he was doubtful that he should (^be) tempted 
to put Killbuck to death. On our arrival at Wheeling, the whole 
country being pretty well settled thereabouts, the inhabitants appeared 
to be much alarmed, and fled to our camp from every direction. We 
offered to cover their neighborhood with scouts until we could obtain 
further information, if they would return to their plantations; but 
nothing we could say would prevail. By this time we got to be a for- 
midable party, as all the hunters and men without families, etc., in 
that quarter joined us. Our arrival at Wheeling was soon known at 
Pittsburgh, the whole of that country at that time being under the 
jurisdiction of Virginia. Doctor Connelly had been appointed by 
Dunmore, captain commandant of the district then called West 
Augusta. He, Connelly, hearing of us, sent a message addressed to 
the party, informing us that a war was to be apprehended, and request- 
ing that we would keep our position for a few days ; that messengers 
had been sent to the Indian towns whose return he daily expected, and 
the doubt respecting a war with the Indians would then be cleared up. 
The answer we returned was that we had no inclination to decamp 
for some time, and during our stay we should be careful that the 
enemy should not harass the neighborhood. But before this answer 
could reach Pittsburgh, he had sent a second express addressed 

Digitized by 


1032 Clark's letter concerning cresap and logan. 

to Captain Cresap as the most influential man amongst us, inform- 
ing him that the messengers had returned from the Indian town and 
that a war was inevitable and begged him to use his influence 
with the party to get them to cover the country until the inhabit- 
ants could fortify themselves. 

The time of the reception of this letter was the epoch of open 
hostilities with the Indians. The war post was planted ; a council 
called and the letter read and the ceremonies used by the Indians on 
so important an occasion acted, and war was formally declared. 

1. The same evening two scalps were brought into camp. 

2. The following day some canoes of Indians were discovered de- 
scending the river, taking advantage of an island to cover themselves 
from our view. They were chased by our men fifteen miles down 
the river; they were forced ashore and a battle ensued. A few 
were wounded on both sides, and we got one scalp only. On ex- 
amining their canoes we found a considerable quantity of ammuni- 
tion and other warlike stores. On our return to camp a resolution 
was formed to march next day and attack Logan's camp on the Ohio, 
about thirty miles above Wheeling. We actually marched about f\ve 
miles and halted to take some refreshment; here the impropriety 
of executing the proposed enterprise was argued. The conversa- 
tion was brought forward by Cresap himself. It was generally 
agreed that those Indians had no hostile intentions, as it was a hunting 
camp composed of men, women and children, with all their stuff with 
them. This we knew, as I myself and others then present had been 
at their camp about four weeks before that time on our way down 
from Pittsburgh. In short every person present, particularly Cresap 
(upon reflection), was opposed to the projected measure. We re- 
turned, and on the same evening decamped and took the road to 

3. It was two days after this that Logan's family was killed, and 
from the manner in which it was done it was viewed as a horrid 
murder by the whole country. From Logan's hearing that Cresap 
was at the head of this party at Wheeling, it was no wonder that he 
considered Cresap as the author of his family's destruction. 

Digitized by 


Clark's letter conxerning cresap and logan. 1033 

Since the receipt of your letter I have procured the notes on Virginia. 
They are now before me. The action was more barbarous than 
therein related by Mr. Jefferson. Those Indians used to visit and re- 
ceive visits from the neighboring whites on the opposite shore. They 
were on a visit at Greathouse's at the time they were massacred by 
those people and their associates. The war now raged with all its 
savage fury until the following fall, when a treaty of peace {was) 
held at Dunmore's camp, within five miles of Chillicothe, the Indian 
capital on the Siotho. Logan did not appear. I was acquainted 
with him and wished to be informed of the reason of his absence by 
one of the interpreters. The answer he gave to my inquiry was "that 
he was like a mad dog ; that his bristles had been up, were not yet quite 
fallen, but that the good talks now going forward might allay them." 
Logan's speech to Dunmore now came forward, as related by Mr. 
Jefferson, and was generally believed and indeed not doubted to have 
been genuine and declared by Logan. The army knew it was wrong 
so far as it respected Cresap, and afforded an opportunity of rallying 
that gentleman on the subject. I discovered that Cresap was dis- 
pleased, and told him that he must be a very great man that the In- 
dians shouldered him with everything that had happened. lie smiled 
and said that he had a great mind to tomahawk Greathouse about the 
matter. What is here related is fact. I w^as intimate with Cresap, 
and better acquainted with Logan at that time than with any other 
Indian in the western country, and had a knowledge of the conduct 
of both parties. Logan is the author of (M^) speech as related by 
Mr. Jefferson, and Cresap's conduct was such as I have herein related. 
I have gone through a relation of every circumstance that had any 
connection with the information you desire and hope it will be satis- 
factory to yourself and Mr. Jefferson. 

I am your most obedient servant, G. R. Clark. 

Doctor Samuel Brown. 

[Indorsed:] General Clark's letter to Sam Brown on the subject 
of Logan's speech. 

Digitized by 





(From a manuscript showing great age, found with the Bowman papers, purport- 
ing to be a copy of the pay-roll of Joseph Bowman's company. It is now in 
possession of the author and has never before been published.) 

Captain Joseph Bowman 

First Lieutenant Isaac Bowman., 
Second Lieut. Abraham Kellar.., 

Daniel Dust, sergeant 

Isaac Kellar, sergeant 

Promoted Jacob Speers, sergeant 

Michael Setser 

Abraham Miller 

William Slack 

Ligey Huste, 1 

Thomas Perrey, I 

Robert McClanihan, [ 

Barnev Master, J 

John §etser 

John Bentley , 

Henry Honaker 

Frederick Honaker 

Henry Funk 

George Livistone 

Henry Chrisman 

Samuel Stroud 

Edward Bulger 

Abrm. James 

Alexander Mclntire 

Philip Orben 

Thomas Clifton 

William Berrey 

Barnabay Walters 

William McGumrey 

Jacob Cogar 

Peter Cogar 

Jan. 23 
" 23 
" 24 
" 24 
»i 25 

J"lv 5 
Feb. 20 

" 28 
" 28 


Feb. 8 

" 22 

Mar. I 

" I 

" 2 

" 4 

" 4 

" 7 

- 8 

" 8 

" 8 

•* 8 

" 9 

" 15 

" 1 5 

" 16 

" 21 

*( 21 


Miles to 

go home. 














1 1 50 





































11 so 

1 150 


due the 









♦There are some letters and check marks in this column, but the edge of the 
paper has so broken off they can not be deciphered. 
tSpelled "Rashings" in the roll. 


Digitized by 




Jacob Speers 

Thos. H. Vance 

James Bentlej' 

George Millar, deserted . 

Patrick Doran 

Henry Traylar 

Isaac McBride 

Edward Murrey 

Tos Simson 

Philip Long 

George King 

Joseph Pangrass 

Francis Pangrass 

Michael Pangrass 

Charles McClock 

Nathan Cartmill, 1 
James Gouday, 
Samuel Dust, 
William Berrey, 
Zebeniah Lee, 


Mar. 21 
*• 22 
Apr. 6 
'• 6 
" 6 
*♦ 6 
" 6 
" 6 

Jan. 28 



July 4 
Aug. 8 

Miles to 
go home. 

1 1 50 

1 100 
1 100 


due the 





In justice to the memory of those marked " deserted " on this roll, it should 
be remembered that these volunteer soldiers were enlisted under peculiar cir- 
cumstances, as related in the body of this work. It was given out publicly, as a 
matter of policy, that the troops were wanted for a differant service than they 
really were, and when the real object became known, some felt they had been 
deceived and simply declined to serve, without becoming deserters in the sense 
!hat word would now imply. 


Digitized by 








Commissioned Officers. 























In pav of the Rebels 







Enrolled with Officers who bore 





Without Commissions 




2 2 







Officers Who Were on Pay : 

J. Baptiste Cardinal. 1 p . 
Francois Bosseron. J P 
Timothy Monbrun. It-. 
Michel Brouliette. | Lieutenants. 
J. B. Vauchesc Lajennesse. ^ ^ . 
Nicolas Perot. j Ensigns. 

Hypolite Baulon, Indian Interpreter. 

Henry Hamilton, 
Lieutenant-Governor and Superintendent. 
Indorsed: "Return of militia at Post Vincennes, 24th Decem- 
ber, 1778, enclosed in Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton's letter of i8th 
December. Marked, Detroit, No. 25. 
Canadian Archives, Series B, Vol. 122, p. 234. 


Digitized by 



An Act for establishing the county of Illinois, and for the more 
effectual protection and defense thereof, reciting that, 
Whereas, By a successful expedition carried on by the Virginia 
militia, on the western side of the Ohio river, several of the British 
posts within the territory of this commonwealth, in the country ad- 
jacent to the river Mississippi, have been reduced and the inhabitants 
have acknowledged themselves citizens thereof, and taken the oath of 
fidelity to the same, and the good faith and safety of the common- 
wealth require that the said citizens should be supported and protected 
by speedy and effectual reinforcements, which will be the best means 
of preventing the inroads and depredations of the Indians upon the 
inhabitants to the westward of the Allegheny mountains ; and. 

Whereas, From their remote situation, it may at this time be 
difficult, if not impracticable, to govern them by the present laws of 
this commonwealth until proper information, by intercourse with 
their fellow-citizens, on the east side of the Ohio, shall have familiar- 
ized them to the same, and it is therefore expedient that some tempo- 
rary form of government adapted to their circumstances should, in 
the meantime, be established. 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly^ That all the citizens of this 
commonwealth who are alreadv settled, or shall hereafter settle on the 
western side of the Ohio aforesaid, shall be included in a distinct 
county, which shall be called Illinois county ; and that the governor of 
this commonwealth, with the advice of the council, may appoint a 
county lieutenant or commandant-in-chief in that county, during pleas- 


Digitized by 



ure, who shall appoint and commission so many deputy commandants, 
militia officers and commissaries, as he shall think proper in the differ- 
ent districts, during pleasure, all of whom, before they enter into 
office, shall take the oath of fidelity to this commonwealth and the 
oath of office, according to the form of their own religion, which the 
inhabitants shall fully, and to all intents and purposes, enjoy together 
with all their civil right and property. 

And all civil offices to which the said inhabitants have been 
accustomed, necessary for the preservation of peace and the adminis- 
tration of justice, shall be chosen by a majority of the citizens in their 
respective districts, to be convened for that purpose by the county 
lieutenant or commandant, or his deputy, and shall be commissioned by 
the said county lieutenant or commandant-in-chief, and be paid for 
their services in the same manner as such expenses have been hereto- 
fore borne, levied and paid in that county ; which said civil officers, 
after taking the oaths as before prescribed, shall exercise their sev- 
eral jurisdictions and conduct themselves agreeable to the laws, which 
the present settlers are now accustomed to. 

And on any criminal prosecution, where the offender shall be ad- 
judged guilty, it shall and may be lawful for the county lieutenant or 
commandant-in-chief to pardon his or her offense, except in cases of 
murder and treason ; and in such cases he may respite execution from 
time to time, until the sense of the governor in the first instance, and 
of the general assembly in the case of treason, is obtained. But 
where any officers, directed to be appointed by this act, are such as the 
inhabitants have been unused to, it shall and may be lawful for the 
governor, with the advice of the council, to draw a warrant or war- 
rants on the treasury of this commonwealth, for the payment of the 
salaries of such officers, so as the sum or sums drawn for do not ex- 
ceed the sum of five hundred pounds, anything herein to the contrary 

And for the protection and defense of the said county and its inhab- 

^e it enacted^ That it shall and may be lawful for the governor, 

Digitized by 



with the advice of the council, forthwith to order, raise and levy, 
either by voluntary enlistments, or detachments from the militia, five 
hundred men, with proper officers, to march immediately into the 
said county of Illinois, to garrison such forts or stations already taken, 
or which it may be proper to take there or elsewhere, for protecting 
the said county and for keeping up our communication with them, 
and also with the Spanish settlements, as he, with the advice afore- 
said, shall direct. And the said governor, with the advice of the 
council, shall, from time to time, until farther provision shall be made 
for the same by the general assembly, continue to relieve the said 
volunteers or militia, by other enlistments or detachments, as herein- 
before directed, and to issue warrants on the treasurer of this com- 
monwealth for all charges and expenses accruing thereon, which the 
said treasurer is hereby required to pay accordingly. 

And be it further enacted^ That it shall and may be lawful for the 
governor, with the advice of the council, to take such measures as 
they shall judge most expedient, or the necessity of the case requires, 
for supplying the said inhabitants, as well as our friendly Indians in 
those parts, with goods and other necessaries, either by opening a 
communication and trade with New Orleans, or otherwise, and to apn 
point proper persons for managing and conducting the same on be- 
half of the commonwealth. 

Provided^ That any of the said inhabitants may likewise carry on 
such trade on their own accounts, notwithstanding. 

This act shall continue and be in force, from and after the passing 
of the same, for and during the term of twelve months, and from 
thence to the end of the next session of assembly, and no longer. 

This act was extended by subsequent legislation.* 

• Hening's Statutes of Virginia. 

Digitized by 




The State of Virginia 

To Brigadier-General G. R. Clark, 


For sundry paymenti, expenses, and other disbursements by him made, in behalf of the 
said State and Illinois Department, yiz.: 

March 30 


April 4 














May 12 




July 5 






August 1 






Nov. 19 


March 16 


May 24 




To a treat at rendesvous 

Paid an express from the mouth of Muddy creek 

For flour for Captain Helm's company 

Ten men, for bringing boats from Wheeling to Redstone. . . 

For a treat to Captain Helm's company 

For a treat to Captain Bowman's company 

For 66 yards linen for boat covers 

For repairing boats 

John Maxwell, for 12,189 pounds flour in barrels 

Jacob Bousman, for 130 ferriages 

For 4 pair hand-cuffs 

Francis Charleville, for 10 beeves 

Charles Charleville, for 150 pounds gunpowder 

For rum, per Captain Worthington's receipt 

For 142 pounds grunpowder 

Mr. Murray, for rum for use of the troops 

For sundry ferriages to the Spanish side, per certificate . . . 

For 14 pounds bacon, at 60 cents per pound 

For a boat, per Major Bowman's certificate 

Delouri for storage and cartage of merchandise, at Missere, in 
the Spanish country 

118 20 
8 20 

287 00 
6 60 

$273 60 

213 40 

16 60 

1,851 20 

10 80 

10 00 

237 60 

248 00 

$2,087 60 

19 00 

840 00 

29 40 

4 00 


80 00 

36 00 

%\(& 40 

*The figures immediately following dates are supposed to be numbers of vouchers. 


Digitized by 




An armorer for S7 days' work, at 8 liyrei per day 

A carpenter for 88 days' work at Fort Olarke 

For repairing the garrison at Kaskaskia 

For 20 pounds powder, at |8 per pound 

For 50 pounds lead, at 60 cents per pound 

For 100 flints 

For 16 flour barrels 

For 40 pounds lead 

For 70 pounds powder 

For 1 grappling iron (say boat anchor) 

Different ferriages oTer the Mississippi 

Mr. Labadie for 1,000 pounds lead 

3 men employed by William Swan for repairs at Fort Clarke 
Sergeant James Bspy, as per receipt on his pay-roll 

John Landers for services, per receipt 

For transporting troops to the Cherokee fort 

For ahorse furnished Mr. Oibaultfor his services to St. Vincent 

Doctor Laffont, for like services 

Charles Charleville, for 56 gallons tafDa, delivered to Indians 

at sundry councils and treaties, at 4 per gallon 

Charles Charleville, for IS quarts liquor, for like purposes. 

Charles Charleville, for a horse 

Charles Charleville, for H gallon taffla delivered the fatigue 

party for raising a boat 

Mr. Qratoit, for 182 pounds gunpowder 

Mr. Qratoit, for ^ gallon rum for fatigue party loading boats. . 

Mr. Qratoit, for cartage of gunpowder 

Mr. Gibault, for a colt lost while his mare was in public serv 


Captain John Williams, his pay abstract 

Captain Joneast, for sundries furnished the troops, per his ac- 
count rendered at Fort Clarke 

Captain Edward Worthington, his pay abstract 

Captain Richard McCarty, his pay abstract 

Captain Richanl McCarty, for his volunteer company.. 

Lieutenant Perault, for his pay abstract 

$50 ao 

61 60 
25 80 
40 00 
25 00 
15 00 

$228 60 
80 00 
140 00 
80 00 
10 00 
250 00 
28 40 
60 00 

1528 40 

352 00 
60 00 
60 00 

224 00 
10 40 
40 80 


112 00 

8 40 


5.128 00 

16,042 20 

600 00 

3,547 80 

1,248 40 

720 40 

516 00 

Digitized by 




Captain Joseph Bowman, for his pay abstrmot 

Captain Abm. Keller, for hit pay nbttraet 

UttjoT Joseph Bowman, for bis pay abstract 

For two days' work 

Lieutenant John Oiranlt, in part of his recrniting aeconnt, 
per his receipt thereon 

For sundry necessaries for the hospital 

For 205 pounds flour, at 8 dollars per hundred, dellTered Cap- 
tain Shelby 

Captain Francis Charlerllle, for his pay abstract 

For sundry necessaries for use of the hospital 

Lieutenant John Bailey, expenses on recruiting 21 men, per 


An express from St. Vincent to the Vermillion towns .... 
Mons. Antoine Oamelin, Indian agent, for sundry expenses 

while he was treating with the Ouabache Indians 

For sundry necessaries for use of the hospital at Fort Clarke 
Charles Charleville, for 2% cwt. flour, at |8 per cwt 

Two men for three days, and search after public horses 

For 2 gallons taflia for Kaskaskla Indians 

For 4 loads wood 

For 20 pounds gunpowder 

For 100 flints 

For 50 pounds lead 

An express to Kahokla 

A coxswain for 70 days' service on board the Willing batteau 
on the expedition to Post Vincent 

Joseph Menafleld for 45 day's work at Fort Clarke 

An armorer for repairing arms at Fort Clarke 

For 232 pickete, at 1 livre each 

Captain Leonard Helm, in part of his pay abstract transmitted 
to goTcrnment, as per his receipt theroon 

Captain Joseph Bowman, in part of his pay abstract trans- 
mitted to goyemment, as per bib receipt thereon 

Captain Wm. Harrod, in part of his pay abstract transmitted 
to goyemment, as per his receipt thereon 

11,708 40 

1365 00 

442 80 


900 00 
28 00 

16 20 
328 20 

810.895 80 
37 00 

118 00 
90 00 

1.143 20 
45 00 
17 00 

81,880 20 

12 00 

40 00 
2 00 

20 00 

10 OC 

197 80 

70 00 

45 00 
24 00 

46 40 

880 80 

1,188 20 
1.136 80 

Digitized by 










Captain John Montgomery, in part of his pay abstract trans 
mitted to government, aa per his receipt thereon 

Charlea Caderon, for proTislons and other necessaries fur- 
ntahed Captain Bowman's company on their march to Illi- 

M. Bolsey for Icwt.gnnpowder.per receipt of Captain Bowman 

85 For horse hire, as per receipt of Captain Bowman 

Sept. 26 86 Lacroix's account, per Major Bowman's certificate 

87 Lacroix's account for provisions, per certificate of Major Bow-' 

I man 

Thomas Brady's aoconnt for rations, pe certificate of Major 


Oct. 81 80 Lacroix*s account, per certificate of Major Bowman (Indian 


Sept. 20 90 Lacroix's account, per certificate of Major Bowman 

91 Richard McCarty's account, per certificate of Major Bowman 
Not. 10 92 For horse hire, per certificate of Major Bowman 

Monsieur Lavasseur, per certificate of Major Bowman 

For stone, wood, etc., per certificate of Major Bowman 

For stone, wood, etc., per certificate of Major Bowman 

For stone, wood, etc., per certificate of Major Bowman 

Lacroix's two acconnts for provisions, per certificate of Major 

98 Monsieur Cotineau for rum for volunteers and Indians, per 
Captain Mccarty's certificate 
















19 99 At Prairie de Roche, per certificate of Captain Bowman — 

100 Expenses at St. Philip's to St. Pierre, per certificate of Major 


101 Richard McCarty, for Bnsign Levine's board, 11 days 


May 22 

102 Expenses at Kaskaskia, per Captain Bowman's certificate . . . 

103 Monsieur Barbee's account, certified by Captain McCarty. 

104 ^Lacroix's provision account, certified by Major Bowman. 


Lacroix's provision account, certified by Mi^or Bowman 

For horse hire and loss of saddle, per certificate of Major Bow- 

$2,161 80 

15.557 40 

76 60 

100 00 

8 40 

115 40 

254 60 

560 60 

43 40 
859 60 

76 80 
8 00 

11,603 40 
2 40 

470 40 


20 80 

10 60 


88 00 

20 20 

1143 20 
708 40 
159 20 

8 40 

Digitized by 



May 22 107 






For horse hire and loss of saddle, per certificate of Major Bow 


For horse hire and loss of saddle, per certificate oi Major Bow 


For provisions at Kaskaskia, per certificate of Major Bowman. 

For 1 ferriasre, per certificate of Major Bowman 

For 2 cwt. flour, per 2 receipts of Daniel Murray 

Mr. Barbineau, for 1,000 pounds flour and 600 pounds Indian 

meal, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

Mr. Barbineau, for 1,000 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel 

Murray , 

Raffo Bauvais, for 291 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

Mr. Charleville, for 2,206 pounds flour and 2,059 pounds In- 
dian meal and 50 loads hay, i>er receipt of Daniel Murray. 

Mr. Plassy, for 2 pounds nails 

For corn, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

Mr. Plassy, for 200 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray. 

Mr. Barbineau, for 200 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel 

Mr. Barbineau, for 200 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel 

Renew, for com, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

Renew, for corn, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

Degane, for corn, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

Mr. Barbineau, for 100 pounds flour, i>er receipt of Daniel 
Murray ($18 for corn) 

Mr. Barbineau, for 200 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel 

Mr. Barbineau, for 100 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel 

128 Rago Bauvais, for 49 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

129 Mr. Plassy, for 100 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray. 
Rago Bauvais, for 250 ];>ounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Mur- 

Rago Bauvais, 100 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray. 
Mr. Bienvenue, for 4,000 ];>ounds flour, per receipt of Daniel 


Mr. Plassy, for 29 pounds buflFalo beef, per receipt of Daniel 



145 20 
80 00 
12 00 

72 00 

60 00 

17 40 

11,229 20 

406 20 

1 20 


12 00 

12 00 

12 00 
6 00 

12 00 

24 00 

12 00 

6 00 

15 00 

240 00 


1787 40 

Digitized by 



May 22 



184 Carre, for 80 pounds meal, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

135 Cerre, for 542 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

136 Cerre, for 19,824 pounds beef, per receipt of Daniel Murray — 

137 Cerre, for 100 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

138 Cerre, for 400 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

189 Cerre, for 405 pounds buffalo beef, per receipt of Daniel Mur- 

140 Cerre, for 1,784 pounds flour, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

141 Cerre, 446 pounds Indian meal, per receipt of Daniel Murray. 

142 Cerre, for one canoe, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

143 Cerre, for cartage, 1 day, per receipt of Daniel Murray 

144 For Daniel Murray's certiflcate to Bienvenue 

145 For 5,424 pounds buffalo beef, per Daniel Murray's certificate 

146 For 7,150 pounds flour, per Daniel Murray's certificate 

147 For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date 

148 I For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date for, wood 

13 149 For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for proTlsions. . 



July 28 

Sept. 2i 

For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for wood 

For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for wood 

For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for provisions — 
For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for provisions. . . 
For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for 1,000 pounds flour. 
For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for 5,580 pounds flour. 
For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for 600 pounds In 

dian meal 

For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for 119 loads wood.. . 
For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for 725 pounds pork. 

For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for wood 

For Daniel Murray's receipt of this date, for 33 loads wood. . 

For Daniel Murray's receipt to Mr. Plassy 

For Daniel Murray's receipt to Mr. Plassy, for provisions. . . . 

For Daniel Murray's receipt for 1 hogshead taffla 

For Daniel Murray's certificate for provisions 

For 6 days' board for an Indian Interpreter 

J. B. Lacroiz for sundry expenses treating with the Indians 
between 1st of August and this date, per his account ren 

$2 40 
32 60 
1,982 40 
24 00 

20 40 
107 00 
13 40 
10 00 

12,200 20 


825 60 

429 00 

1 80 

86 00 

132 00 

9929 40 



188 00 

77 40 

60 00 

445 60 

18 00 
119 00 

58 00 
1 60 

38 00 
167 00 

12 00 
140 60 

12 00 

205 80 

$1,500 00 

Digitized by 



Sept. 28 











Thomai Brady's two Accoants for sundry Indian expenses, as 

certified by Major Bowman 

Monsieur Laorolz*s account for sundry Indian ezpenses, per 

certificate of Major Bowman 

Moses Henry for his account of sundry Indian expenses, per 

certificate of Captain Helm 

Moses Henry for his account of sundry Indian expenses, per 

order of Captain Helm.. 

An account certified by Captain Bowman 

Mr. Danis, his wages as Indian interpreter from Kaskaskia to 

Wlan, under Captain Helm, and for horse hire, etc., etc. . . 
Monsieur Laoroix's sundry expenses while treating with dit 

ferent nations of Indians, as per account 

For goods furnished to Indians, as per certificate of Captain 


For rum to Indians at sundry times 

For rum, goods, etc., to Indians 

For 5 bottles rum to Indians 

For 5 bottles rum to Indians 

For rum at a treaty in November 

Mons. Deneau, for atrip to the Chipra nation, as Indian agent 

For 2 bottles of rum for Indians 

For 4 pair shoes for Indians , 

For 18 shirts for Indians 

For 10 pair shoes for Indians 

For 3 quarts taffla for Indians 

For 1 quart taffla for Indians 

For sundry expenses at a treaty at Post St. Vincent, in Febru- 
ary, 1779 

For taffla at sundry times for Indians 

Captain Helm's order in fayor of Mr. Hubberdeau, f or sundry 

Mr. Gilbault's and Laf ont's expenses at taking possession of 
Post St. Vincent, in 1778 

Captain Helm's order in favor of John Lourse 

J. M. P. Legras' account for sundries furnished, per Captain 
Helm's certificate 

Captain Helm's order in favor of Charles Amoneau, for sun- 
dries furnished the troops 

1216 40 

43 40 

77 60 

60 00 
144 40 

260 00 

125 20 

118 20 
21 40 
156 00 
7 40 
6 00 
12 00 

$1,248 00 
240 00 
12 00 
48 40 
80 00 
12 00 

47 00 
60 00 

218 00 

657 00 
128 00 


87 00 

Digitized by 



Sept. 23 104 

Captain Helm's draft In favor of John Lonrse, for sandries. 
Captain Helm's draft in favor of F. Boseron, for sundriaa. . . 
Captain Helm's draft in favor of Pierre Comia, for sundries. 

Quartermaster Rogers' certificate in favor of Mr. Renault, for 


Captain Helm's orderin favor of Jean Vauohers, for snadries. 
Captain Helm's order in favor of Mr. Renault, for sundries.. . 
Captain Helm's order in favor of John Gilbert, for sundries. . 
Captain Helm's order In favor of Mr. Lafontaine, for sundries. 

Captain Helm's order in favor of the bearer for sundries 

Lieutenant Richard Brashear's order in favor of Cripeau, for 


Captain Helm's order of January last, in favor of Cripeau, for 


Captain Helm's order in favor of Mr. Roberdeau, for sundries 
Captain Helm's order in favor of Mr. Roberdeau, for sundries 
Captain Helm's order in favor of Mr. Roberdeau, for sundries 
Captain Helm's order in favor of Francois Boseron, for sun^ 


Mich. Antia, for sundry services, etc 

A blacksmith's bill of this date, for sundry iron work 

A carpenter's account for work and repairs at Fort Clarke . 

Mons.Cerre's account for provisions, etc., furnished the troops 
at Fort Clarke, between 7th last July and this date, per his 
account rendered 

James Manaf ee, for 12 cords wood 

Jamea Manafee, for 13 cords wood 

Armstead Dudley, for 8 days' work 

Jamea Graham, for 10 days* work 

For Paul Kennedy's bonds for different public services, per 

his account 2, 951, 2, « 

r Daniel Murray, for 24 bushels salt, at |6 per bushel 

( Daniel Murray, for casks and cooperage 

Mr. Plassy, for pitch and oakum 

For casks, by order of Captain Harrod 

For 151 2 bushels salt, per Captain Harrod 's order 

For 63 bushels salt and 2 casks, per Captain Harrod*s order. 

$171 00 
500 00 
600 00 

14,846 60 

128 00 
921 00 
114 20 
379 60 
300 00 
108 60 

185 00 

625 80 

46 00 

178 60 

648 80 

510 00 

18,980 80 
80 00 
58 80 
48 60 

2,862 60 

12 00 

12 00 



18,028 00 

590 20 

144 00 

6 00 

9 60 

13 40 

77 40 

401 40 

Digitized by 



Sept. 28 


Nov. 10 

For 61}^ bashels salt, per Captain Harrod's order 

For 9^ bushels salt, per Captain Harrod's order 

For 1021^ pounds gunpowder, per Captain Harrod's order. 

For 1853^ pounds lead, per Captain Harrod's order 

For repairing Captain Harrod's boat 

For 2 hogshead taffia, as per receipt of Captain George 

Barllet Bcarey, for going express from St. Vincent to 


Herman Consler, as express from Kaskaskia to Urn burg*. . 
For sundry attendance and necessaries furnished for the sick 

at the falls of the Ohio 

Edward Murray, as express from Kaskaskia to the falls of the 


Boston Damewood, for taking up a boat anchor 

To cash, of the recalled emissions now returned, per receipt 

of Qeorge Brooke 

To cash paid Jacob Laconrse for a hogshead of taflfia 

Paid Captain Helm's 8 sundry drafts on me of the 31th of 
October, 1778, viz: 

I in favor of Cripeau for 

lin favor of Chapoton for 

1 In favor of J. M. Legrass (of the 29th) for 


Paid Mr. Barbeau for lodging the Chippewas when coming to 

J. R. Hanson, for his account of sundries for the friendly In 

Beaussere, the tailor, per certificate of Major Bowman 

Ahavmand, at Caho,per certificate of Major Bowman, for sun 
driesfor the sick 

Kenell for making flags for Indians, per certificate of Major 

Major Bowman's draft on me for furniture 

Richard McCarty, for sundries, per his account by Major Bow- 

Jos. Brown, for 793 pounds beef for the troops, per his receipt 

Sundry expenses, as per voucher 

$370 60 

47 40 

307 40 

185 60 


$2,150 00 
400 00 

75 00 
1,000 00 

319 80 

100 00 
100 00 

16,271 00 
600 00 

$18,865 80 

118 40 
211 00 
760 80 

4 60 

124 60 
148 00 

22 60 
454 60 

139 00 
IGO 00 
109 00 

•Probably should be Williamsburg ( Wmsburg). 

Digitized by 



Nov. 10 

Major Smith, for lupport of the Kentackj yolunteen, per re- 

William Helm, for bacon, as per receipt 

Joseph Andrews, for mm for Indians, per certificate of Captain 


T. Brady, for provisions furnished at Fort Clarke 

For sundries for use of the hospital, per Dr. Rey 

Antoine Bienvenue, for provisions furnished at Fort Clarke.. . 
Charles Charleville, per receipt, for sundries 

$600 00 

Charles Charleville, per receipt. 

Brasseau, for his account 

J. B. Lacroix, per receipt 




267 For a horse and furniture, per order of Moses Henry. 

268 John Hargis, on part of his contract for beef 




269 For 1 gallon taffia, as treat to Colonel Rogers' men after their 


29 270 2 of Captain Linclot's volunteers, 8 months' pay 

271 Moses Henry, per his 8 accounts 

272 Captain Quirk,* sundries for use of his company, per receipt 

273 Captain Helm, in part of his accounts, per receipt 

274 Captain Worthington, for use of his company, per receipt 

275 Advanced Henry Crutcher, a reduced commissary, in part of 
his services before he was reduced (book debt) 

Advanced Captain Richard McCarty, deceased, in part of his 
pay for recruiting and other necessary purposes (book ac- 

Advanced Captain Abraham Kellar, in part of his pay for re 
cruiting and other necessary purposes (book account) — 

Paid Lieutenant Penault, in part of his recruiting account 
per receipt thereon 

Advanced Doctor Ray, for use of the hospital (book account) 

Advanced Captain Evans, for use of his company (book ac- 

Advanced Captain J. Shelby, for use of his company (book' 

$2,843 40 

260 00 
777 40 
85 00 
264 00 
428 40 

$1,762 80 

22 20 

3 00 

614 60 

$639 80 
80 00 
200 00 

80 00 
177 00 
1,815 00 
148 CO 
354 00 
916 60 

24 00 

$3,294 60 

8,591 60 

600 00 
160 00 

109 00 

«lt is difficult to make out whether this name is Quirk or Quick— most likely the latter. 

Digitized by 



Oct. 29 


Advanced Captain Isaac Taylor, for the use of his company 


f book accounts 

1118 00 

Cash paid J. M. Simmons for copying my public account, per 

14.881 40 


100 00 


Paid William Shannon's 54 draftt on me in favor of sundry 
persons, for public eervices, etc , as will appear by his ac- 

count, 34,206 llvres 

6,841 20 

June 21 


William Shannon's draft on the treasurer in favor of Mons. 

Cerre ( No. 120) 

875 00 



William Shannon's draft on the treasurer in favor of Charles 

Charlevil le (No. 132) 

1,096 60 

William Shannon's draft on me (No. 65) 

82 00 

May 16 


William Shannon's draft on me (102) 

461 20 

William Shannon's sundry small drafts on me, per his receipt 

83 80 

June 20 


William Shannon's draft on the treasurer, in favor of M. Mc- 

Cartv (No. 115) 

78 00 

Not. 9 


William Shannon's draft on the treasurer, in favor of N. Ran- 

dolph (No. 170) 

9,718 00 

119,126 80 



Oantain Dodcre. for 1 i>iroirue, ...,,,.,, , - - t 

865 00 



3wan for iron 

80 00 

Dec. 6 


For a larse coDoer kettle 

190 00 




For wood for barracks... 

20 00 


Expenses In making 42 bushels salt at Bullet's Lick, per ac- 


count of Richard Chenoweth 

1,788 00 

For tallow 

179 00 


For fuel 

10 00 


McGtoe, for his work, per certificate, in lieu of yards cloth. . . 

562 00 

Jan 1 


For 8 bushels corn 

320 00 


For wood for barracks, |100 ; do., $18 

118 00 



For beef 

60 00 

Jesse Rood, for hauling fuel 

60 00 



Express for St. Vincent 

50 00 


For wood 

60 00 

Feb. 4 

For cutting and hauling fuel 

50 00 



For repairing barracks 

150 00 

March 12 


Silas Harlan, for 16 bushels corn, delivered to Captain Bailey 


for recruits 

800 00 


John Briscoe, Jr., for casks, per certificate 

45 00 

Digitized by 



Htrcii 24 







April 8 


Sept. 1 


Oct. 5 


Feb. 12 


March .. 


May 10 




Jnne 2 


July 28 




Levin Powell, for an iron chain and grate, per certificate. . 

Leyln Powell, for a battean, appraised at £2,000 

Leyln Powell, for 6^ pounda powder ; 11^ pounds lead, and 

200 flints for whisky for the troops 

For whisky for the troops 

Thomas Vickroy, for a bag, per certificate 

John Donne's account for provisions, etc 

Thomas Vickroy, for paper, per certificate 

Anthony Rolins, for 163>^ pounds fiour 













Aug. 8 





Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Crocket, per receipt 

Isaac Fisher, for expenses as express to Holdston 

Coleman and Hill, as express from the falls to Fort Pitt 

Hardy Hill, for 16 bushels corn, per receipt 

Ensign Tannehill,for his expenses as express from Richmond 
to Fort Pitt 

William Harrison, in full of his account, per receipt, £15,156.14 

William Harrison, Benjamin Harrison's expenses, per ac- 

William Harrison, In behalf of the government, per receipt, 
Penn. cur.— specie; £126,582.6 (this accounted for in ac- 
count), £18 » 6Ji 

John Gibson, merchant, for goods he furnished Colonel Gib 
son, for use of Indians on account of United States, per 
his receipt £72 2 4 

Daniel McKinney's account of smith work 

Captain Isaac Craig's account of expenses from Fort Pitt to 
Philadelphia, per receipt 

Captain Isaac Craig, in part of his expenses at Philadelphia 
and returning, wagon hire, etc., per receipt 

Captain Craig, balance of said account £36 14 

To cash paid Henry Hoglan, express 

Paid Butler and Hart, for going express 

Edward Murdock, as spy ... 

Thomas Phelp's account for provisions 

John Allan, in part for a rifle-gun for John Baptist, the Indian 

For subsistence for wounded soldiers . 
For liquor for soldiers on command . 
For whisky for soldiers at Baker's 

$306 00 
6,666 66^ 

884 00 
798 00 
70 00 
40,104 1G% 
136 00 
817 50 

17,060 00 
1,000 00 
6,200 00 
1,620 00 

4,650 00 
60,522 33^t) 

436 66% 

421,941 00 

376 00 

1,997 00 

7,308 00 

1,100 00 
7,041 06=3 
4.800 00 
29,475 00 

900 00 

80 00 
315 00 
200 00 


Digitized by 




Feb. 10 


Xy expentes at Hog's, per yoncher 

Express to the county lieutenant of Berkley 

For 10 quires paper 

For 8 pairs stockings lor soldiers 

Expenses at Winchester, at Edmondson's, including £190 10 

for N. Randolph, per receipt 

John Gibson, for sundries furnished at Fort Pitt, per account 

£1,302 7 914 

Captain Robert George, in part of his recruiting account, as 

per his receipt thereon 

Captain Robert George, in part of his pay abstract, as per his 


Colonel John Montgomery, in part of his pay, per receipt. . 

Major Thomas Quirk, as per receipt on his pay-roll 

Captain Richard Brashear, in part of his recruiting account, 

as per his receipt thereon 

Captain John Williams, in part of his pay, as per receipt on 

his pay-roll 

Martin Carney, quartermaster, in part of his pay, per his re- 
ceipt on his pay-roll 

Jacob Pyatt, per order of Captain John Rogers, for provisions, 

per voucher 

Captain John Bailey, in part of his account for recruiting, as 

per receipt thereon 

John Donne, in part of his pay, per receipt 

Advanced Joseph Lindsay, per receipt, for purchases in the 

commissary department 

Advanced Leonard Helm, superintendent, in part of his pay, 

per his receipt 

Advanced Captain Worthington, in part pay of his receipt, 

entered in account 

Advanced Nat. Randolph, for public purposes, per receipt. . . 
Advanced Wm. Shannon, per his receipt, for public purposes 
Advanced John Donne, per receipt on his pay account (see 

voucher No. 64), £9 I2s 6d. Total of amount represented 

in pounds, etc., £1,439 6s l%d 

To balance on this account at your credit in new account, 
£17 4s 7V^d plus £1,489 6s l^d = £1.456 lOs 9d 

$10,026 00 
500 00 
450 00 
800 00 


38,550 00 

4,427 00 

8,800 00 

107,329 00 

4,769 1^ 


2,450 00 

5,660 00 

16,067 00 
4,584 00 

18,950 00 

1,500 00 

8398 88H 
115,266 66^ 
1,119,558 00 

12,177,916 16^ 
23,476 66^ 

12,201,892 8S14 

Digitized by 



The State of Virginia 

To Brigadier- General G. R. Clark ^ 


For sundry payments, 'expeniet and other disbursements by him made, in behalf of the 
said State and Illinois Department, viz. : 






















' 7 

















































By my draft of this date on Oliver Pollock, payable to— 


C. Charleville 




Laulpe , 


Ant. Morain 


C. Charleville 





Dan Murray. 

Madr. Bently 



By draft of this date on Oliver Pollock, payable to— 

A. Chouteau 

A. Chouteau 


Pierre Comia 




James Perault. 




1285 20 
206 00 
616 20 
280 80 

1,278 00 
837 00 
738 60 
111 00 

1,100 00 

2,789 00 
667 00 
229 80 
146 00 

$8,680 60 
144 00 
660 00 
644 60 
116 00 
116 00 
670 80 
1,156 60 

481 80 
1,680 00 
124 20 
500 00 
500 00 

16,886 40 
800 00 
920 20 

8,716 40 
828 00 

r,501 00 

Digitized by 




Jan. 23 



82 iDeloQcr 

83 Vigo ... 

April 30 
May 1 



July 17 
August 7 
May 21 




J. P. LerrauU 

Vazquer . 
Duplaai . 

Dan Murray 


Captain Janls 




Chai. Charleville 





Lafontalne .. 
Pierre Godln . 
F. Trotter.... 


John Girault 

Marie Menaze 


F. Charleville 

Antolne Pettice 

Raplcault — 

By my draft on Oliver Pollock, In favor of— 
A. Bienvenue 

By my draft on the treasurer of Virginia In favor of— 

J. M. P. Legras 


1521 00 


225 20 

1,040 00 

1,867 20 

$18,466 00 

1,022 40 

1,000 00 

964 60 

12,987 00 

192 00 

2,234 60 

600 00 

440 00 

1,456 60 

1,452 00 

1,752 00 

1,565 40 

784 40 

625 00 

$11,102 00 
519 00 
579 60 
613 16 
220 20 
3S1 40 

3,950 60 
1.851 00 
900 00 
1,140 80 
432 60 
800 00 
800 00 
408 00 

400 00 
113,807 80 

Digitized by 






17 72 

18 73 
23, 74 

August 8 75 

Dec. 14 

Jan. 18 



Feb. 9 




March 28 

By my draft on the treasurer of Virginia In fayor of— 

LoyIb Le Compt 

Pierre Bonenx 

M. Ponre 

By my draft on the treasurer of Virginia in favor of— 

Gratiot (say Feran) 

R. McCarty 

McCrae A Co 



J. B. Lacroix 


Antolne Gamelin 

By cash received from government, in January, 1778, £1,200 

Virginia currency 

By cash received from government, in May, 1779, per Lleuten 

ant-Colonel Montgomery, £9,400 Virginia currency 

By bill on the treasury in favor of— 

Colonel John Todd 

Thomas Phelps 

Henry Smith 

Richard Chinoworth 

Evan Hinton 

James Batey 

Marsham Brashear 

Peter Sturgus 

Henry Holdman 

Henry French 

(Note— The first of these bills in Legross, the second set in 

Wm. Nathan's possession.) 

William Pope 

William Pope 

Thomas Phelps 

Squire Boon 

Kvan Hinton 

Charles Mlja Thurston £1,000 00 

Simon Tripolet 2,668 09 

Charles West 573 17 6 

John Smith 746 18 6 

1800 00 

480 00 

488 00 

1,427 80 

2,716 00 

137 00 

208 00 

803 80 

447 80 

607 00 

1,143 20 

4,000 00 

81,388 40 

$44,178 00 

10,018 00 
2,666 66^ 
5,417 50 
1,198 00 
1,333 83^ 
1,833 83H 

1,388 33>^ 

1,383 33»^3 

1,333 88^ 

600 00 

2,000 00 
2,000 00 

633 6^ 
1,333 83H 

600 00 


Digitized by 



March 28 

April 25 


Julj 27 
Oct. 15 

CbarleiDean £288 00 

Levin Powell 4.77108 

£0,948 08 6 

By CMh received of Ck>lonel Todd, per John Kogers. 

Bj caih, £405,000, equal to 

By 18 billf of 1750 each, drawn on the treaaurer for the re- 
cruiting Bervioe, dated February 9 and March 1. '80 

By my bill on treaaurer in favor of John Gibson, merchant, 
Penn. cur. specie £1,419 16 9 

By my bill on treasurer in favor of Captain Isaac Craig, £86 14 
(sum of biUs of July 27 and October 15) £1,456 10 9 

By cash received of Captain Cherry last June, 1781 — £200 000 

ISS.161 83H 
8.838 88^ 

1,850.000 00 

9.750 00 

666,666 6^ 

»|2,201,802 88Vi 

*Reports Committee SO Congress. Report H. R. No. 216. 

' NoTX.~It should be understood that the amount stated in this account is often ex- 
pressed in paper money at par, but which was, in fact, under par, and finally became 

Digitized by 



Account of Cash disbursed by Henry Hamilton^ Esqr.^ Lieutenant- 
Governor and Superintendent of Detroit for His Majesty^ s Serv- 
ice between the 24th of February^ ^779i <^nd the 24th of Mciy^ 
1781^ as also of the Bills drawn and Money received by him. 


1779, October idth— To cash paid Philip Dejean oh accoant of his 


February, 1780, Mth— Do paid Jacob SchielTelln his pay as Lieat. and 
writer to the Indian Department from I5th Sept., 1778, to this 
date , InclQslye 

May a4tli— Do paid Francois Medsonvillo as boat master on aoct. of 


Jane 6th— Do paid Patrick McKlndley of Capt. Lamothe's company 
468 days' pay from the a4th Feby.. 1779, to the 6th Jane, 1780, 3 
28 4d per day... 

Jaly— Do paid for clothing and liquor for the prisoners of war. . . 

December 6th— Do paid John Hay at sundry times his pay from I5th 
Sept.. 1778, to the 24th December, 1780, being 831 days at I6s per 
day as major of the Detroit V. militia and lOs per day and £40 
per year as deputy agent of Indian affairs 

Do paid do 200 days Bat A Forage from 15th Sept.. 1778, to the 1st 
Aprtl, 1779 

Do paid Oapt. GuiUaume Lamothe 668 days' pay (9 lOs per day from 
25th February, 1779. to 24th December, 1780 

Do paid do 200 days Bat A Forage as above 

Do paid John McBeath as surgeon from the 15th Sept.. 1778. to the 
24th Dec. , 1780, 881 days' pay at 9s 4d per day 

Do paid do 200 days Bat A Forage as above 

Do paid Antoine Bellefeuille as Interpreter from 15th Sept. , 1778, to 
the 4th December, 1780—831 days' pay ® 4s 8d per day 

Do paid do 200 days Bat A Forage as above 

Do paid Amos Alnsley as master carpenter from 15th Sept. , 1778, to 
the 15th of February . 1780— being 509 days ® 78 per day 

l781,March5th— Do paid James Parkinson as sergeant major from 
34th February, 1779, to this date, being 789 days at 28 4d per day. 







15 . 



















Digitized by 



LT.-Gov. Hamilton's disbursements. 


Do paid William Taylor of Oapt. Lamothe's company 7S9 days* pay 
from the a4tli of February, K79, to this date, Inclaslye at 2s 
4d per day 

Do paid John Brebane of Oapt. Lamothe's company 1739 days' pay 
from the Mth of February, 1779, to this date. Inclusive, o 2s 4<] 
per day 

DC paid a detachment of the Elng*s or 8th regiment at different 
times, as per certified account 

April 24th— Do paid Major Hay his pay as above, from 26th Decem 
ber, 1780, to the 24th May , 1781 , both days Included 

Do paid Capt. Lamotheas above, from 2Sth Deceml>er, 1780, to the 
24th May, 1781, Inclusive 

Do paid Dr. McBeath as above, from 2Sth December, 1780, to the 
24th May, 1781, Inclusive 

Do paid Mr. Bellefeullle, as above, from 25th Deceml>er. 1780, to the 
24th May. 1781. inclusive 

1779, June 19— By a set of (6) bills on His Excellency, General Hal- 
dlmand, commander-ln-chlaf In Oanada, In favor of Ck>l. Joslah 

August 17th— Do (6) bills on — do In favor of Samuel Beale 

October 5th— Do (4) bills on —do in favor of David Geddes, Esqr. 

1780, Feby . 8— Do (3) bills on do In favor of John "Hay 

April 19— Do on — In favor of Jacob Schelffelln 

October 21— Do one bill on David Geddes. Esqr., favor of Bobt. 

Slam for £7311, Virginia money, at $80 for one 

December 29— By cash received from His Excellency, Sir Henry 
CI mton , by warrant 

1781, April 10th— Do a set of (4) bills on His Excellency, General Hal 
dlmand, in favor of David Geddes, Esqr 

By cash received from His Excellency, Sir Henry Clinton, by war 
rant of the 6th of April 

Sterling £. 















(Errors excepted.) (*Jehu7] 

Hbnbt Hamiltoit, 
Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit. 
Endorsed ^'Account of disbursements, etc., by Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton 
between the 24th Feby. , 1779, and the 24th May, 1781. 
[B 139. p. 89.) 

Digitized by 



OF 1786. 

"The executive board of Virginia had convened in May, 1786, 
and on the 15th had ordered a convention of the field officers of the 
Kentucky militia, to take measures for the protection of the frontier. 
The field officers assembled, determined on an expedition, and chose 
Clark to command them ; but there had been no provision for supply- 
ing the troops, and nothing could be done without supplies. The 
question then arose whether the Virginia authorities intended them to 
use their discretion on this subject, and in order to get a reliable legal 
opinion they laid Governor Henry's letter, the militia laws of Vir- 
ginia, and the sixth article of confederation, before the attorney-gen- 
eral and supreme judges of Kentucky, who, after consultation, reported 
as follows: 

*' We are of opinion that the executive have delegated all their power 
under the said law and article of confederation, so far as they relate 
to invasions, insurrections and impressments, to the field officers of 
that district, and that the officers, in consequence thereof, have a right 
to impress, if necessary, all supplies for the use of the militia, that 
may be called into service by their orders under the said order of 

*'Geo. Muter, 
''Caleb Wallace, 
*'Harrv Innis.'' * 

• Dunn's History of Indiana, pp. 170, 171, where the subject is fully and fairly 


Digitized by 






Slaughter, George. 


Crittenden, John. 


Ray, Andrew. 


Evans, Jesse. 
Fields, Benjamin. 
Mark, Thomas. 
Roberts, Benjamin. 


Crockett, Anthony. 
Ramsey, Joseph, 
Ravenscroft, Thomas. 
Roberts, John. 
Roberts, William. 

Saunders, Joseph. 
Slaughter, James. 
Slaughter, Joseph. 


Greene, Robert. 
Kincaid, Joseph. 


Allen, Samuel. 
Andree, Jean. 
Ballard, Bland. 
Ballard, Proctor. 
Biron, J. B. 
Blearn, David. 
Bolton, Daniel. 
Bond, Shadrach or Bland. 
Breeden, John. 
Brossard, Pierre. 
Brown, Collin. 
Burne, Pierre. 
Campbell, George, 
Carbine, Henry. 
Clark, Adams. 


Digitized by 


Clark's officers and privates 


Decker, Jacob, died. 
Denton, Thomas. 
Drumgold, James. 
Durst, Daniel. 
Fever, William. 
Frazier, Abraham. 
Garrett, John. 
Goodloe, Henry. 
Haut, Henry, killed. 
Hazard, John. 
Hicks, David. 
Jamieson, Thomas. 
La Venture, J. 
Mason, Charles. 
Mathews, Edward. 
Murony, William. 
Murray, Thomas. 
Portwood, Page. 
Piere, William. 
Ranger, J. B. 
Rector, John. 
Rice, John. 
Richards, Lewis. 
Roberts, Benjamin. 
Robertson, John. 
Rodgers, David. 
Ross, James. 
Ross, John. 
Roy, Julien. 
Rubido, Francis, died. 
Ryan, Andrew. 
Ryan Lazerus. 
Slaughter, John. 
Stephenson, John. 
Villiers, Francis, killed. 
Walker, John. 
White, Randolph. 
Wilson, John. 
Workman, Conrad. 
Young, John. 


Ballard, James. 

Blein, Pierre. 

Bowen, William. 

Cameron, James. 

Hawkins, Samuel. 

Hain, William. 

Sills, Samuel. 

Crutcher, Henry, vol. andq. m. 


Lovell, Richard. 


Conley, Thomas. 
Poores, Archer. 


Harrison, James. 
Leney, Thomas. 
Mulby, William. 
Smith, Josiah. 


Hopkins, Richard. 
Hupp, Phillip. 


Abbott, William, Sr. 
Abbott, William, Jr. 
Adams, Francis. 
Allen, Isaac. 
Allen, John, Sr. 
Allen, John, Jr. 
Allery, Joseph. 
Alonton, Jacob. 
Anderson, John. 

Digitized by 




Antier, Francis. 

Apperson, Richard. 

Asher, Bartlett. 

Back, John. 

Ballard, Bland William. 

Ballenger, Larkin. 

Barber, John. 

Barny, William (or Barry). 

Bender, John. 

Bender, Lewis, died. 

Bender, Robert. 

Berard, . 

Berry, William. 

Bigraw, Alexander. 

Bingamore, Adam. 

Binkley, William. 

Bird, Samuel. 

Blair, John. 

Blancher, Pierre. 

Blearn, David. 

Bollinger, James. 

Boss, David (or Bass). 

Bouche, John. 

Bowman, Christian. 

Brazer, Peter. 

Breeden, Richard. 

Brenton, Thomas (or Benton). 

Bressie, Richard. 

Brown, Asher. 

Brown, Calvin. 

Brown, John. 

Brown, Lewis. 

Brown, Low. 

Brush, Thomas. 

Bulcher, Gasper (or Butcher). 

Burbridge, John, died. 

Burbridge, William, died. 

Burk, George. 

Burney, Simon (or Burnley). 

Bush, John (or Brush). 

Bush, Drewry (or Brush). 

Buskey, Francis. 

Burris, John. 

Butler, John. 

Butts, William (prisoner). 

Cabbage, Joseph. 

Cabbassie, B. 

Calvin, Daniel. 

Campo, Lewis. 

Campo, Michael. 

Chambers, EUick. 

Chapman, Edward. 

Chapman, Richard. 

Chick, William, killed. 

Clark, John. 

Clairmount, Michael. 

Cochran, Edward. 

Cochran, George. 

Codes, Andrew. 

Coffee, Samuel. 

Compera, Francis. 

Compera, Lewis. 

Conn, John. 

Conroy, Patrick. 

Contraw, Francis. 

Convance, Paul. 

Cooper, Joseph. 

Cooper, Ramsey. 

Coontz, Christopher. 

Corder, James (or Cordew.) 

Corneilla, Patrick. 

Corns, John (or Corns). 

Coste, J. B. De. 

Cowan, Andrew. 

Cowan, Mason. 

Cowen, Dennis. 

Cowdry, John. 

Cowgill, Daniel. 

Cox, James. 

Crane, John, St. 

Digitized by 


Clark's officers and privates 


Crawley, John. 

Cure, Jean Baptist. 

Damewood, Boston. 

Dardy, Baptiste. 

Dardy, John. 

Darnell Cornelius. 

Davis, Joseph. 

Day, William. 

Dean, James, died. 

Decrand, P. 

Denerchelle, Lewis (or Druie- 

Detering, Jacob. 
Doherty, Edward. 
Doherty, Frederick. 
Doherty, John. 
Dolphin, Peter. 
Doud, Rodger. 
Donovan, John. 
Donow, Joseph. 
Doyle, John. 
Dulhoneau, Pierre. 
Duncan, Archibald. 
Duncan, Benjamin. 
Duncan, Charles. 
Duncan, David. 
Duncan, Joseph. 
Duncan. Ximrod. 
Duncan. Samuel. 
Durrett, James. 
Durrett. William. 
Dusablong, B. 
Duselle, Mons. 
Eastis, James. 
English, Robert. 
Evans, Stanhope. 
Fache, Lewis (or Foche). 
Field, Daniel, died. 
Farers. John. 
Field, Lewis, prisoner. 

Foster, Henry. 

Freeman, Peter. 

Gagnia, Jacque. 

Gains, William (or Garner). 

Gains, John. 

Gallagan, Owen. 

Garuldon, Baptist (or Gauch- 

George, John. 
Germain, J. B. 
Gibbons, Samuel. 
Guion, S. Frederick. 
Gognia, Pierre. 
Gomier, Abraham (orGaunia) 
Goodwin, Amos. 
Goodwin, Edward. 
Gordon, John. 
Graham, James. 
Gratiol, Jean (or Gratiott). 
Green, James, died. 
Greenwood, Daniel. 
Grolet, Francis, Sen. 
Grolet, Francis, Jr. 
Grimshire, John. 
Guess, John (or Gist). 
Hall, William. 
Hart, Miles. 
Hawley, Richard. 
Hays, James. 
Head, James. 
Hendrix, Andrew. 
Heyworth, Berry ( or Hey- 

Hicks, Mordica, died. 
Hico, Peter, Sen. 
Hico, Peter, Jr. 
Hildebrand, James. 
Hite, George. 
Hobbs, James. 
Holler, Francis. 

Digitized by 




Hollis, Joshua. 

Horn, Christopher. 

Horn, Jeremiah. 

Horton, Adin (or Aaron). 

Houndsler, Charles. 

Howell, Peter. 

Howell, William. 

Huffman, Jacob. 

Irby, David. 

Jewell, Charles. 

Jewell, John. 

Jones, Edward. 

Johnston, Samuel. 

Kemp, Reuben. 

Kennedy, David. 

Kerr, William. 

Kidd, Robert. 

Kina, Christopher. 

Kincade, James. 

King, George. 

King, Nicholas. 

Kirk, Thomas. 

Kirkley, James. 

La Belle, Charles. 

La Casse, Jacque. 

Lafaro, Francis. 

Lafaston, Francis. 

Laform, John. 

Lafour, Pierre (or Laflour). 

Lamarch, Beauvard. 

Lamarch, J. B. 

Lamarch, Lewis. 

La Paint, Lewis. 

Larose, Francis. 

Lasant, Joseph. 

Lasley, John. 

Laubrau, . 

Laughlin, Peter. 
Lavigm, Joseph. 
Laviolette. Baptist. 

Laviolette, Louis. 
L'Enfant, Francis. 
Lenay, John. 
Lenay, Thomas, killed. 
Lewis, Benjamin. 
Lewis, James. 
Lockhart, Archibald. 
Logan, Hugh. 
Long, William. 
Lunsford, Anthony. 
Lyon, Jacob. 
McClain, Thomas. 
McClure, Patrick. 
McDaniel, Thomas. 
McDonald, James. 
McDonald, Thomas. 
McGuire, John. 
Mcintosh, James. 
McKin, James. 
McKinney, John. 
McLockland, Charles. 
McMichaels, John. 
McMickle, John. 
McMullen, James. 
McQuiddy, Thomas. 
Maid, Ebenezer, killed. 
Mailone, J. B. 
Maisonville, Mons., De. 
Malbeff, Joseph. 
Malbroff, Joseph. 
Marsh, John. 
Marshall, William. 
Martin, Elijah. 
Martin, Joseph. 
Martin, Pierre. 
Martin, Solomon. 
Maurisette, M. 
Mayfield, Elijah. 
Mayfield, Isaac. 
Mayfield, James. 

Digitized by 


Clark's officers and privates 


Meadows, Josiah. 
Miller, John. 

Milton, Daniel (or Wilton.) 
Missie, Bernard. 
Montgomery, Edward. 
Montgomery, William. 
Moran, Peter (or Mauron). 
Monet, J. B. 
Morris, Jacob. 
Morris, James, died. 
Morris, William. 
Mumnailly, Joseph. 
Munrony, Sylvester. 
Munam, Joseph. 

Mustache, . 

Nave, Conrad (or Nan). 

Nash, Francis. 

Neal, John. 

Nelson, John. 

Nelson, Moses. 

Nobbs, Mark. 

Oates, Samuel. 

O'Fin, James. 

Oliver, John. 

Oliver, Lewis. 

Oliver, Turner. 

Owdidd, Lewis (or Ordett). 

Paguin, Francis. 

Parault, Peter. 

Parisiewne, Baptist. 

Patterson, John. 

Patterson, William. 

Panther, Joseph. 

Payne, Adam. 

Payne, William. 

Pellot, Charles. 

Penett, Joshua, or M. Peepin. 

Peltier, Joseph. 

Pepin, John, killed. 

Philips, Henry. 

Porter, Ebenezer. 

Potter, James. 

Potter, William. 

Powell, Micajah. 

Puncrass, Francis. 

Puncrass, Joseph. 

Rabey, Cader. 

Randall, Robert. 

Richards, Dick. 

Riley, Patrick. 

Rubido, James (orRubideau). 

Ruschan, Francis. 

Russell, Benjamin. 

Rutherford, Larkin. 

Roberts, Elias. 

Roberts, Joseph. 

Robinson, Richard. 

Rodgers, Joseph. 

Savage, Bryan. 

Savage, Dominick. 

Scates, David. 

Searay, John (or Searcy). 

Scare, William. 

Sennilt, Richard. 

Severage, John (or Severns). 

Shannon, William. 

Shank, Jacob. 

Shank, John. 

Sharlock, James (or Sherlock). 

Shoemaker, Leonard. 

Ship, William. 

Siburn, Christopher. 

Sigonier, Francis. 

Slaughter, George. 

Smith, David. 

Smith, Joseph. 

Smith, Randal. 

Smithers, John (or Smothers). 

Smock, Henry. 

Snellock, Thomas. 

Digitized by 




Sowers, Frederick. 
Spencer, John. 
St. Mary, Baptiste. 
St. Michaels, 

Stoball, Thomas. 
Taylor, Benjamin. 
Taylor, Edward. 
Taylor, James. 
Taylor, Thomas. 
Teliaferro, Richard C- 
Thomas, Edward. 
Thompson, James. 
Thorinigton, Joseph. 
Tillis, Griffin. 
Toley, Daniel. 
Tranthan, Martin. 
Triplett, Pettis, 
Turpen, Richard, killed. 
Tuttle, Nicholas. 
Underhill, James. 
Veale, Peter. 
Villard, Isaac. 
Vonshiner, Thomas. 
Waddengton, John. 
Waggoner, Peter, died. 
Wallace, David. 
Walters, Lewis. 
Ward, Thomas. 
Ward, Lewis. 
Wemate, J. B. 
West, John. 
Wethers, Benjamin. 
Wheat, Jacob. 
Wheel, Jacob. 
Wheeler, John. 
Whitacre, David. 
White, William. 
Whitten, Daniel. 

Wilkinson, William. 
Williams, George. 
Williams, Zachariah, 
Wilton, Daniel. 
Winsor, Christopher. 
Wood, Charles. 
Wray, Thomas. 
Wright, William (or Weight). 
Zimmerman, Frederick. 



Crockett, Joseph. 


Walz, George. 


Greer, Charles. 


Chapman, John, killed. 
Cherry, William. 
Curney, John. 
Kinley, Benjamin, died. 
Moore, Peter. 
Tipton, Abraham. 
Young, Thomas. 


Daring, Henry. 
Green, Samuel Ball. 
McGovock, Hugh. 

Digitized by 


Clark's officers and privates. 1067 

It has already been stated in the body of this work that the list 
therein given of officers and soldiers who were allotted lands in Clark's 
Grant, for service in reducing the British posts, is believed to be 
correct, but that no such claim for accuracy is made for the list of 
those who served in other campaigns and were not allotted lands in 
Clark's Grant- In fact, taking into consideration the number of 
General Clark's campaigns against the Indians and the number of 
men who participated in them, it is very probable that the names of 
some of them are not in the above list. Of this class may be given 
the following names mentioned in Reynold's Pioneer History of Illi- 
nois as having served under George Rogers Clark : 

Atcheson, George. McDonough, Stace. 

Biggs, William. Moore, James. 

Dodge, . P'ggot, James. 

Garrison, James. Seybold, Robert. 

Groots, . Wadde, David. 

Jarrot, Nicholas. 


Digitized by 




Louisville, Aug. 2, 1784. 
Commissioners met according to adjournment. Present — Walker 
Daniel, George R. Glark, John Montgomery, John Bailey, Robert 
Todd and William Clarke, Gent. Commissioners ordered that the 
board adjourn till to-morrow morning. 

(Signed) W. Daniels, Chairman. 

' Aug. 3d. The board met according to adjournment. Present — 
the same members as yesterday, and also Ab. Chapline, Gent. 

On motion the board came to the following resolutions : That all 
officers and soldiers who marched and continued in service till the re- 
duction of the British posts on the northwest side of the Ohio, that 
all who engaged and enlisted in the Illinois regiment afterward and 
served during the war, or three years, are entitled to a share of the 
grant under the resolution and act of assembly, and that those sol- 
diers who have enlisted in said regiment since the 2d day of January', 
1 78 1, for three years, or during the war, are not entitled, as there 
seems to be no provisions made under the resolution for those who 
should thereafter be incorporated in the said regiment ; that the ofli- 


Digitized by 



cers of the regiment are entitled to a share of the land in proportion 
to the commissions they respectively held on the said 2d day of Janu- 
ary, 1781, and not in proportion to the commissions they have since 
held in consequence of promotions, and that, therefore, officers com- 
missioned since that period are not entitled at all ; and that those sol- 
diers who enlisted to serve twelve months after their arrival at Kas- 
kaskia, agreeable to an act of assembly of the fall session, 1778, for 
the protection and defense of the Illinois county, who did not re-enlist 
in the regiment, are not included in said resolution ; that those officers 
who were commissioned under said act and resigned before the ex- 
piration of the twelve months are not entitled ; last, that those who 
continued during the year and then retired, not having a command, 
are entitled. Adjourned. 

Aug. 4th. The same members as yesterday. 

The following claims were taken up and allowed and disallowed as 
they are marked, to wit:* 

*Geo. R. Clark, Brig. Gen. John Swan, Lt. 

•John Montgomery, Lt.-Colo. *IIenry Floyd, Lt. 

♦Joseph Bowman, Major. *Rich'd Harrison, Lt. 

♦Thomas Quick, Major. *Jas. Robertson, Lt. 

♦Walker Daniels, Major. ♦Abraham Chapline, Lt. 

James Shelby, Capt. ♦John Perault, Lt. 

John Bailey, Capt. ♦Michael Perault, Lt. 

Rich'd Brashear, Capt. ♦Jos. Calvert, Lt. 

Rob't George, Capt. Jas. Montgomery, Lt. 

Rich'd McCarty, Capt. ♦Isaac Bowman, Lt. 

♦Abraham Kellar, Capt. ♦Jarrott Williams, Lt. 

♦Edw'd Worthington, Capt. ♦Rich'd Clark, Lt. 

*Wm. Ilarrod, Capt. ♦Wm. Clark, Lt. 

Wm. Lynn, not allowed. ♦Thos. Wilson, Lt. 

♦Isaac Ruddle, same. ♦Val. Dalton, Lt. 

♦Levi Todd, Lieutenant. ♦Jacob Vanmeter, Ens. 

♦Jas. Davis, Lieut. ♦Lawson Slaugter, Ens. 

*Those marked with an asterisk (*) were allowed, but subsequent proceed- 
ings of the board show that the action at this meeting as to the allowance of 
claims was not final. 

Digitized by 



Isaac Kellar. 
♦Andrew Clark, sol'd. 
*Wm. Whitehead, do. 

Rob't Whitehead, do. 

Boston Damewood, not all'd. 

Wm. Crosby, same. 
*Peter Newton, sol'd. 

Niches Tuttle, not allowed. 
*John Grimes, soFd. 

Francis Grolet, not al. 

Francis Grolet, Jr., not al. 

Hugh Logan, same. 

John Dodge, same. 

Isreal Dodge, same. 
*John Vaughn, Sergt. 
*Ber Trent, do. 

John Tewell, not al. 
*Levi Teall, soldier. 
*Francis Godfrey, do. 

Mat Brock, not alPd. 
*Edw'd Murray, sold. 

Jas. Jerrald, not all'd. 

Francis Hardin, same. 

Larkin Ballink, do. 

Wm. KeiT, do. 
*Henry Dewitt, Sergt. 
*Wm. Crump, do. 
*John Moore, do. 
*Edw'd Johnston, sold. 

Ch's Evans, do. 

Geo. Hait, not allowed. 

And Ray, same. 

Val Dalton, not all'd as an 

Jas. Sherlock, not alPd. 

John Dougherty, do. 

Ch's McLocklin, do. 
*Jessie Finer, sold. 
*Jas. Brown, Sergt. 
*Wm. Elms, do. 

* Joseph Ross, sold. 

*Chs. Ormsley, do. 

*Jas. Hillebrand or Dawson, do 

*Jas. Elms, do. 

*Dan Tygeit, do. 

Rich'd Breeden, not al. 
*John Cowan, sold. 
*Wm. Pritchett, Sergt. 
*Wm. Purcell, sold. 
♦Pet Priest, do. 
*Geo. Veuchionn, do. 
*And. Conore, do. 
*Josiah Prewit, do. 
*Buckner Pitman, Sergt. 
*Ab. Miller, sold. 
*Nat Jones, do. 

Christo Coontes, not al'd. 
*Isham Floyd, sold. 

John Lines, soldier. 

Sam Blackford, do. 

Laton White, do. 

Abraham Lusado, do. 

Wm. Ray, do. 

Jas. Harris, do. 

Thurman Consuly, do. 

John Duff, do. 

Jas. Curry, do. 

Shep. Stephens, do. 

Ebend. Bowen, not all'd. 

Wm. Swan, sold. 

Simon Kenton, do. 

John Saunders, do. 

Geo. Clark, do. 

Wm. Whitley, do. 

David Glenn, do. 

Silas Harlin, do. 

John Severns, do. 

Ebenezer Severns, do. 

Wm. Greer, do. 

Jas. Inley, Sergt. 

Digitized by 



107 1 

Dan Durst, not alPd. 
Wm. Rubey, Sergt. 
Pat Doran, sold. 
Wm. Greathouse, do. 
Chas. Bilterback, do. 
Robt. Patterson, Sergt. 
Tilman Camper, sold. 
Jas. Monroe, do. 
Chas. Jones, do. 
Benj. Kendall, do. 
Robt. Garrott, do. 
John Oreer, Sergt. 
Dan Oreer, sold. 
Jesse Oreer, do. 
Sam Humphries, do. 
Eben Mead, not all'd. 
Dorn Flanaghan, sold. 
Jonas Meniper, do. 
John Talley, do. 
Dan Tally, not all'd. 
Wm. Tackledge, sold. 
Jas. Kincaid, not all'd. 
John Sartine, sold. 
•Henry French, not all'd. 
Peter Locklin, do. 
John McGuire, do. 
John Leslie, do. 
Lough Brown, do. 
Hugh Logan, do. 
David Bailey, sold. 
Sam Butcher, not all'd. 
Isaac Henry, sold. 
Henry Hatton, not all'd. 
John Isaac, sold. 
Jas. Finn, sold. 
Wm. Chapman, do. 
David Rodgers, not all'd. 
Sam Byrd, do. 
Jas. Bigger, sold. 
Jas. McKinne, not all'd. 

Gasper Butcher, do. 

Step Ray, do. 

Cornelius Copland, sold. 

Wm. Shannon's pet. rejected. 

Benj. Lynn, not all'd. 

Sam Moore, same. 

Henry Honacker, sold. 

P. Honacker, do. 

Hanley Vance, do. 

John Williams, Capt. 

Geo. Walls, not allowed. 
•Rob't Todd, Capt. 

Leon'd Helms, Capt. 

Isaac Taylor, same. 

Jesse Evans, not allowed. 
*John Rodgers, Capt. 
*Jas. Merriweather, Lt. 
*John Thruston, Cornet. 
*John Joines, soldier. 
*Jas Baxter, sol'd. 
•John Johnson, do. 
*Wm. Bell, do. 
•Rich'd Lovell, do. 
*Sam Watkins, do. 

Lewis Gaynice, do. 

John Lemon, do. 

Thos. Gaskins, do. 

Moses Lunsford, do. 

Wm. Smith, do. 
♦Mich. Millar, not all'd. 
♦Rob't Witt, soldiers. 
♦Nich's Burk, do. 
*Wm. Bush, do. 
*Micajah Mayfield, do. 
*Thos. Hooper, do. 
•John Montgomery. 
•Francis McDermed, sol'd. 
•Edw'd Parker, Sergeant. 
•Pet Shepherd, soldier. 
•Wm. Thompson, do. 

Digitized by 



*Geo. Shepherd, do. 
♦Randall White, do. 

Geo. Lunsford, do. 

Mason Lunsford, do. 
*Isaac Yates, soldier. 
*Geo. Livingston, same. 
*Reuben Camp, do. 
♦John Pulford, do. 
*Jas. Bryant, do. 
*Page Sartia, do. 
*John Nelson, not allowed. 

Enoch Nelson, sol'd. 
♦Jonathan Sworden, do. 

♦William Rullison, do. 
♦Christ. Hatten, do. 

James Dean, not all'd. 
♦Geo. Gilmore, sol'd. 

Lewis Brown, not all'd. 
♦Jos. Thornton, sold. 
♦Daniel Williams, do. 
♦David Allen, do. 

Moses Nelson, not all'd. 
Aug. 5th. 
♦Dennis Cockran, sold. 

David Jones, subst. for John 

Commissioners of military stores and of provisions not allowed. 
Martin Carney, not allowed as a Lt. nor as a W. Master. 

♦John McGar, sold. 
♦John Oakley, do. 
♦John Haiken, do. 

Jas. Ramsey, do. 

John Leverege, not all'd. 

Armd Dudley, sold. 
Edvv'd Mathews, not all'd. 
Chas. Morgan, do. 
Wm. Freeman, sold. 
John Ash, do. 

Those Continentals who came up with Captain George and never 
re-enlisted in the Illinois Reg't are not allowed. 

John Williams, Sergt. 
Thos. Moore, sold. 
John Moore, do. 
Wm. Tyler, do. 
James Lynes, do. 
John Greene, do. 
Wm. Myers, do. 
John Paul, do. 
John Hughes, do. 
Isaac Vanmetere, do. 
Andrew House, do. 
Ebenezer Osbourne, do. 
Thos. Batten, do. 
Stephen Frost, do. 

Van Swearenger, do. 
Jas. January, soldier. 
Jas. McNutt, do. 
Geo. Grey, do. 
Elisha Bethey, do. 
Rich'd Reu, not all'd. 
Arthur Lindsey, sold. 
Sam McMullen. do. 
Edw'd Wilson, do. 
Sam Stroud, Sergt. 
Barney Watem, sold. 
Henry Funk, do. 
Jacob Coger, do. 
Peter Coger, do. 

Digitized by 




Jas. Bentley, do. 
John Bently, do. 
Edw'd Fear, do. 
Wm. Slack, do. 
Asael Davis, do. 
John Boyles, do. 
Jos. Ramsey, do. 
Thos. Clifton, do. 
*Israel Dodge, not all'd. 
Rich'd Lutterell, sold. 
Wm. Crosley, soldier. 
Jas. Wood, do. 
Jas. Holms, do. 
Jos. Anderson, do. 
Moses Camper, do. 
Isaac Farris, sold. 
John Henry, do. 
Hugh Henry, do. 
David Henry, do. 
Edw'd Bulger, do. 
Ab. James, do. 
Henry Prather, do. 
Jacob Spear, do. 

Ab. Taylor, do. 

Sam Bell, do. 

Mos. Nelson, not all'd. 

Edw'd Taylor, do. 

Jas. Whitecotton, sold. 

Christo. Horn, not al'd. 

Rich'd Sinnett, do. 

Noah Craine, sold. 

Geo. Campbell, not al'd. 

Sam Pickens, sold. 

John Peartree, do. 

John Read, not al'd. 

Chas. Margan, do. 

Wm. Ruby, Jun., do. all'd. 

Com Ruddle, do. 

Pleast. Lockhart, do. 

Josiah Phelps, do. 

Wm. Buckley, do. 

Wm. B. Smith, not al'd. 

Turner Oliver, do. 

Dan Whitten, do. 

Jos. Henter's pet. rejected. 

Capt. Rodgers has the list of his sergeants and soldiers and will 
give a copy. 

Soldiers during the war entitled to a double share Aug. 6th. 

The commissioners direct certificates to be issued in the following 
mode, to wit: To a brigadier-general, 7,500; to a lieutenant-colonel, 
4,500; to a major, 4,000; to a captain, 3,000; to a subaltern, 2,000; 
to a sergeant, 200, and to a private, 100 acres of land, which, on a 
calculation, is supposed to leave 19,500 acres of land as a residuum, 
subject to be granted to future claimants that shall appear entitled and 
to have labored under legal disability to have brought in their claims 
and to the further directions of the commissioners, and in case of a 
future division among the claimants the lands are to be apportioned 
according to the preceding regulations. The agent is ordered to make 

Digitized by 



out certificates, etc., to be signed by the chairman, delivered to the 
surveyor, who is to advertise and distribute them among those enti- 
tled, taking a receipt therefor, and receiving a dollar per hundred 

Aug. 7th. The surveyor is directed to deliver the certificates of 
claim to the persons entitled, but if a purchaser produces an assign- 
ment or obligation for the conveyance, he is directed to deliver the 
certificates to such purchaser, taking his receipt therefor. 

Ordered, that John Campbell, George R. Clark, John Bailey, or 
any two, with the surveyor, fix on the most convenient place in the 
grant for the town and lay off the i ,000 acres appropriated for the 
purpose, and also draw up and report a plan for the same. 

Leave is given General Clark to erect the mill he is now building 
on a branch above the lots already laid off in Clarksville, and, if com- 
pleted and of public utility, the right of the soil to so much land as 
shall be deemed suflficient for the water shall be confided to him. 

The twelve lots already occupied shall be confirmed to the claim- 
ants upon their building houses, actually residing themselves on the lots 
for twelve months, or settling others thereon, and complying with the 
directions of the act for saving the lots in Clarksville, agreeable to a 
promise of a majority of the commissioners heretofore made, and 
twelve other lots to be laid off adjoining and back of those already 
laid off shall be appropriated in the same manner, provided they are 
settled in two months from this date. 

On reconsidering Martin Damey's claim, it is the opinion of the 
board that he is entitled to a lieutenant's quota in the Illinois Grant. 
Pat Kennedy's petition rejected. 

Adjourned to the first Monday in October next. 

Signed, by order of the board. 

Walker Daniel, Chairman. 

Louisville, Aug. 7, 1784: 

A copy, but not examined. 

Test: W. Daniels. 

Digitized by 



Louisville, August 16, 1784. 

At a meeting of the commissioners in consequence of the death of 
Mr. Walker Daniels, Gent., present — ^John Campbell, G. R. Clark, 
John Montgomery, John Bailey, Ab. Chapline and W. Clark, Gent., 

Ordered that. 

Whereas, The original proceedings of the board being lost when 
Mr. Walker Daniel was killed, the foregoing copy to be ratified and 
confirmed ; but, if the original should be obtained, then they are to 
be in force. 

Ordered, that General Clark make out and sign certificates and de- 
liver them to the surveyor, who is to distribute them according to the 
former resolutions. The board proceeded to the election of another 
commissioner in the room of Mr. W. Daniel, when Wm. Croghan, 
Gent., was elected. 

Resolved^ That General Clark take into his care the proceedings 
and other papers belonging to the commissioners, and them safely 
keep for the use of the parties concerned. 

Adjourned till the first Monday in October next, unless the chair- 
man shall find it necessary to call a meeting sooner. 

John Campbell, Chairman. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioner for appointing the 
lands granted to the Illinois regiment, etc., at Louisville, July 6, 
1785, present, John Edwards, John Campbell, Abraham Chapline, 
John Bailey, Robert Todd and William Clark, commissioners. Cap- 
tain Rodgers produced a list of his company, which had before been 
allowed their claims by a board that sat in August last, but their 
names had been lost or mislaid, which said claims are confirmed by 
the present board : William Merri weather, sergeant, Thomas Key, 
sergeant; Geo. Key, Geo. Snow, David Pagan, Henry Blankenship, 
Dominack Welsh, Gasper Galer, Robert Barnet, Frank Spilman, 
James Spilman, Travis Booton, William Booton, Wm. Leare, Will- 
iam Kendall, William Froggart, William Givin, William Goodwin, 

Digitized by 



John Campbell, Charles Martin, Barney Higgins, Fred Doharty, 
Nathaniel Mershon, David McDonald, James Hammit, John Jones, 
John Murphy, Michael Glass, Michael Oharow, Rice Curtis and 
Geo. Smith, soldiers. 

On motion made in behalf of Thomas Hays, the board think him 
entitled to a soldier^s part of land in the Illinois Grant. Also Francis 
Hardin, also Patrick Marr, also Charles Morgan as a sergeant, also 
John Setzer and Michael Setzer as soldiers. 

Adjourned till to-morrow morning. 

John Edwards, Chairman. 

July 7, 1785. The board met according to adjournment Mem- 
bers the same as yesterday. The board entered into the following 
resolutions : 

That a majority of the surviving commissioners mentioned in the 
act should, at any time, compose a board and do business. 

On motion made in behalf of Michael Miles, are of opinion that 
he is entitled to a sergeant's quota of land in the Illinois Grant. On 
motion made, the board came to the following resolution : 

That the lots be drawn in the name of the assignee as far as they 
can be known and made appear, but when doubt arises, they may be 
classed according to the request of those who claim by assignment 
and drawn in the name of the original proprietor. 

On motion made in behalf of the heirs of Major William Lynn, 
deceased, who marched to the Illinois under Colonel Geo. R. Clark, 
and acted as a major at the reduction of the posts therein. 

Resolved^ That the heirs of the soldier William Lynn, deceased, 
be entitled to receive a major's quota of land in the Illinois Grant. 

Adjourned till to-morrow morning. 

JoHX Edw^ards, Chairman. 

July 8, 1785. The board met according to adjournment. Mem- 
bers the same as yesterday. On motion made, the board came to the 
following resolution : 

That they have no power to decide in any matter of controversy 
between claimants claiming as heirs at law. 

Digitized by 



Resolved^ This board have a right to judge and determine to whom 
they shall grant a deed when two or more persons claim the same by 
assignment or conveyance from the original proprietor. 

Resolved^ That this board will not proceed in such judgment and 
determination in the absence of the parties, unless it is proved to them 
they have been summoned and do not appear. 

Resolved^ That when any dispute between claimants should be be- 
fore the board unfit for issue, for want of necessary vouchers, that the 
preference in classing the so disputed claim should be determined by 

Resolved^ That Thomas Walker be allowed a soldier's claim in the 
Illinois Grant. 

Resolved^ That the commissioners* certificate now produced to the 
board by assignees be returned to them, but first marked in whose 
name they were classed, and in case the assignment or assignments 
are on the back of the certificates, then to be retained by the board 
and another given to the last assignee expressing therein their origi- 
nal owner and every assignee named and quantity of land. 

Adjourned till to-morrow. John Edwards, Chairman. 

July 9, 1785. The board met according to adjournment. Mem- 
bers present the same as yesterday. 

A memorial of John Rodgers, captain of cavalry, respecting a 
grant made to Walker Daniel by a former board as a major to Illinois 
regiment, to which he objects, and affirms he, the said Daniel, had 
no right or pretensions, having never served in that regiment. 

Resolved^ The consideration of the said memorial be postponed 
till the next meeting of the board, and that a summons issue citing 
Robert Daniel, heir at law to the said Walker, to appear at that time. 

Resolved^ That the plot of the 149,000 acres of land granted to the 
Illinois regiment be proved by the oath of Mr. William Clark, the 
surveyor, and that it be transmitted to the register's office in Rich- 
mond by Colonel Richard Clough Anderson. 

Digitized by 



A draught of a petition to the assembly from this board agreed 
upon and ordered to be signed by the chairman. 

Adjourned to the first Wednesday in August. 

John Edwards, Chairman. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners for appointing the 
lands granted to the Illinois regiment at Louisville, the 9th December, 
1785, present, George R. Clark, Ab. Chapline, Robert Todd, John 
Bailey and William Clark, commissioners. 

Resolved^ That the further consideration of Captain Rodgers' me- 
morial respecting the claim of Walker Daniel, deceased, be postponed 
till the next sitting of the board, and that the board now proceed to 
draw the lottery for all claims that appear reasonable and are allowed. 

Adjourned till to-morrow morning. 

Dec. 10, 1785. The board met according to adjournment, mem- 
bers the same as yesterday. 

A number of assignments and conveyances being produced, the 
board proceeded to class them in the name of the assignees and direct 
that title papers be kept with the board. 

Adjourned till Monday next. 

Dec. 1 2th. The board met according to adjournment. Members 
the same as yesterday. The surveyor produced a general plat of the 
surveys contained in the I. g^ant, which was approved by the com- 

Capt. Ab. Hite and Mr. E. Rodgers, at the request of the board, 
attended and drew the classes and numbers and Messrs. Walter Davis 
and William Croghan acted as clerks in taking down the names of 
the respective claimants and numbers they drew. 

Resolved^ That the surveyor be directed to issue plats and certifi- 
cates of surveys to the different claimants on their paying the fees and 
expenses due thereon, as also the dollar per hundred acres directed to 
be paid by law, to be appointed toward defraying the expenses of ad- 
justing the claims, surveying and apportioning the grants, etc. 

Adjourned till the first Wednesday in March next. 

G. R. Clark. 

Digitized by 



Louisville, 13th December, 1785. 

At a meeting of the trustees for the town of Clarksville, present, 
General Clark, Captain Chapline, Captain Bailey, Captain Todd and 
William Clark. 

Resolved^ That the surveyor be directed to lay off forty lots in the 
town of Clarksville, above Mill creek, adjacent to those already laid 
off below, to be sold the first Wednesday in March next, and that 
they be advertised in the adjacent counties, directed by law. 

Resolved^ That all the lots now occupied be confirmed to the claim- 
ants on their complying with terms prescribed by the trustees to those 
who took possession of and settled on the first lots. 

Resolved^ That the lots to be laid off be sold for cash and that 
William Clark, G. R. Clark and Captain Chapline, or any two of 
them, be appointed to superintend the sales, and that the money aris- 
ing from such sales be lodged in the hands of W. Clark, who shall be 
liable for the same when called for by the board. 

The board proceeded to the election of trustees in the room of 
Walker Daniel, deceased, and John Montgomery, removed, when 
William Croghan and Richard Terrell, Gent., were elected. 

Adjourned till the first Wednesday in March next. 

G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of trustees for the town of Clarksville on Tuesday, 
the 9th of May, 1786, present, George R. Clark, Ab. Chapline, 
William Clark, William Croghan and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Resolved,, That a further sale of lots in the town of Clarksville be 
held in said town the first Tuesday in August next, for cash, and that 
the sale be immediately advertised in the adjacent counties by the 

Adjourned till the first Tuesday in August next. 

G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the commissioners for apportioning the lands 
granted to the Illinois regiment, etc., at Louisville, the 5th day of 
September, 1787, present, John Campbell, George Rogers Clark, 

Digitized by 



Richard Taylor, Alexander Breckenridge, William Croghan, Andrew 
Heth and William Clark, Gent., commissioners. 

Resolved^ That two meetings of the board be held at this place for 
the purpose of receiving and determining on such claims as have not 
yet been given in agieeable to the direction of an act of last session of 
assembly ; the first of said meetings to be the second Monday in Oc- 
tober and next, and the other the 31st day of December following, 
being the last day fixed by law for receiving claims, and that a copy 
of this resolution be advertised in the "Kentucky Gazette" for three 
weeks successively. 

Adjourned till the second Monday in October next. 

JoHx Campbell, Chairman. 

Monday, 8th of October, 1787. The following members of the 
commissioners met according to adjournment, viz. : G. R. Clark, 
William Clark and William Croghan, and adjourned till to-morrow 
morning. G. R. Clark. 

Louisville, 9th October, 1787. 
The following members of the commission met according to ad- 
journment, viz. : John Campbell, William Clark, Richard Taylor, 
William Croghan, and adjourned till to-morrow, twelve o'clock. 

John Campbell. 

Wednesday, October loth. The board met according to adjourn- 
ment ; present, John Campbell, George R. Clark, Richard Taylor, 
James F. Moore, Alexander Breckenridge, William Croghan, Rob- 
ert Breckenridge and William Clark, Gent., commissioners. 

Resolved^ That the officers and soldiers who were left at the falls 
by order of Colonel Clark, when the detachment were going against 
the Illinois, be allowed quota of land in the grant. 

James Sherlock's claim disallowed. Alexander Mclntire allowed 
as a private. Isaac Riddle {Ruddle) allowed as a captain. William 
Foster and Samuel Finly allowed as privates ; also James Patton, 
Richard Chenoweth and Neal Doherty and Isaac McBride. 

Adjourned till the 31st of December next. John Campbell. 

Digitized by 



At a meeting of the board of commissioners for apportioning the 
lands granted to the Illinois regiment, at Louisville, the 31st of De- 
cember, 1787, present, George R. Clark, Ab. Chapline, Richard 
Taylor, William Croghan, Richard Terrell, Alexander Breckenridge 
and William Clark, Gent., commissioners. 

Resolved^ That Florence Mahony, Eben Bowen, private, John 
Brand, sergeant, Angus Cameron, private; (absent, R. Taylor; pres- 
ent, J. F. Moore) and William Guthrie, private, also, Sam Harris and 
John Peties, be allowed quotas of land. Present, John Campbell, 
Gent. Samuel Harris, Sen., allowed as a private. 

Resolved^ That such claims as may be offered to any of the mem- 
bers of the board this evening be received this evening and deter- 
mined at a future meeting. 

Adjourned till nine o'clock to-morrow. John Campbell. 

January ist, 1788. The board met according to adjournment. 
Present, George R. Clark, Ab. Chapline, Alexander Breckenridge, 
Richard Terrell, William Croghan, Richard Taylor and William 
Clark. The following claims given in yesterday were taken up and 
determined on, as follows : George McManess, John McManess and 
John McManess, Sen., allowed as privates; also, James Jarrold, 
Samuel Stephenson, John Maline Harris, William Coger, William 
Asher and Richard Cox, privates; John Walker, sergeant. Absent, 
A. Breckenridge; present, J. F. Moore, Gent. Thomas Simpson 
allowed as a soldier; also, J. Elms and Robert Davis as soldiers. 
William Shannon not allowed. 

Resolved, unanimously^ That all claims heretofore adjusted and 
allowed by a former board be confirmed as they stand, drawn in the 
lottery, except the claim of Walker Daniel, which is rejected, and 
the claim of Martin Carney, which is to be reconsidered. 

Adjourned till to-morrow, nine o'clock. G. R. Clark. 

Wednesday, 2d January. The following members met, viz. : 
George R. Clark, Ab. Chapline, Richard Terrell, William Croghan 
and William Clark, commissioners, and adjourned till to-morrow, 
nine o'clock. G. R. Clark. 

Digitized by 



Friday, 4th January. At a meeting of the board of commission- 
ers at Louisville, present, John Campbell, G. R. Clark, Ab. Chap- 
line, Richard Terrell, Alexander Breckenridge, Andrew Heth, Will- 
iam Croghan and William Clark, Gent., commissioners. 

The board proceeded to reconsider the claim of Martin Carney and 
determined that the said claim be confirmed. Absent, John Camp- 

The board then proceeded and drew the lottery for such claims as 
have been lately allowed and were not in the lottery drawn by a for- 
mer board. 

Resolved^ Whereas, there appears to be a residuum of 10,800 
acres of land, that a future division take place and the said residuum 
be apportioned agreeable to this former regulation of the board. 

Resolved^ That the dollar per 100 acres paid for certificates be ap- 
portioned toward defraying the expenses of the original survey pro- 
visions, paying chain carriers, choppers, hunters, etc., etc., the bal- 
ance, if any, applied as part of the surveyor's fee. 

Resolved^ That three meetings of the board be held at this place 
for the purpose of executing deeds, the first meeting to be the 20th of 
Febi*uary next, the second the first Tuesday in April, and the third 
meeting the 17th of July, and that public notice be given of those 
meetings in order that the claimants may take out their plats and ap- 
ply for deeds. 

Adjourned till the 20th of February next. 

G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the board of trustees for the town of Clarksville, 
at Louisville, the 5th of January, 1788, present, George R. Clark, 
Abraham Chapline, Richard Terrell, William Croghan and William 

Resolved^ That a number of lots in the town of Clarksville be sold 
at public auction at this place on the first Tuesday in March next, be- 
ing Jefferson court day, and that the time and place of sale be adver- 
tised at the court-houses of the adjacent counties. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

Digitized by 



At a meeting of the commissioners for apportioning the lands 
granted to the Illinois regiment, at Louisville, the 20th February, 1788, 
present, G. R. Clark, James F. Moore, Richard Taylor, William 
Croghan, Alexander Breckenridge, Andrew Heth and William Clark, 
Gent., commissioners. 

Resolved^ Whereas satisfactory proof is made to this board of 
Jacob Bowman being heir at law of Joseph* Bowman, deceased, that 
deeds for the lands allowed said Joseph be issued in the name of 
said Jacob. 

Resolved^ That claimants of choices of lots in the Illinois Grant be 
notified by advertisement to apply and make their respective choices 
in rotation on or before the 17th of July next, and in case of failure, 
the commissioners will proceed to ballot for them in order that the 
subsequent choices may be made by such as are entitled and apply. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the commissioners for apportioning the lands 
granted to the Illinois regiment, etc., at Louisville, the 4th of April, 
1788, present, Wm. Clark, Alexander Breckenridge, Robert Breck- 
enridge, Richard Taylor, Wm. Croghan, Jas. F. Moore and Rich- 
ard Terrell, Gent., commissioners. 

Adjourned till Tuesday next, 9 o'clock. 

Wm. Clark, Chairman. 

Louisville, Tuesday, the 8th of April, 1788. 

The board met according to adjournment ; present, Geo. R. Clark, 
Wm. Clark, Richard Taylor, Alexander Breckenridge, Robert Breck- 
enridge, Wm. Croghan and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Resolved^ That Wm. Clark be appointed to receive the money 
payable to the register of the land office, as may arise from the exe- 
cution of deeds. 

The following deeds were presented to the board and executed, viz. : 
To John Moyland, Adam Hoops and Abner Martin Dunn, Nos. 27, 

•This 18 Jacob in the manuscript, but evidently a mistake of the clerk or 
copyist. ^ 


Digitized by 



132, 151, 217, 21S, 105, 253, 265, 287, 284 and 291, of 500 acres 
each ; to Adam Hoops, No. 242 ; to Isaac Bowman, his four surveys 
of 500 acres — ^Nos. i, 158, 213 and 289. 

Resolved^ When sufficient proof is produced to the board that 
Wm. Croghan hath purchased the several claims in 500 acres — No. 
4 — the surveyor be therefore directed to make out a plat of said tract 
in Croghan's name. 

Adjourned till to-morrow, 3 o'clock. G. R. Clark. 

Wednesday, the 9th April, 1788. The board met according to ad- 
journment; present, same as yesterday. The board proceeded to 
apportion, by lottery, a number of claims in the residuum of lands, 
and then adjourned till Friday, the i8th inst. G. R. Clark. 

Friday, the i8th April, 1788. The board met according to ad- 
journment; members same as before, also James Francis Moore, 
Gent. The board proceeded and drew the lottery for the balance of 
the residuum of lands. 

Resolved^ When James Francis Moore hath produced to the 
board a sufficient assignment from David Glenn for his claims in 500 
acres — No. 20— the balance being already vested in said Moore, that 
the surveyor be directed to make out the plat in Moore's name. 

The following deeds were presented and executed by the board, 
viz.: To Wm. Croghan, No. 4 and No. 113, 500 acres each; to 
Wm. Vanlear, assignee of Montgomery, No. 167, 202, 239, 270 and 
283, 500 acres each. 

Adjourned till the 17th of July next. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the trustees for the town of Clarksville, at Louis- 
ville, the 5th of June, 1788, present, John Campbell, Geo. R. Clark, 
Wm. Clark, Richard Terrell and William Croghan, Gent. 

On motion made by Mr. Terrell to appoint a trustee in the 
room of Colonel Robert Todd, who had authorized him to i;iform the 
board he could not attend, and requested another to be appointed in 
his stead. 

Digitized by 



Resolved^ That Mr. Andrew Ileth be appointed a trustee for the 
town of Clarksville in the room of Colonel Robert Todd. 

Resolved^ That the clerk be directed to write to Colonel Fleming, 
Colonel Edwards, Messrs. John Baleys and Ab. Chapline, request- 
ing them to inform the board whether they can attend the business as 
trustees of the town of Clarksville or not; if not, to signify their 
resignation in order that others may be appointed in their stead. 

Resolved^ That the lots laid out above the mouth of Mill creek, in 
the town of Clarksville, be sold in said town agreeable to law, for 
cash, on Saturday, the 9th of August, next ; that the same be adver- 
tised at the court-houses of the adjacent counties ; and that William 
Clark, Richard Terrell and Andrew Ileth, or any two of them, 
superintend the sales in case the board should not meet at that time. 

Resolved^ That Mr. Wm. Clark be appointed clerk to the board of 
trustees ; that he be directed to provide a book and transcribe therein 
the proceedings of the board, which have hitherto been kept on de- 
tached papers, and that the proceedings so transcribed be examined 
by the board at their next sitting. 

Adjourned till Monday next. John Campbell. 

At a meeting of the commissioners for appointing the lands 
granted to the Illinois regiment, on Thursday, the 17th day of July, 
1788, present, Geo. R. Clark, Richard Terrell, Richard Taylor, 
James F. Moore, Andrew Heth, William Croghan and Ab. Chap- 
line and Alexander Breckenridge, John Campbell, Gent., produced 
to the board a conveyance from John Bailey in favor of Michael 
Hillingas and John Dunlap for (500) ^\^ hundred acres of land, the 
choices of three tracts of that size, and claim No. 16 as the choice. 
The question being put, it was determined that said Hilligas and 
Dunlap are entitled to said tract of land, and that a deed issued 
accordingly. Present, John Campbell and William Clark. 

The following deeds were presented to the board and executed, 
viz. : To Richard Terrell, No. 6 ; to Hector Moore Wright, assignee 
of James Francis Moore, No. 20. 

Digitized by 



Resolved^ That further time be allowed the different claimants to 
apply and take out their deeds till the first Tuesday in April next. 

Resolved^ That Richard Taylor and Ab. Chapline, Gent., be ap- 
pointed to examine the deeds to be presented to the board and sign 
such as are found to be truly made out. Adjourned till nine o'clock 
to-morrow. John Campbell. 

Friday, i8th July, 1788. The board met according to adjourn- 
ment. Present, Abraham Chapline, William Clark, Richard Tay- 
lor, James Francis Moore, William Croghan, Andrew Heth, Alex- 
ander Breckenridge and R. Terrell. 

The following deeds wxre presented and executed, viz. : To Ab. 
Chapline, No. 222 ; to Croghan, assignee. No. 145 and 180 in one 
deed; to Richard Terrell, assignee. No. 9; to Terrell and Elie Will- 
iams, No. 157 ; to R. Terrell, assignee. No. 115 ; to Terrell and Elie 
Williams, assignee. No. 8 and 58 ; to R. Terrell, assignee. No. 262 ; 
to R. Terrell and Elie Williams, assignee, No. 221 ; to John Mayfield, 
Adam Hoops and Abner Martin Dunn, assignee, 10 1 ; to Jacob 
Bowman, heir at law, No. 125, 49, 237, 5 and 97; to Isaac Ruddle, 
No. no, 153, 34, 14, 77 and 149; to William Croghan and Gab. 
Madison, assignee. No. 267. (Present, General Clark). To Richard 
Terrell, assignee. No. 83, 127, 252 and 83; to John Shelby, heir at 
law of James Shelby, No. 42, 43, 249, 95, 88 and 89; to Robert 
George, No. 17, 159, 137, 149 and 275; to William Leas, assignee 
of R. George, No. 172 ; to William Clark, No. 96 and 272 ; to Pat 
Joyes, assignee. No. 75 and 109. Present, John Campbell, Gent. ; 
absent, G. R. Clark. 

Adjourned till ?i\^ o'clock to-morrow morning. 

John Campbell. 

Saturday, 19th July, 1788. The board met according to adjourn- 
ment. Present, John Campbell, Ab. Chapline, William Clark, 
Richard Taylor. Andrew Heth, James F. Moore, Alexander Breck- 
enridge and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Digitized by 



The following deeds, being produced to the board, were executed, 
viz. : To Nathaniel Parker, assignee, No. 225 and 33. 

Richard Jones Waters appeared before the board and claimed a title 
to the land allowed William Smith, which was drawn for in the name 
of Daniel Brodhead, as assignee of Smith. On motion, the board 
determined that the matter shall be taken up and revised. 

Mr. Mich. Campbell produced to the board two conveyances 
from John Montgomery for R\e hundred acres each, one in favor of 
said Campbell, the other in the name of James Watt, and claimed 
the land accordingly. The claim being contested by Mr. Brecken- 
ridge, on account of his having sold 3,600 acres of such land as at- 
torney of said Montgomery. The papers being produced, the board 
determined that the conveyances of Breckenridge take preference. 

John Harrison and William Sullivan applied to the board for the 
third and fourth choice tracts of Major Quick's claim by virtue of 
assignments for such choices. Said Harrison chose No. 71 and Sulli- 
van No. 70. Those choices were contested by G. R. Clark. The 
question being put, the board determined in favor of the claimants 
and order that deeds issue accordingly. A deed issued to Mich. 
Hilligas and John Dunlap, assignees of John Bailey, for No. 16. 

The title of 500 acres of land being contested between Mich. 
Campbell and William Croghan, both having assignments from Col- 
onel John Montgomery, the board determined that Croghan's assign- 
ments take preference. 

Deed issued to Benjamin Sebastian, Alexander Scot Bullett and 
Elie Williams, assignees, for No. 23, 78, 277, 40, 122 and 36, in one 
deed; to Mich. Campbell, assignee of Montgomery, No. 35. Absent, 
John Campbell, Gent. 

An order omitted to be entered yesterday is ordered to be inserted 
here, viz. : 

William Croghan, applying for Chapline's third choices, and no 
person appearing to make the second, the board proceeded to ballot 
therefor, when No. 222 was drawn; this choice, as appears, ought to 
have been made by Joel Rease. Two deeds issued to William Van- 

Digitized by 



lear, assignee of Montgomery, by Alexander Breckenridge, his attor- 
ney, one for No. 143, the other for No. 51. 

Resolved^ In the division of 500 acres surveys, among sergeants, 
soldiers, etc., that the plats be divided into ?is^ equal tracts, and any 
claimants, applying to the surveyor after the first day of November 
next, may ballot with him for his part and have the same laid off. 
But in case of a claim or claims for more than 100 acres, the great- 
est claim shall have preference of choice in order that he may be able 
to obtain his proportion together in one tract, and his choice shall be so 
made and in such manner as to leave other claims entire and undi- 

Resolved^ That the foregoing resolution be advertised by the sur- 
veyor immediately, in order that those concerned may attend at the 
proper time to fix their claims. 

Adjourned till the first Tuesday in November next. 

Abraham Chapline. 

Tuesday, 4th Nov., 1788. The board met according to adjourn- 
ment. Present, John Campbell, Geo. R. Clark, Wm. Clark, Wm. 
Croghan, Richard Terrell, Andrew Heth and James Francis Moore, 

The board proceeded to apportion, by lot, the claims of the ser- 
geants, soldiers, etc., and determine in what manner the 500-acre 
tracts shall be divided among them. 

Adjourned till to-morrow, 9 o'clock. John Campbell. 

Wednesday, 5th Nov., 1788. The board met according to ad- 
journment. Present, Geo. R. Clark, William Clark, Richard Ter- 
rell, Andrew Heth, Wm. Croghan, James Francis Moore and Alex- 
ander Breckenridge, Gent. On motion made, the board proceeded to 
point out and determine in what manner the 500-acre lots are to be 
divided among those who hold unequal quantities, in such tracts 
agreeable to a plan produced by the surveyor and approved by the 

Digitized by 



The following deeds being presented and executed by the board, 
viz. : To Nat. Parker, assignee No. 233 ; to Levi Todd, Nos. 29, 46, 
87 and 290 ; to William Vanlear, assignee No. 247. 

Adjourned till the first Tuesday in January next. 

G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the commissioners agreeable to adjournment, at 
Louisville, the 7th April, 1789, present, John Campbell, Geo. R. 
Clark, William Clark, Richard Terrell, William Croghan, Andrew 
Heth and Alexander Breckenridge, gentlemen. 

Adjourned till to-morrow, 8 o'clock. John Campbell. 

April 8, 1789. The board met according to adjournment. Present, 
John Campbell, Geo. R. Clark, Wm. Clark, Richard Terrell, Wm. 
Croghan, Andrew Heth and Alexander Breckenridge, John Bayleys 
and James F. Moore, Gent. 

Resolved^ Whereas William Clark produced to this board assign- 
ments for the claims of Wm. Orear, John Orear, Daniel Orear and 
Jesse Orear, that plats and certificates of said lands issue in the 
name of Clark. That plats, etc., for the claims of Wm. Cosby and 
Moses Camper in No. 52, issue in the name of Richard Terrell, he 
appearing to be assignee of Ben Pope, who was assignee of the 
original claimants ; also for the claims of Richard Lutrell and Charles 
Jones upon the same principle. 

Richard Terrell and G. R. Clark each produced an assignment for 
the claim of said David Henry, that in favor of Terrell being eldest, 
to have preference. Deeds executed in favor of Wm. Croghan, 
assignee for No. 69 and 15. Absent, John Campbell, Gent., and R. 

Mr. Wm. Easten produce assignments for the several claims in 
No. 170. Ordered, therefore, that a plat issue in the name of the 

A deed executed in favor of L. Protzman, F. Rolmer and Morgan, 
assignee of V. T. Dalton, for No. 76; to Wm. Harrod, for No. 
91, 99, 164, 234, 261 and 264 ; to Michael Lacaassigne, assignee of 

Digitized by 



Lynn, for No. 12; to John Holker, assignee for No. 22, 188, 191, 
197, 204, 212, 215, 219, 226, 227, 229, 241 and 297; to Moore and 
Rhea, assignee for No. 258, 268, 274, 285 and 288; to Geo. R. 
Clark, assignee of J. Hoker, for No. 18, and to same for No. 62 and 
84 in his own right, and to same as assignee of Quick for No. 163 ; 
to Richard Terrell, assignee for No. 129, 203, 206, 104, 184 and 144; 
to Jas. Overton, Jr., assignee of Lynn for No. 93; to R. T. Waters, 
assignee of Smith, for 100 acres, part of No. 2. Present, R. Ter- 
rel, who signed the before-mentioned deeds in favor of General Clark. 
Other deeds, being presented, were executed for Geo. R. Clark, viz. : 
For 223 and 56 in his own right, and for 100 acres, part of No. 28, 
as assignee of Robert, assignee of Harris; also three others, 100 
acres each part of No. 30, as assignee of the claims of Patton,Doherty 
and Chenowith. 

Adjourned till 3 o'clock. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the board on Tuesday, the 9th April, 1789, present, 
John Campbell, Wm. Clark, Alex. Breckenridge, Jas. F. Moore, 
Wm. Croghan, Richard Terrell and Andrew Heth, Gent. 

The following deeds executed by the board, viz. : To John Holker, 
assignee for No. 45, 298 and 181 ; to Michael Lacaassigne, assignee 
for No. 10 and for 100 acres, part of No. 13 A, and to R. I. Waters, 
assignee for 400 acres, part of No. 19, B, C, D and E. (Present, Geo. 
R. Clark.) Deeds executed for Wm. Clark, assignee of John Baleys, 
for No. 24, and as assignee of sundries for 400 acres, part of No. 
31, A, B, C andD. 

James Francis Moore produced to the board an assignment for the 
claim of Mason Lunsford. Ordered, therefore, that a plat and list 
of survey issue in the name of said Moore, notwithstanding any 
former order of the board. 

Resolved^ That the time for taking out deeds be prolonged to the 
first day of September. 

Adjourned to the third Monday in May, but in case a board should 
not meet at that time, then to the 4th of July. John Campbell. 

Digitized by 



At a meeting of the commissioners for appointing the lands granted 
to the Illinois regiment, etc., at Louisville, the 2d of June, 1789, 
present, G. R. Clark, Alexander Breckenridge, James F. Moore, 
Richard Terrell, Richard Taylor, William Croghan and William 
Clark, Gent. Deeds executed for Jacob Bowman, heir of Joseph 
Bowman, deceased, for No. 140, 186 and 193. 

Mr. William Croghan produced to the board assignments for the 
claims of Samuel Harris, Samuel Harris, Jr., and John Mahn Harris, 
John Sertain and Page Sertain, and 156 acres, part of James Merri- 
weather's claim. Ordered, therefore, that the surveyor be directed to 
issue plats and certificates for said lands in the name of said Croghan. 

Adjourned till the 4th of July. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the commissioners at Louisville, the 7th July, 
1789, present, George Rogers Clark, Alexander Breckenridge, Rich- 
ard Taylor, James F. Moore, William Croghan, Richard Terrell and 
William Clark. 

Deeds executed in favor John Rodgers, for 1,234 acres, Nos. 1 1, 72 ; 
234 acres, part of No. 248. (Present, Robert Breckenridge.) 

Deeds issued in favor Christo. Greenup, assignee, for 100 acres, 
part of No. 54 B, and 100 acres, part of No. 73 A ; to Isaac Ruddle 
for 234 acres of No. 190 ; to Nat Parker for 300 acres, part of No. 
123; to William Croghan, a deed for 844 acres, viz.: 200 acres in 
No. 116, 300 in No. 128, and 344 in No. 106, and another deed for 
300 acres, part of 195 C, D and E ; to William Clark, for 200 acres, 
the claims of John Brand, part of No. 130, and one other deed for 
500 acres. No. 160. (Present, John Campbell, Gent.) Deeds to 
Richard Terrell, assignee of Harland, for 100 acres part No. 13 ; also 
assignee of Lutrell 100 acres, part of No. 79 ; also for 200 acres, part 
of No. 52, the claims of Camper and Cosby; also for 200 acres, part 
of 12, the claims of Prichard. Deeds to John Thruston for all his 
claims, and deed to John Rodgers, No. 235, 282 and 29. (Absent, 
John Campbell.) Deed to Mr. Lacaassigne for 100 acres, part of 
No. 60, Copland's claim. To John Holker, assignee, for No. 103. 
To B. Tarascon, for No. 152 and 240, and for 100 acres, part of No. 

Digitized by 



94, Isaac Faris's claims. To R. Terrell, three deeds, 100 acres 
each, viz.: A No. 57, E No. 118, and C No. 142. To William 
Buckley, 200 acres, part of No. 162, including his own and Zeck- 
ledge*s claims. Deeds issued to the heirs of Richard McCarty for 
the whole of said McCarty's claim. To Ab. Hite, Jr., assignee, for 
312 acres, part of No. 32. To Isaac Bowman, for his balance of 156 
acres, part of No. 32. A deed issued to Thomas Thornburg, as- 
signee, for the claim of Samuel Humphries, the assignment contain- 
ing other matters of consequence to Thornburg, he is permitted to 
retain the same in his hands. 

Adjourned till five o'clock. G. R. Clark. 

The board met pursuant to adjournment. Present, John Camp- 
bell, George R. Clark, William Clark, William Croghan, Richard 
Terrell, Richard Taylor and James Francis Moore. 

Deed executed in favor William Sullivan, assignee, for No. 70; 
do. to George Wilson, assignee, for No. 207 ; to Basil Prather, as- 
signee, for No. 68, 112 and 114. 

Adjourned till ten o'clock to-morrow. John Campbell. 

At a meeting of the following members of the board of commis- 
sioners, at Louisville, the 31st August, 1789, viz. : George R. Clark, 
Alexander Breckenridge, Robert Breckenridge, Richard Terrell, 
William Croghan, William Clark and John Campbell. 

Deed signed in favor Tarascon 'brothers, assignees, for 200 acres 
James Irby's claim, B. Tarascon for Lemon's claim and 120 acres, 
part of No. 196; to John Holker, assignee, for 400 acres, part of No. 
81, 400 acres, part of No. 178, and 200, the right of M. Miles in 
No. 85. One other deed to same for No. 136 and 187. To John 
Lewis, assignee, for No. 47, 257, 100 acres Watkins' claim in No. 
243, 100 George Sheppard's claim in No. 116, 100 do. William Ty- 
ler's claim in No. 143, all in one deed. To Robert Todd, for No. 3; 
to Francis Spilman, 100 acres D in No. 2; to Sergeant John Moore, 
for 200 acres in No. 126, his own claim ; to Moses Lumsford, his own 
claim, 100 acres; to John Swan, heir, for his four surveys, 500 acres, 

Digitized by 



and one other deed for his balance of 156 acres; to Richard Terrell, 
assignee, for No. 39 ; to Robert K. Moore, assignee, a deed for 
312 acres, part of No. 2 16, 100 acres, Oreer's right in No. 211, Charles 
Jones' right in No. 198, 100 acres, the right of William Guthrie in 
No. 281, 100 acres, the right of John Peters in No. 281 — in all, 712 
acres. To William Croghan, for 200 acres, the right of Jonas Man- 
ifee, Florence Mahoney; to Pat Doran, for his claim, 100 acres; to 
Phil Walker, assignee of John Walker, sergeant, for 200 acres, part 
of 130; to James F. Moore, assignee of Mason Lunsford, for 100 
acres, part of No. 44; to Robert George, for 234 acres, part of No. 
149; to Jacob Reagan, assignee of Edward Worthington, for No. 
67 ; to John Rogers, assignee, for 300 acres, viz. : The claim of 
John Campbell in No. 60, the claim of William Booton, 100 acres, 
in No. 44, and the claim of John Jones, 100 acres, in No. 198 ; one 
other deed for 200 acres, viz. : 100 acres, the claim of Fred Doherty 
in No. 220 and 100; do. the right of William Gynn in No. 224; one 
other deed for 300 acres, viz. : 200 acres, the right of Thomas Key 
in No. 245, and 100 acres, the right of Michael Oharrow in No. 211 ; 
to George Rogers, for 100 acres, the right of Dom. Welch in No. 
255; to David McDonald, 100 acres in No. 211 ; to Travis Booton, 

acres, his own right in No. 85 ; to Adam Hoops, assignee, for 

500 acres. No. 121 ; to Walter C. Davis, 500 acres. No. 86; to John 
Lewis, assignee, for 500 acres. No. 263 ; to Richard Terrell, assignee, 
for 100 acres, the right of Robert Garrott in No. 224; to same, for 
100 acres, the right of James Monroe in No. 254 ; one other deed to 
same for 100 acres, the right of James Wood in No. 25 ; to John 
Moyland, for 500 acres. No. 168; John Moyland and Pat Joyce, 500 
acres, viz. : 140 to Moyland, the balance to Joyes, No. 208; to John 
Moyland, assignee, for 500 acres. No. 185; to Pat Joyes, assignee, 
500 acres. No. 165, and one other deed for 234 acres, the balance of 
Bailey's claim; also, one other deed for 500 acres. No. 256; to 
Jacob Reagan, 156 acres, Carney's balance in No. 154; to John 
Girault, five deeds for his whole claim; William Harrod, for his 

Digitized by 



balance, 234 acres ; John Shelby, for his balance, 234 ; to William 
Easton, assignee, for 500 acres. No. 170. 

Adjourned till to-morrow, ten o'clock. John Campbell. 

Thursday, the ist of September, 1789. The board met pursuant 
to adjournment. Members same as yesterday. 

The following deeds presented to the board and executed, viz. : To 
James Davis, for balance of his claims, 156 acres; to Isaac Ander- 
son, assignee, for 500 acres. No. 192 ; to John Harrison, assignee, 
for 500 acres, No. 21; to Robert Todd, for 500 acres. No. 55; to 
George Sheppard, assignee, for 100 acres, the claim of D. Bailey in 
No. 195 ; to Richard Terrell and Benjamin Sebastian, for 400 acres, 
part of No. 108, surveyed in the name of A. S. Bullett, viz. : two- 
thirds to Terrell, the balance to Sebastian; to Richard Terrell, for 
100 acres in No. 13, the claim of J. Holms; to George R. Clark, for 
100 acres, part of No. 57, the claim of Hugh Henry; to John Har- 
rison, assignee, for 351 acres, the balance of Montgomery claim ; to 
John Moyland, Adam Hoops and Abner M. Dunn, assignees, a deed 
for 1,500 acres, viz.: No. 131, 250 and 293; to Adam Hoops, as- 
signee, for 500 acres. No. 166; to Basil Prather, assignee, from deeds 
for balance of Brashear's claim, viz.; No. iii, 134 and 236, 500 
acres each, and 234 acres, part of No. 194 ; to Adam Hoops and William 
McPherson, assignees, jointly, 500 acres. No. 48. 

Adjourned. John Campbell. 

At a meeting of the commissioners for apportioning the lands 
granted to the Illinois regiment at the falls of Ohio, the 6th July, 
1 79 1, present, John Campbell, William Clark and James F. Moore, 

Mr. Joseph Calvit produced to the board a deed for his proportion 
of land in the Illinois Grant, amounting to 2,156 acres, viz. ; No. 41, 
50, 61, 161, and 156 acres, part of No. 216. The board having ex- 
amined the deed, etc., executed the same. John Campbell. 

At a meeting of the following members of the board of commis- 
sioners at Louisville, the 7th December, 1791, to wit: James F. 

Digitized by 



Moore, Richard Taylor, Alexander Breckenridge and Richard Ter- 
rell. Ordered, that Richard Terrell be appointed clerk and surveyor 
to the board, in the room of William Clark, deceased, and that he 
take possession of the records, books and papers accordingly. 

Deed issued to Michael Lacaassigne, assignee of Michael Sitzer and 
John Sitzer, for 200 acres in No. 2, being B and E. 

Adjourned. James F. Moore. 

At a meeting of the commissioners for apportioning the lands 
granted to the Illinois regiment at the falls of Ohio, the 8th day of 
January, 1792, present, Alexander Breckenridge, Richard Taylor, 
Robert Breckenridge and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Deeds issued to James Merriweather for No. 26, 92, 150 and 214, 
for 500 acres each; also to Levi Todd 156 acres, part of No. 271 ; to 
Edward Douse, assignee Daniel Brodhead, assignee Buckner Pitt- 
man, for 200 acres, part of No. 171 and E; also to Thomas Wilson, 
lieutenant, for 156 acres, part of No. 169 A; also to John Moore for 
100 acres, C part of No. 126. 

Adjourned. Alexander Breckenridge. 

At a meeting of the commissioners for apportioning the lands 
granted to the Illinois regiment at Louisville, the 6th March, 1792, 
present, John Campbell, Richard Taylor, Alexander Breckenridge 
and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Deed issued to Samuel Oldhorn, assignee of Jacob Vanmeter, for 
No. 7, 500 acres. Deed issued to Jacob Vanmeter for No. 64, 187, 
232, 500 acres each, amounting to 1,500 acres. Deed issued to Ja- 
cob Vanmeter for 156 acres, being B part of No. 155. 

Adjourned. John Campbell. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners, at Louisville, the 3d 
day of April, 1792, present, G. R. Clark, Richard Terrell and \Vm. 
Croghan, Gent. Deed issued to Wm. Vanlear, assignee of Edward 
Worthington, for No. 176, containing 500 acres. 

G. R. Clark. . 

Digitized by 



At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Louisville, the 17th 
day of May, 1792, present, Geo. R. Clark, Robert Breckenridge, 
Alexander Breckenridge and William Croghan, Gent Deed issued 
to Richard Terrell, assignee of Pleasent Lockhart, for 100 acres, 
part of lot No. 54, and to Peter Priest, for 100 acres, part of lot No. 
571. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners for appointing the 
lands granted to the Illinois regiment, at Louisville, May 23, 1792, 
present, John Campbell, Alexander Breckenridge and Wm. Crog- 
han, Gent. 

Deeds issued to Henry Floyd, Jr., assignee of Henry Floyd, for 
Nos. 65 and 107, in one deed, and to Henry Floyd, for Nos. 230 and 
280, also in one deed. John Campbell. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners for apportioning the 
lands granted the Illinois regiment, at Louisville, May 28, 1792, pres- 
ent, John Campbell, Geo. R. Clark, Alexander Breckenridge and 
Richard Taylor, Gent. 

A deed issued to William Croghan, assignee of Henry Floyd, for 
156 acres of lands, part of a 500-acre survey. No. 154. 

John Campbell. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, 
at Louisville, the 7th day of March, 1797, present, George R. Clark, 
Alexander Breckenridge, Richard Taylor, Robert Breckenridge and 
William Croghan, Gent. 

Deeds issued to the heir at law of Abraham Kellar, deceased, for 
the following six tracts of lands of 500 acres each, viz.: No. 71, 
No. 120, No. 156, No. 173, No. 238, No. 295, and for 234 acres, 
part of a 300-acre survey — ^No. 148 being the letter B. 

G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners for the Illinois Grant, 
at Louisville, the 2d day of May, 1797, present, Richard Taylor, Alex- 
ander Breckenridge, William Croghan and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Digitized by 



Deed issued to John Armstrong for 100 acres No. 57, letter D, 
allowed Barney Higgans and conveyed by assignment produced. 

Deed ksued to Samuel Applegate for 100 acres allowed Stephen 
Frost, of No. 73, letter B, conveyed by assignment produced. 

Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners for the Illinois Grant, 
at Louisville, the 4th day of January, 1797, present, Richard Taylor, 
Robert Breckenridge, William Croghan, James F. Moore and Rich- 
ard Terrell, Gent. 

Deed issued to Abraham Chapline for 500 acres, No. 199, al- 
lowed Edward Worthington and conveyed by assignment produced ; 
deed issued to Elizabeth Morgan, devisee of David Morgan, deceased, 
for 100 acres, part of No. 220, letter D, allowed James Elms and 
conveyed by assignments. Deed issued to Thomas Mollay for 100 
acres, part of No. 286, letter D, allowed John McMannass, Sen., con- 
veyed by assignment, produced. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners for the Illinois Grant, 
at Captain Richard Terrell's office, the 14th day of October, 1797, 
present, Richard Taylor, William Croghan, Richard Terrell, Gent. 
Deed issued to James Ramsey for 100 acres, part of No. 1 19, letter 
A. Deed issued to William Swan, assignee of Abraham Lusader, 
for 100 acres, part of No. 79, letter A, conveyed by assignment, pro- 
duced. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners for the Illinois Grant, 
at Major William Croghan's, the 15th day of November, 1797, pres- 
ent, Richard Taylor, William Croghan aud Richard Terrell, Gent. 
Deed issued to Tilman Camper for 100 acres, letter C, part No. 52. 
A deed issued to Robert George, assignee of Abraham Chapline, for 
156 acres, part of No. 276, letter A, conveyed by assignment, pro- 

Deed issued to Abraham Lucas, assignee of Henry Frank, for 100 
acres, part of No. 73, letter D, conveyed by assignment, produced. 

Digitized by 



Deed issued to Jesse Rowland, assignee of Lay ton White, for 100 
acres, part of No. 255, letter D, conveyed by assignment, produced. 

Deeds issued to John Isaacs for 100 acres, part of No. 123, letter 
B. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Louisville, the 5th 
day of December, 1797, present, Richard Taylor, Alexander Breck- 
enridge, William Croghan and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Deed issued to William Croghan, assignee, for the following claims, 
to wit: Of Samuel Finley, 100 acres, letter D, part of No. 30; John 
Boyles, 100 acres, letter C, part of No. 60; Armstead Dudley, 100 
acres, letter E, part of No. 60; Van Swearingen, 100 acres, letter 
B, part of No. 116; George Venshioner, 100 acres, letter B, part of 
No. 119; Ebenezer Bowen, 100 acres, letter A, part of No. 128; 
and of James Jerrold, 100 acres, letter B, part of No. 128. 

Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners at Louisville, the 9th 
day of December, 1797, present, James F. Moore, Richard Taylor, 
Alexander Breckenridge and Richard Terrell, gentlemen. 

Deed issued to Richard Terrell, assignee, for 234 acres, part of 
No. 246, A. Deed issued to Richard Terrell, assignee, for 100 acres, 
part of No. 81, B. Deed issued to Richard Terrell, assignee, for 100 
acres, part of No. 162, B. Deed issued to Richard Terrell, assignee, 
for 100 acres, part of No. 79, C. Deed issued to Richard Terrell, 
assignee, for 100 acres, part of No. 174, A. Deed issued to Richard 
Terrell, assignee, for 100 acres, part of No. 286, C. Deed issued to 
Richard Terrell, assignee, for 100 acres, part of No. 286, A. Deed 
issued to James Guthrie, assignee, for 100 acres, part of No. 211, E. 

James F. Moore. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners at Louisville, the second 
day of January, 1798, present, Alexander Breckenridge, Robert 
Breckenridge, William Croghan and Richard Terrell, gentlemen. 

Deed issued to George Hucklcbery, assignee of Richard Harrison, 
for 500 acres, No. 135, by assignment produced. 

Alexander Breckenridge. 

Digitized by 



At a meeting of a board of commissioners at Louisville, the 1st 
day of June, 1798, present, George R. Clark, Richard Taylor, Will- 
iam Croghan and Richard Terrell, gentlemen. 

Deed issued to Adam Brenton, assignee of Isaac Vanmeter, for 100 
acres, part of No. 243, letter C. 

Deed issued to Robert Biggs, assignee of John Baldwin, assignee 
of William Montgomery, heir of James, for 156 acres, part of No. 
133, letter C. 

Deed issued to the heir of Isaac Hite, assignee of Isaac Kellar, for 
200 acres, part of No. 245, letters C and D. 

Deed issued to Richard Terrell, assignee, for 100 acres, part of 
No. 59, letter B, and for 152 acres, part of No. 196, letter H. 

G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners at Louisville, the 6th 
day of August, 1798, present, Alexander Breckenridge, Robert 
Breckenridge, Richard Taylor, Richard Terrell and William Crog- 
han, gentlemen. 

Deeds issued to James Gordon Heron, for three tracts of 500 acres 

each, to wit: No. 102, 139 and 183, as assignee of Richard Harrison. 

Two hundred acres deeded to William Croghan, assignee of Cox and 

Fenwick, assignee of Daniel Brodhead, assignee, etc. 

r William Smith, C, No. 44. 
C and D 9&^ i ' ' -rt 

LWilliam Kendall, D, No. 44. 

A. Breckenridge. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Louisville, the 6th 
of November, 1798, present, Alexander Breckenridge, William Crog- 
han and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Deeds to Martin Adams, assignee of James Merriweather, assignee 
of Rice Curtis, for 100 acres, part of No. 60, letter B. 

A. Breckenridge. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Major William 

Croghan's, the 27th day of February, 1799, present, Richard Taylor, 

William Croghan and Richard Terrell, gentlemen. 

Digitized by 



Deeds issued to Aquilla Rogers, assignee for 200 acres, part of No. 
231, letters D and E, by assignment produced. Deed issued to Dan- 
iel Covert for 100 acres, part of No. 177, letter B, by assignment 
produced. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Louisville, the 4th 
day of June, 1799, present, Alexander Breckenridge, Robert Brecken- 
ridge, Wm. Croghan and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

Deeds issued to James Hughs, assignee of Joseph Anderson, for 
100 acres, letter C, part of No. 178. A. Breckenridge. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Louisville, the 21st 
day of February, 1801, present, Richard Taylor, James F. Moore, 
Richard Terrell and Wm. Croghan, gentlemen. 

James F. Moore made oath before the board that he knew Wm. 
Myers, and knew of no other heir that he had, but Catherine, his 
sister, married to Henry Thomas, and believes her to be his only 
heir. Adam Brenton also made oath before the board that he long 
knew Wm. Myers and his family, and he knew not of any other heir 
he had, except his sister, Catherine, the wife of Henry Thomas, and 
believes her to be his only heir. 

Deed issued to Adam Brenton for 100 acres, letter C, No. 220, 
and also for 100 acres, letter C, 171, by assignments. 

Deed issued to Francis McGuire for icx) acres, letter B, No. 171, 
by assignment. 

Deed issued to Isaiah Long for 100 acres, letter D, No. 174, by 
assignment. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Jacob Owens', on 
Bear Grass, the 23d day of February, 1801, present, Richard Taylor, 
James F. Moore and Richard Terrell, gentlemen. 

Deed issued to Jacob Crumb, assignee of Peter, alias Frederick 
Honaker, for 100 acres of land, part of No. 57, known by the let- 
ter E. Richard Taylor. 

Digitized by 



At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Major William 
Croghan's, on Bear Grass, the 17th day of January, 1802, present, 
Richard Taylor, William Croghan and Richard Terrell, gentlemen. 

A deed issued to Christopher McCullough, assignee of Patrick 
Joyes, assignee of John Williams, for 200 acres of land, part of No. 
124, B and E. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners, at Louisville, the 2d 
day of August, 1802, present, Richard Taylor, Robert Breckenridge, 
William Croghan and Richard Terrell, gentlemen. 

Deed issued to Adam Shell for 100 acres, part of No. 273, letter 
B, assignee of Thomas Gaskins. 

Deed to Jacob Key Kendall for 100 acres, part of No. 1 16, letter 
E, assignee of Querten Swoodin, heir of Jonathan. 

Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners, at Richard Terrell's, 
the 1 2th of August, 1802, present, Richard Taylor, William Crog- 
han and Richard Terrell, Gent. 

On the application of John Thornton and producing proof that he 
is heir at law to Joseph Thornton, a deed issued to him for 100 acres, 
part of No. 2, letter C, the original plat being lost or mislaid by 
Michael Lacaassigne, to whom it was delivered. 

Richard Taylor. 

Proceedings of the commissioners of the Illinois Grant commenced 
the 28th October, 1802. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners for the Illinois Grant, 
at the house of Major John Harrison, in Louisville, on Thursday, 
the 28th day of October, 1802, present, George Rogers Clark, Rich- 
ard Taylor and William Croghan, Gent. 

Resolved^ That Marston Greene Clarke be appointed surveyor of 
the Illinois Grant, in the room of Captain Richard Terrell, deceased. 

Resolved^ That Captain William Clark be appointed clerk of the 
commissioners, in the room of Richard Terrell, deceased. 

Digitized by 



Resolved^ That Major William Croghan be authorized to apply to 
and receive from the administrator of Captain Terrell, deceased, all 
the papers belonging to the board of commissioners and that he deliver 
to the surveyor the record book of the surveys and the remainder of 
the papers to deliver to Captain William Clark, clerk of the commis- 

Resolved^ That the board do adjourn. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, in 
Louisville, the 22d April, 1803, present, George Rogers Clark, Rich- 
ard Taylor and William Croghan, Gent. 

The following deeds v^ere issued for lands within the said grant, 
viz. : One hundred acres to Phillip Fulkerson, assignee of John 
Cowen, designated by letter A, in No. 231 ; 100 acres to Val Stoner, 
assignee of John Brenton, assignee of Harrison, assignee of J. 
Brooks, assignee of Charles Ownsby, as designated by letter D, No. 
211; 100 acres to the heirs of Richard Terrell, assignee of Daniel 
Brodhead, assignee of Edward Mathews as attorneys in fact for 
Charles Belderbeck, designated, by letter D, No. 85. 

One hundred to Geo. Shake, assignee of Richard Terrell, assignee 
of John Ray, heir at law to William Ray, as designated by letter B, 
in No. 118; 100 acres to Aaron Moore, heir of William Moore, de- 
ceased, assignee of James Murray, heir at law to Edward Murray, 
as designated by letter E, No. 54 ; to John Harrison, assignee of 
George Lewis, assignee of George Clark, for 100 acres, letter E, 
part of No. 205 ; to John Harrison, assignee of George Lewis, 
assignee of Simon Kenton, for 100 acres, letter E, part of No. 198. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark, Chairman. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, at 
Major William Croghan's, the 20th of July, 1803, present, George 
Rogers Clark, Richard Taylor and William Croghan, gentlemen. 

The following deeds were issued for lands within the said grant, 
viz. : One hundred acres to Elizabeth Talley, heir at law to John 
Talley, deceased, designated by letter D, part of No. 142 ; 100 acres 

Digitized by 



to John Blackburn, assignee of David Morgan, assignee ( and 
attorney in fact), of Peter Cogen, as designated by letter B, part of 
No. 52 ; 100 acres to said John Blackburn, assignee of David Mor- 
gan, assignee (and attorney in fact), of Jacob Cogen, designated by 
letter B, in part of No. 205. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, at 
Louisville, the 6th day of June, 1804, present, James F. Moore, 
William Croghan and Richard Taylor. 

Deed issued to Abraham Meresham, heir at law to Nathaniel Mere- 
sham, for letter C of 100 acres in the Illinois Grant, in No. 254. 

Board adjourned. James F. Moore. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, 
the 2d day of July, 1804, present, Robert Breckenridge, James F. 
Moore, Richard Taylor, Gent. 

A deed issued to John Bottorff, assignee of John McDonald, as- 
signee of Lampson Gray, who was assignee of James Godfrey, for 
100 acres, letter A, in No. 94, in the Illinois Grant. 

James F. Moore. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, at 
Louisville, on the nth day of October, 1805, present, Richard 
Taylor, William Croghan and Robert Breckenridge. 

A deed issued to Fulton Lindsey, assignee of Robert Patterson, 
who is assignee of James Gray, heir at law to George Gray, for 100 
acres, letter E, in No. 224, in said grant. 

Deed issued to Hugh Espey as assignee of William Griffin, who is 
assignee of Samuel Henry, heir at law to John Henry, deceased, for 
100 acres in the said grant, being letter B, in No. 13. 

Adjourned. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
Saturday, the 23d of November, 1805, present, George R. Clark, 
Richard Taylor and William Croghan. 

Digitized by 



A deed issued to James Gilmore, assignee of Noah Crocz, for loo 
acres of land in the Illinois Grant, letter A, in No. 52. Also to John 
Berry, assignee of Solomon Walker, who was assignee of Robert 
Davis, for 100 acres of land, letter E, in No. 59. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, at 
Louisville, on the 20th March, 1806, present, George Rogers Clark, 
William Croghan, Richard Taylor. 

Deed issued to William Robey, assignee of William Robey, 
Thomas Robey and John Robey, heirs at law of William Robey, de- 
ceased, for 100 acres, known by letter A, in Lot No. 1 18. Also deed 
issued to the same as heir at law to William Rubey, deceased, for 200 
acres, letters C and D, in lot No. 118. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 4th day of May, 1806, present, George R. Clark, Richard Tay- 
lor and William Croghan. 

Deed issued to John Berry, assignee of John Harris, who was as- 
signee of George Gilmore, for 100 acres, being letter C in No. 94. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, at 
Louisville, on the 28th June, 1806, present, George R. Clark, Will- 
iam Croghan and Richard Taylor. 

A deed issued to William Brenton, assignee of William Clark, for 
45 acres, letter A, in No. 141, in Illinois Grant. 

A deed issued to John McLoney, assignee for 200 acres of land, 
letters A and B, the claim of Beverly Trent, No. (142). 

A deed issued Adam Brenton, assignee for 100 acres, letter E, in 
No. 79. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, at 
Louisville, on the 29th of September, 1806, present, Geo. R. Clark. 

Digitized by 



William Croghan, Robert Breckenridge and Richard Taylor, gentle- 

William Ferguson and John Berry laid before the board an assign- 
ment from James Robertson to David Frazier, and from said Frazier 
to the said Ferguson and Berry, and prayed the board to grant them 
a deed for said Robertson's claim in the said grant. And Robert A. 
New, as agent for the heirs and representatives of the said Robert, 
prayed the board to suspend the issuing of the deeds for said claim, 
suggesting that fraud had been committed on the part of the said 
Berry and Ferguson in producing and authenticating said assign- 
ment. It is ordered that a further time, until the first Monday in 
April next, be given the parties to establish their claims, at which 
time the board will determine on the same. 

Adjourned. G. R. Ci-ark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
Thursday, the 30th day of June, 1808, present, Robert Breckenridge, 
William Croghan and Richard Taylor, commissioners. 

Deed issued to Robert Whitehill, Jr., for 100 acres of land, letter 
C, in No. 28 ; granted to John Hughes, deceased, and assigned by 
James Hughes as the heir at law to said John Hughes, deceased, to 
said Robert Whitehill. 

(Signed) Robert Breckenridge 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 3d day of August, 1808, present, James F. Moore, William Crog- 
han and Robert Breckenridge, commissioners. 

A deed issued to William Cornell, assignee of Jonah Phelps, for 
100 acres of land in the Illinois Grant, letter A, in No. 177. 

Robert Breckenridge. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant at 
the house of John Gwathmy, agreeable to public notice, on Thurs- 
day, the 1st day of September, 1808, present, Richard Taylor, Will- 
iam Croghan and Robert Breckenridge, commissioners, a deed issued 
to Benjamin Brewer, assignee of Steth. Daniel, assignee of Jerry Har- 

Digitized by 



rison, assignee of Michael Graves, who was assignee of James Brown, 
for 200 acres of land, being letters D and E in No. 273, the claims 
of the said James Brown. 

A deed issued to William Asher, assignee of Bartlett Asher, who 
is heir at law to William Asher, deceased, for 100 acres, letter C, 
in No. 59. 

The commissioners having examined the papers laid before them 
by the representatives of Richard Terrell, and those laid before them 
by Jacob Peck, it appears from said papers that in the original plat 
of the survey there is an assignment made by Henry Thomas, as- 
signee, to Andrew Crockett, to which assignment there is no date, 
and on the said plat of survey is an assignment from Frederick Ed- 
wards, as agent of Andrew Crockett, to Richard Terrell, bearing 
date the 21st day of April, 1798. That on the part of Jacob Peck is 
an assignment of the said Henry Thomas to said Jacob Peck on the 
certificate of George R. Clark to John Lines, who served for the claim 
now in question, dated the 24th day of November, 1794. 

The commissioners, having considered said claims, are of opinion 
that the claim of Jacob Peck is better than that of the representatives 
of Richard Terrell, inasmuch as the date of the assignment to Peck 
is prior to the date of that from Edwards, as agent for Crockett, to 
Richard Terrell. 

It is ordered that a deed issue to the said Jacob Peck for the said 
claims of Henry Thomas as assignee of John Lyne (Lines), which 
claim is 100 acres of land, letter C, in No. 1 19. 

Resolved^ That the board adjourn until Saturday, the 29th day of 
October next. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, 
agreeable to adjournment at the last meeting, on the 29th day of Oc- 
tober, 1808, present, George Rogers Clark, William Croghan and 
Richard Taylor, Gent. A deed issued to John Crum, assignee of 
William King, assignee of Henry Ilonaker, for 100 acres of land, 
letter C in No. 57. A deed issued to William Goodwin, assignee of 
David Jones, for 100 acres, letter C in No. 138. A deed issued to 

Digitized by 



James McKinney, assignee of John Lang, assignee of Isaac Yates, 
for 100 acres, letter B in No. 2 10. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, at 
Louisville, on the 3d day of December, 1S08, present, George Rogers 
Clark, Robert Breckenridge, Richard Taylor, James F. Moore and 
William Croghan. 

The board having met on this day for the purpose of determining 
on the contest between the heirs of James Robertson and John Berry 
and Ferguson and Philip Barbor, heir and representative of Phil. Bar- 
bour, deceased, but, no person appearing on the part of said Berry 
and Ferguson to advocate their claim, the board think it not most 
proper to suspend the investigation of said claims until Tuesday 
morning next, for which purpose a board will be formed on said day, 
at the school-house, near Colonel Taylor's. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of the commissioners of the Illinois Grant, agreeably 
to the adjournment of the 3d instant, present, George Rogers Clark, 
James Francis Moore, William Croghan, Richard Taylor and Rob- 
ert Breckenridge. 

The commissioners having examined the papers adduced by Messrs. 
John Berry and William Ferguson, and the heirs of James Robertson 
deceased, and of Philip Barber, heir at law to Philip Barber, de- 
ceased (and having examined Aaron Prather touching the claim of 
the above-named Berry and Ferguson), all of whom have prayed the 
commissioners to grant them deeds for the lands in the Illinois Grant 
allowed to James Robertson for military services, are of opinion that 
it is proved by the testimony of said Prather that the assignment of 
the said Berry and Ferguson from said James Robertson was fraudu- 
lently procured, as appears from the deposition of Aaron Prather. 

It is ordered that deeds issue to the (legal heirs, representatives, 
devisee or devisees) of the said James Robertson for ajl the lands in 
the said grant allowed to him by the board of commissioners. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

Digitized by 



At a meeting of the board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, 
at Louisville, on the nth day of May, 1809, present, William Crog- 
han, Robert Breckenridge, Richard Taylor and James F. Moore. 

A deed issued to Lucy Sullivan, Daniel Sullivan, William Sullivan, 
Rebecca Sullivan and Sophia Sullivan, heirs of William Sullivan, 
deceased, as assignee of Marston G. Clark, assignee of John Pul- 
ford, for 100 acres, being letter E, in No. 31 (thirty-one). 

A deed issued to Adam Brenton, assignee of David Millhanks and 
Annie, his wife, for letter E, in No. 38, of 100 acres. 

Adjourned. Robert Breckenridge. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, 
on Friday, 22d of September, 1809, present, George Rogers Clark, 
William Croghan and Richard Taylor. 

A deed issued to John Corkey Owings, assignee of Robert Patter- 
son, for 200 acres of land, being letter D and E, in No. 177. 

Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 27th day of November, 1809, present, Geo. R. Clark, James F. 
Moore, William Croghan, Richard Taylor and Robert Breckenridge. 

Philip Barbour, Jr., petitioned this board to grant him a deed for 
the lands, lying in the Illinois Grant, of which James Robertson, late 
lieutenant in the Illinois regiment, died possessed, and produced 
to the board an authenticated copy of the last will and testament of 
the said James Robertson and other testimonials to establish his claim. 

Robert A. New, as attorney for Jeremiah Turpin, who intermar- 
ried with Ann Robertson, the daughter of John Robertson, heir at 
law to said James Robertson and who is assignee of Wattball Robert- 
son. Henry Turpin and Elizabeth Turpin, Eleazer Cheatham, Mar- 
tha Cheatham, John Robertson, Richard Robertson, William Robert- 
son, Jr., and others, who claim to he the heirs and representatives of 
said James Robertson, deceased, which, being considered of by the 
board, it is ordered that deeds do issue to the said Philip Barbour, Jr., 
heir at law to Philip Barbour, deceased, who was devisee of said 

Digitized by 



James Robertson, for lots No. 25, of 500 acres; No. 200, of 5CX) 
acres; No. 206, of 500 acres, and No. 294, of 500, and for letter B, 
of 156 acres, part of No. 106, which lands were granted to said 
Robertson as lieutenant in said regiment. The said deeds to be made 
with the following condition, to wit: 

*' Saving to the said Jeremiah Turpin such title as he may be able to 
establish either in a court of equity or law, to said lands as represen- 
tation aforesaid." 

It is also ordered that the order made for granting the before- 
mentioned lands to the "legal heirs, representatives, devisee or devisees 
of said Robertson," in the month of December last, be rescribed. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 23d day of January, 18 10, present, George R. Clark, William 
Croghan, Richard Taylor, a deed issued to John R. Nugent, assignee 
of Thomas Consola, heir at law to Hannah Consola, for 100 acres, 
being letter C, in No. 205. 

Adjourned. G. R. Clark. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 14th day of March, 18 10, present, George R. Clark, Richard 
Taylor and William Croghan. 

Resolved^ That the 500-acre survey, No. 74 (seventy- four), be laid 
off into lOO-acre lots, and that the said 100 acres be, each of them, 
distinguished on the map by letters A, B, C, D and E, in the same 
manner as is distinguished in lot No. 73, and that the surveyor of 
Clark county be requested to lay off the said lots accordingly and re- 
turn a plat of survey to the next meeting of the board. 

Resolved^ also, That on the application of any individual to the 
board and producing assignments from persons owning eight-acre lots 
in said No. 74, to the amount of 100 acres, the board will proceed to 
ballot and make a deed for the letter drawn accordingly. 

G. R. Clark. 

Digitized by 



At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, at 
Louisville, on the 17th day of May, 1810, present, William Croghan, 
Robert Breckenridge and Richard Taylor, commissioners. 

A deed issued to James Cratcher, assignee of Nathaniel Gains and 
Ingrey, his wife, formerly Ingery House, heiress of Andrew House, 
for 100 acres, being letter E in No. 28. 

Adjourned. W. Croghan. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 1 2th of November, 18 10, present, Robert Breckenridge, William 
Croghan and Richard Taylor. 

Evan Shelby, surveyor of Clark county, Indiana territory, pursuant 
to a former resolution of this board, has surveyed lot No. 74, in the 
Illinois Grant, and laid the same out into five equal lots, distinguished 
by letters A, B, C, D and E. Ordered, that the same be recorded. 

George Huckleberry having produced assignments to the board for 
twenty claims of eight acres each, in said number, which the board 
consider sufficiently authenticated, and the said Huckleberry, by Evan 
Shelby, having proceeded to ballot for the same, drew the said 160 
acres out of letters C and D. 

Resolved^ That the commissioners will make a deed of conveyance 
to the said Huckleberry, his heirs or assigns, for the said 160 acres, 
to include letter C and the remainder in letter D, adjoining the same, 
or that the commissioners will convey the whole of the said two let- 
ters when the said Huckleberry shall produce assignments for the 
forty acres which shall be considered sufficiently authenticated by the 
commissioners. Ordered, that the said Huckleberry be authorized to 
take possession of the said 160 acres whenever he shall think proper 
so to do. 

Ordered, that the board do adjourn. R. Breckenridge. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 22d of January, 181 1, present Robert Breckenridge, Will Crog- 
han and R. Taylor. 

George Huckleberry, Jr., having produced to the board 9i\^ other 
assignments for eight-acre lots in lot No. 74, a deed issued to the said 

Digitized by 



George Huckleberry for 2CX) acres of land, being letters C and D in 
said No. 74, heretofore drawn by said Huckleberry, and being each 
of the residuary claims of Van Swearengen, Florence Mahoney, 
John Tally, Peter Priest, Jacob Spears, Nathaniel Mershon, William 
Whitly, James Whitecotton, Ebenezer Osborn, William Ray, George 
Vensioner, Michael and John Setzer, John and Page Sarten, Charles 
Onsley, Isaac Vanmeter, Josiah Phelps, Isaac Yates, Henry Vance, 
John Paul, William Thompson, Barney Waters, George Shepherd 
and Samuel Watkins. 

Adjourned. R. Breckenridge. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the ist day of February, 1813, present, George R. Clark, Richard 
Taylor and William Croghan. 

A deed issued to Isaac McBride for 100 acres, letter D, in No. 281. 

Adjourned. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 4th day of August, 1813, present, Robert Breckenridge, Richard 
Taylor and William Croghan. 

Ordered that a deed issue to William Wilson, assignee of James 
Beggs, assignee of Henly Vance, for 100 acres in the Illinois Grant, 
letter D, in No. 243. 

Ordered that a deed issue to James Biggs, assignee of Fulton Lind- 
sey, assignee of the heirs of Arthur Lindsey, for 100 acres, letter D, 
in No. 79. 

Adjourned. Robert Breckenridge. 

The fees paid for plats taken out of the office whilst the papers 
were in my possession were paid to Major Croghan, executor of 
William Clark, deceased, Nov. 11, 1815. 

Samuel Gwathmey. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 9th day of August, 1815, present, Richard Taylor, William Crog- 
han and Robert Breckenridge, gentlemen. 

Digitized by 



A deed issued to Robert Cornell, assignee of Thomas Key, assignee 
of Gasper Gaylor, for loo acres, letter D, No. 224. 

Ordered that a deed issue to William Goodwin, assignee of John 
Jackson, assignee of Mary and Jane Vaughan, assigfnee of Garrard 
Enoch Nelson, by power of attorney (or letter to James Patton), for 
two undivided third parts of icx>acre tract, letter E, No. 85. 

A deed issued to Philip Daily, assignee of Original Young, 
assignee of Aaron Moore, assignee of Christopher Greenup, assignee 
of Elisha Freeman, heir at law to William Freeman for 100 acres, 
letter E, No. 73. 

Adjourned. Richard Taylor. 

At a meeting of a board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, on 
the 2d day of September, 1815, present, Richard Taylor, Wm. Crog- 
han and Robert Breckenridge, Gent. 

A deed issued to Abram Appier, assignee of William Cawillfax, 
assignee of Richard Cox, for 100 acres of land in the Illinois Grant, 
part of a tract of 500 acres, No. 59, letter D, which deed bears date 
August 14, last. Richard Taylor. 

On the 14th of December, 18 16, William Croghan, Richard Taylor 
and Robert Breckenridge, commissioners of the Illinois Grant, made 
a deed to Aaron Prather, assignee of Edmund Fear, for 100 acres of 
land in the Illinois Grant, being the letter C, part of the 500-acre 
survey No. 73. W. Croghan. 

On the 20th of December, 1816, William Croghan, Richard Taylor 
and Robert Breckenridge, commissioners of the Illinois Grant, made 
a deed to Absalom Parker, assignee of Thomas Allen, who was 
assignee of Wm. Slack, for 100 acres of land in the Illinois Grant, 
letter E, part of the 500-acre survey No. 174. W. Croghan. 

On the 19th of February, 18 18, Mr. John Sullivan, guardian of the 
heir of William Sullivan, deceased, produced to the commissioners 
of the Illinois Grant, viz. : Robert Breckenridge, William Croghan 
and Richard Taylor, an assignment from Samuel Stephenson, form- 

Digitized by 



erly a soldier in the Illinois regiment, to the said William Sullivan 
for the land which he is entitled to for his services in the said regi- 
ment, upon which assignment the said commissioners granted a deed 
for 100 acres of land lying in the said grant lettered E, No. 2S6, to 
Daniel P. Sullivan, William, Sophia and Rebecca, heirs of the said 
Wm. Sullivan, deceased. W. Croghan. 

At a meeting of a board of the commissioners of the Illinois Grant, 
on the 3d day of June, 18 19, present, William Croghan, Richard 
Taylor, Robert Breckenridge, Gent. A deed from the said commis- 
sioners to Thomas Joyes, for 156 acres of land in the Grant, assignee 
of the heirs and devisees of Valentine T. Dalton, which is known in 
the plan of said grant by the number, 155, letter C. 

A deed from the commissioners to James Ross, assignee of James 
Scott, who was assignee of James January, the original claimants for 
100 acres of land in the Illinois Grant, part of No. 198, letter C, 
granted the 7th day of July, 18 19, by Richard Taylor, William Cro- 
ghan and Robert Breckenridge, Esquires. 

November 25, 18 19. A deed from Richard Taylor, Robert Breck- 
enridge and William Croghan, commissioners, etc., to Aaron Moore, 
assignee of Jacob Miller, heir at law of Abraham Miller, deceased, 
for 100 acres of land in the Illinois Grant, part of No. 54, letter C ; 
also a deed to the said Moore for 100 acres as assignee of William 
Lear, part of No. 54, letter A. 

March 21, 1820. The commissioners of the Illinois Grant (to wit, 
William Croghan, Richard Taylor and Robert Breckenridge, Gents.), 
on the application of Thomas Joyes, who produced satisfactory pa- 
pers in evidence of his right, granted a deed for two tracts of land of 
500 acres each, and distinguished on the map of said grant by their 
numbers, 168 and 185, to the said Joyes as the grantee of Robert 
Walsh and Anna Maria Walsh, his wife, the sole heir of Jasper 
Moyland, deceased, and Samuel Fox and Maria Fox, his wife, and 
William Lansdale and Elizabeth Lansdale, his wife; the said Maria 
Fox and Elizabeth Lansdale being the only heirs of Stephen Moy- 
land, deceased, and the said Jasper and Stephen Moyland being the 

Digitized by 



only heirs of John Moyland, deceased, to whom a deed had been ex- 
ecuted by a former board of commissioners for the said two tracts of 
500 acres of land each, as assignee of General G. R. Clark, which 
deed is represented to be lost or mislaid, and therefore the said heirs 
and legal representatives of the said John Moyland have conveyed the 
said land to said Thomas Joyes, and by their attorney, Robert Wick- 
liffe, have authorized and requested the renewal of the deed accord- 
ingly. Robert Breckenridge. 

Louisville, June i, 1820. 

The undersigned, one of the commissioners for settling the claims to 
lands in the Illinois Grant and granting deeds for the same, having ex- 
amined the following residuary soldiers' claims and the assignments 
thereof to George Huckleberry, which are found to be correct, viz. : 
Daniel Williams, James Ramsey, Jesse Finer, Isaac McBride, G. E. 
Nelson, Ebenezer Sevems, Jonathan Sworden, Will Ruby, Robert 
Witt, Francis Spilman, Henry Prather, John McManness, Sen., for 
eight acres each, and John Thompson, heir at law to Joseph Thorn- 
ton, deceased, for eight acres, four acres of which are appropriated to 
make the quantity of 100 acres ; and the said George Huckleberry, 
by Evan Shelby, proceeded to ballot for one of the unappropriated 
lots of the survey for 500 acres, which is distinguished in the map of 
said grant by its number, 74. When he drew the lot, letter E, for 
which a deed may issue upon his procuring an additional claim regu- 
larly assigned, for so much as will complete the 100 acres, and in the 
meantime the said Huckleberry may enter upon and take possession 
of the same. 

March — , 182 1, the said Huckleberry produced the above claim 
of John Thornton, heir, etc. Deed issued accordingly. 

Robert Breckenridge. 

Deed signed by R. Breckenridge in favor of William Goodwin for 
one-third part of letter E, No. 85, and delivered to Evan Shelby for 
the signatures of the other commissioners, William Croghan and 
Richard Taylor, Esquires. 

Digitized by 



Also, a deed in favor of William Morgan, assignee of R. Witt, 
for 100 acres, letter B, part of No. 243, and a deed to Reece Williams, 
heir at law of Daniel Williams, for 100 acres, letter E, part of No. 
243, which deeds were signed by R. Breckenridge and delivered by 
him to Evan Shelby to obtain the signatures of the other commission- 
ers, William Croghan and Richard Taylor, Esquires. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant, 
at Charlestown, on the 20th day of August, 1825, for the purpose of 
creating deeds, etc., present, Joseph Bartholomew, James Beggs, 
Andrew P. Hay, Benjamin Ferguson and Stephen Hutchings, Gent. 
Joseph Bartholomew was appointed chairman of the board and John 
Douthatt the clerk of the same. 

Ordered that the board of commissioners adjourn until the 15th day 
of October. Joseph Bartholomew, Chairman. 

At a meeting of the commissioners of the Illinois Grant, according 
to adjournment, in Charlestown, on the 15th day of October, 1825, 
present, Joseph Bartholomew, James Beggs, Benjamin Ferguson, 
Orlando Raymond and Stephen Hutchings, Gent. Andrew P. Hay 

Ordered, that a deed issue to Henry Renacking, assignee of Shad- 
rach G. Moore, assignee of William Coll, assignee of Benjamin 
Brown, assignee of Alexander Mclntire, for 100 acres of land in No. 
130, letter C. 

Ordered, that deed issue to Joseph Coombs, assignee of Isaac 
Greathouse, assignee of II. Greathouse and Isaac Greathouse, heir 
at law of William Greathouse, deceased, 100 acres of land in No. 
224 and letter B. 

Ordered that deed issue to Shem Hostedler, assignee of Daniel 
Bower, assignee of Elizabeth Alexander, heir at law of James Alex- 
ander, deceased, assignee of Andrew Spear, assignee of Isaac Samp- 
son, assignee of Thomas Short, who was assignee of Robert 
Barnett for 100 acres of land in No. 162 and letter C, 

Digitized by 



Ordered, that the clerk of this board receive two dollars for each deed 
which is executed by the board of commissioners of the Illinois Grant. 

Ordered, that deed issue to James Curry, assignee of Jacob Teeple, 
assignee of James Drake, assignee of Robert A. New, assignee of 
James Ferguson, assignee of Evan Shelby, assignee of Jacob Spear, 
for loo acres of land in No. 174 and letter B. 

The board adjourned. Joseph Bartholomew. 

At a meeting of the board of commissioners of the Illinois regi- 
ment, according to adjournment, in Charlestown, the 27th day of 
November, A. D. 1846, present, Andrew P. Hay, Alexander Mars, 
Samuel McCampbell, David W. Dailey and Christopher Cole, Gent., 
the board unanimously appointed Andrew P. Hay president of the 
board of commissioners, and also unanimously appointed Joseph 
Bower clerk of said board, in place of John Douthitt, Esq., former 
clerk, who has heretofore resigned his said office as clerk aforesaid. 

The board proceeded to investigate the claims of the heirs of John 
Hacker, and the heirs of Christopher Hatten. After due considera- 
tion, was continued until the next meeting of the board on the ist 
Monday in December next, 1846, to which time the board adjourned. 

Andrew P. Hay, Pres. B. 

On the 7th day of December, 1846, the following gentlemen, com- 
missioners, met pursuant to adjournment, to wit: A. P. Hay, presi- 
dent, John D. Shryer, Samuel McCampbell, and not being a major- 
ity sufficient to act, the board adjourned until convened at some future 

Then on the 3d day of April, 1847, the board met pursuant to ad- 
journment. Present, Hon. A. P. Hay, president, Samuel McCamp- 
bell, David W. Dailey, Alexander Mars and Christopher Cole. 

Ordered that a deed issue to George A. Hatten and Ann E. Hatten, 
sole heirs at law of Christopher Hatten, for 100 acres of land in No. 
28, letter A, of the Illinois Grant. 

The board adjourned until convened at some future day. 

Examined, Andrew P. Hay, P. B. C. 

Digitized by 




Original Claimants. Assignees. 

Allan, David, private .James Sherlock,Bartho.Tardivcan*( whole claim) 

John Holker, 100 acres. 
Ash, Reubin, heir of John 

Ash, private.... BurwellJackson,Richard Jones Waters, 100 acres. 

Blackford, Joseph, heir of 

Sam, private... .James Francis Moore, whole claim. 

Brjant, James, private B. Tardivcan, whole claim, J. Holker, 100 acres. 

Bush, William, private James Sherlock, Bartho. Tardivcan, whole claim, 

John Holker, 100 acres. 

Bailej, John, captain John Holker, 1,400 acres. 

Bailej, John, captain Joyes and Hoops, 500 acres. 

Burk, Nicholas, private Daniel Brodhead, Nat. Neilson, 100 acres. 

Bentley, John, private, 

heir of James, private... Samuel Shack leford, Daniel Brodhead, whole 

claim, Richard Terrell, 200 acres. 

Bell, William, private. Daniel Brodhead, Richard Terrell, 100 acres. 

Biggar, James, private Alexander Scot Bullett, 100 acres. 

Clifton, Baldwin, heir of 

Thomas, private .Joseph Saunders, Bartho. Tardivcan, whole 

claim, John Holker, 100 acres. 

Clark, Richard, lieutenant L. Martin, B. Tardivcan, J. Holker, 1,000 acres. 

Clark, Richard, lieutenant Bartho. Tardivcan, John Holker, 566^3 acres. 

Clark, Richard, lieutenant D. Brodhead, J. R. Jones, J. Holker, 4333^3 acres. 

Crump, William, sergeant D. Brodhead, whole claim, R.Terrell, 200 acres. 

Clark, Andrew, private D. Brodhead, whole claim, R. Terrell, 100 acres. 

* Probably Tarsacon. 


Digitized by 



Camp, Reuben, private D. Brodhead, whole claim, W.Davis, lOO acres. 

Dewit, Henry, sergeant Robert Todd, William Croghan, Benjamin Se- 
bastian, 224 acres, Adam Hoops, 200 acres. 

Dalton, Thomas, lieutenant Daniel Brodhead, Richard Terrell, 500 acres. 

Duff, John, private Daniel Broadhead, Walter Davies, 100 acres. 

Dawson, James, private Geo. Owen. D. Brodhead, N. Neilson, 100 acres. 

Elms, William, sergeant Richard Breashear, William Pope, Alexander S. 

BuUett, 200 acres. 

Froggat, William, private Benjamin Sebastian, Adam Hoops, 100 acres. 

Floyd, Isham, private B. Tardivcan, whole claim, J. Holker, 100 acres. 

Glass, Michael, private John Rogers, Benjamin Sebastian, whole claim, 

Adam Hoops, 100 acres. 

Grimes, John, private William Fleming, whole claim. 

Gagnia, Louis, private D. Broadhead, whole claim, N. Nelson, 100 acres. 

Goodwin, William, private Walter Davis, Alexander S. Bullett, whole claim. 

Hays, Thomas, private Buckner Pittman, Bartho. Tardivcan, whole 

claim, John Holker, 100 acres. 

Hooper, Thomas, private Jonas Scoggin, John Cowgill, Richard Jones 

Waters, 100 acres. 

Joynes, John, private B. Tardivcan, whole claim, J. Holker, 100 acres. 

Johnston, Edward, private D. Brodhead, whole claim, N. Neilson, 100 acres. 

Kendall, William, private Daniel Brodhead, whole claim. 

Lyne, John, private Henry Thomas, whole claim. 

Lovell, Richard, private™ Samuel Watkins, Joseph Sprigg, Bartho. Tardiv- 
can, whole claim, John Holker, 100 acres. 

Lemon, John, private Bartholomew Tardivcan, whole claim. 

Livingston, George, private D. Brodhead, whole claim, W. Davis, 100 acres. 

Lunsford, George, private D. Brodhead, whole claim, W. Davis, 100 acres. 

Montgomery, William, 
heir of James, lieutenant Richard Terrell, 2,000 acres. 

Marr, Patrick, private Buckner Pittman, Bartho. Tardivcan, whole 

claim, John Holker, 100 acres. 

Morgan, Charles, sergeant Buckner Pittman, Bartho. Tardivcan, whole 

claim, John Holker, 200 acres. 

McGarr, John, private B. Tardivcan, whole claim, J. Holker, 100 acres. 

Moore, Thomas, private .James Coburn, whole claim. 

Murphy, John, private John McCumprey, Daniel Brodhead, whole 

claim, Walter Davis, 100 acres. 

Merriwether, Wm., sergeant.... ..Maurice Nagle, 200 acres. 

Mafield, Micajah, private D. Brodhead, whole claim, R. Terrell, 100 acres. 

Digitized by 



Montgomery, John, private D. Brodhead, whole claim, R.Terrell, 100 acres. 

Newton, Peter, private James Francis Moore, whole claim. 

Prichard, William, sergeant William Johnston, 200 acres. 

Pagan, David, private William Wickoff, whole claim. 

Perault, Michael, lieutenant William Croghan, whole claim. 

Paul, John, private Nat. Parker, 100 acres. 

Peersley, William, private Alexander Skinner, Nat. Parker, whole claim. 

Pickens, Samuel, private Benjamin Sebastian, Adam Hoops. 

Quick, Thomas, major George Rogers Clark, whole claim. 

Ross, Joseph, private Susana Merideth, Daniel Brodhead, whole claim, 

Nat. Neilson, 100 acres. 

Slaughter, Thomas, heir of 

Lawrence, Ensign George Slaughter, whole claim, John Holker, 

Alexander Scot BuUett, 2,000 acres. 

Stephenson, Stephen, private... Richard Brashear, whole claim, William Pope, 

Alexander Scot Bullett, 100 acres. 

Strode, Samuel, sergeant Richard Jones Waters, 200 acres. 

Severns, John, private D. Brodhead, whole claim, N. Neilson, 100 acres. 

Sheppard, Peter, private George Sheppard, Daniel Brodhead, whole 

claim, Nat. Neilson, 100 acres. 

Smith, William, private Daniel Brodhead, whole claim. 

Spilman, James, private Henry Thomas, William Croghan, Walter Da- 
vies, Alexander Scot Bullett, whole claim. 

Tigard, Daniel, private Richard Breashear, whole claim, William Pope, 

Alexander S. Bullett, 100 acres. 

Taylor, Isaac, captain Thomas Quick, William Adams, Daniel Brod- 
head, whole claim, Richard Terrell, 3,000 acres. 

Thompson, William, private Lewis Dickson, Alexander S. Bullett, 100 acres. 

Vaughan, John, sergeant B. Tardivcan, whole claim, J. Holker, 200 acres. 

Whitehead, William, private..... James Francis Moore, whole claim. 

Whitehead, Robert, private James Francis Moore, whole claim. 

William, Jarred, lieutenant Bartho. Tardivcan, John Holker, (three separate 

assignments), 2,000 acres. 

Whitecotton, James, private Sam Watkins, J. Davies, Nat. Parker, 100 acres. 

White, Randall, private Frederick Rath, Daniel Brodhead, whole claim, 

Nat. Neilson, 100 acres. 

Whitley, William, private William Croghan, Alex, Scot Bullett, 100 acres. 

Zickledge, William, private Joseph Shaw, William Beckley, whole claim. 

Digitized by 




Prior to the year of 1783, the state of Virginia had the sovereignty 
of all the territory now included in the states of Ohio, Indiana, and 
Illinois. By her act of cession to the United States in 1783, and her 
deed in conformity thereto, she transferred all her territory northwest 
of the Ohio river saving and excepting certain reserves. Among 
others she reserved a tract granted by her to the officers and soldiers 
of the Illinois regiment containing one hundred and fifty thousand 
acres, now known by the name of the Illinois Grant, with the express 
stipulation that the said tract should be divided among the said ofl[icers 
and soldiers in due proportion, according to the laws of Virginia. The 
power of legislation may cease, and the operation and obligation of 
the laws remain ; such is the case generally in conquered and ceded 
countries; such is the case in all the new states of this Union. (4 
Cranch, 384.) But the compact, in this case, seems to intend some- 
thing more than a stipulation for a continuance of the operation of 
laws already in existence. The state of Virginia and the United States 
were two sovereigns, treating for a cession of territory. Virginia had 
made a grant of land to the officers and soldiers of the Illinois regiment 
for military services. In her act of cession she reserves this grant, 
and stipulates for a continuance of her right of legislation, so far as it 
should be found necessary to carry it into complete effect. That this 
was the light in which the compact was understood by the contracting 

1 1 20 

Digitized by 



parties appears evident, not only from the compact itself, but also from 
the subsequent conduct of both parties. The right of soil remained 
in Virginia. Virginia claimed the right of legislation long after this 
compact, and did actually legislate on the subject of these lands in the 
years 1786 and 1796. The United States acquiesced in the right 
claimed and exercised by Virginia. Congress has never attempted to 
make any regulation respecting the lands in this grant; nor have the 
United States, in any instance, claimed the right to legislate on the 
mbject, or in any manner to interfere with Virginia respecting the 
primary disposal of the soil. If this is a fair construction of the com- 
pact, Virginia retained and still retains the sole and exclusive right of 
legislation, so far as respects the transfer from the government to 
individual claimants of the legal title to lands in the Illinois Grant; 
and, with respect to these 'ands, the acts of the general assembly of 
Virginia have the same force and authority as the acts of congress 
have with respect to the other lands in these states. As respects the 
primary disposal of the soil, Virginia has a right to legislate for one 
part of the state, and the United States for the other part. The acts 
of both are equally obligatory, and are j^.esumed to be equally within 
the knowledge of our courts and judges, as forming a part of the law 
of the land. ... 

Digitized by 






Charlestown, 117, Lieutenant John Gerault. 

Charlestown Landing, 56, General George Rogers Clark. 

Hamburg, 108, Sergeant William Elms, and others. 

Henryville, 254-5, Private James Monroe, and others. 

Herculaneum, 57, Private David Henry, and others. 

Hibernia, 105, Major William Lynn. 

Jeffersonville, No. i. Lieutenant Isaac Bowman. 

Marysville, 248, Private Travis Booton, and others. 

Memphis, 203, Captain Robert Todd. 

New Market, 196, Sergeant John Vaughan, and others. 

Otisco, 210, Private John Biggar, and others. 

Petersburgh, 130, Private Isaac McBride, and others. 

Port Fulton, 2, Private Francis Spilman, and others. 

Sellersburgh, 1 10, Captain Isaac Ruddle. 

Springville, 94, Private Isaac Fans, and others. 

Utica, 16, Captain John Bailey; 17, Captain Robert George. 

Watson, 36, Captain Robert Todd. 

Clarksville opposite the falls between Jeffersonville and New Albany. 

Stone Fort Mound Builders, 76, Lieutenant Valentine Dalton. 

Digitized by 




A bill in chancer}- was filed in said court on the 6th of 
May, 1835, as follows: 

To the Honorable George M, Bibh^ Chancellor of the Louisville 
Chancery Court: 

Humbly complaining, your orators, Isaac Clark, George Clark, 
William Clark, Benjamin Temple and Eleanor, his wife, who was 
Eleanor Clark ; Henry W. Vick and Sarah, his wife ; William F. 
Bullock and Mary, his wife ; William Bodley and Ellen, his wife ; 
Edmund Pearce, Martha Pearce, Jonathan Pearce, Eliza Pearce and 
James Anne Pearce, the said Martha, Jonathan, Eliza and James 
Anne, who are infants, by their next friend, William F. Bullock; 
Elizabeth Gwathmey, Anne C. Logan, Cecilia Anderson, Anderson 
Miller, Jr., and Elizabeth C, his wife; Annita G. Anderson, who is 
an infant, by George C. Gwathmey, her next friend, and George C. 
Gwathmey, administrator of the estate of Richard C. Anderson, Jr., 
deceased, would respectfully represent to Y^our Honor that heretofore, 
to wit: on the — day of February, 1818, George Rogers Clark 
departed this life, and that on the 4th day of October, 1830, at a 
county court held for Jefferson county, in the state of Kentucky, an 
instrument of writing purporting to be the last will of the said George 
Rogers Clark was produced and then and there established by the 
said court to be the last will and testament of the said George, and 
administration of the estate of the said George, with the will an- 


Digitized by 



nexed, was granted to a certain George Woolfolk. They file here- 
with as an exhibit and pray to be made a part hereof a certified copy 
of the said supposed will and order of the county court establishing 
the same, marked A. They further state that at the time of the death 
of the said George his heirs at law consisted of his brother, General 
William Clark, of Saint Louis, Missouri; Frances Fitzhugh, wife 
of Dennis Fitzhugh, one of the devisees in the said supposed will, 
the said Frances being one of the sisters of the said George ; Lucy 
Croghan, wife of William Croghan, Sen., another devisee in the said 
will, the said Lucy being another sister of the said George ; and your 
orators, the said Isaac, George, William, Eleanor Temple, wife of 
the said Benjamin Temple, and Anne Pearce, wife of James A. 
Pearce, and John H. Clark — the said Isaac, George, William, John, 
Eleanor and Anne being the children and heirs of Jonathan Clark, 
another brother of the said George, and who died before the said 
George ; and your orators, the said Anne C. Logan, who was the 
wife of John Logan, now deceased, and Elizabeth C. Gwathmey was 
the wife of Isaac Gwathmey, now deceased, Cecilia Anderson and 
Richard C. Anderson, Jr. — the said Anne, Elizabeth, Cecilia and 
Richard being the children and heirs at law of Elizabeth C. Ander- 
son, wife of Richard C. Anderson, Sen., the said Elizabeth being a 
sister of the said George and having departed this life before the said 
George, and Anne Gwathmey, wife of Owen Gwathmey, another of 
the said devisees, the said Anne being a sister of the said George. 

Your orators further show that the said Dennis Fitzhugh and Fran- 
ces have departed this life since the death of the said George, the said 
Frances having survived her said husband ; that the said Dennis left 
two children, his heirs at law, to wit: Clark Fitzhugh and Lucy 
Anne Fitzhugh, the said Lucy Anne having intermarried with a cer- 
tain Henry S. Coxe, and since died, leaving no child; that the said 
Clark and Lucy Anne, and Charles W. Thruston and Anne C.-Far- 
rar, wife of Bernard Farrar, and Benjamin O'Fallen and John O'Fal- 
len were the children and heirs at law of the said Frances ; that the 
said William Croghan, Sen., has departed this life since the death of 

Digitized by 



the said George, leaving as his children and heirs at law John Crog- 
han, William Croghan, George Croghan, Charles Croghan, Anne Jes- 
sup, wife of Thomas S. Jessup, and Eliza Hancock, wife of George 
Hancock, the said Charles and Eliza having, since the death of the 
said William, departed this life without issue, leaving their brothers, 
the said John, William, George, and sister Anne, their heirs; that the 
said Jonathan Clark departed this life before his brother, the said 
George, leaving as his children and heirs at law your orators, Isaac, 
George, William and Eleanor Temple, John H. Clark and Ann 
Pearce, wife of James A. Pearce, the said John having since died 
without issue, and the said Ann, who survived her husband, the said 
James,, having also departed this life, leaving as her children and heirs 
at law your orators, the said Sarah, wife of Henry W. Vick, Mary, 
wife of William F. Bullock, Ellen, wife of William S. Bodley, Ed- 
mund, Martha, James, Anne, Jonathan, Eliza Pearce, your orator, 
the said Isaac, having administered upon the estate of the said John. 
That the said Owen and Anne Gwathmey have also departed this life 
since the death of the said George, leaving as their heirs at law John 
Gwathmey, Temple Gwathmey, Samuel Gwathmey, Isaac R. 
Gwathmey, your orator, the said George C. Gwathmey, Diana M. 
Bullitt, wife of Thomas Bullitt, now deceased, Elizabeth C. Ander- 
son, wife of Richard C. Anderson, Jr., Frances Jones, Lucy Priest, 
wife of Peter Priest, and Catharine W^oolfolk^ wife of George Wool- 
folk, the said John Gwathmey having, after the death of the said 
Anne and before the death of the said Owen, departed this life, leav- 
ing as his children and heirs at law Owen and William, Eleanor and 
Matilda Gwathmey, all of whom are now alive, no person having 
ever administered upon the estate of the said John, the said Isaac hav- 
ing also departed this life, leaving as his children and heirs at law 
Benjamin, Richard, Anne, Eliza and Maria Louisa Gwathmey, all 
of whom are now alive, your orator, the said George C. Gwathmey, 
having administered upon the estate of the said George, and your or- 
atrix, the said Elizabeth C. Gwathmey, wife of the said Isaac, having 
survived the said Isaac, the said Elizabeth C. Anderson having, after 

Digitized by 



the death of the said Anne and before the death of the said Owen, 
departed this life, leaving as her children and heirs at law your ora- 
tors, the said Elizabeth C. Miller, wife of Anderson Miller, Jr., An- 
nita G. Anderson and Louis Arthur Anderson, the said Louis having 
departed this life since the death of his said mother without issue, the 
said Richard C. Anderson, Jr., having also departed this life since 
the death of his said wife, your orator, the said George C. Gwath- 
mey, having administered upon his estate. 

That the said Elizabeth C. Anderson, wife of Richard C. Anderson, 
Sr., departed this life before his brother, the said George, leaving as 
his heirs your orators, the said Anne C. Logan, wife of John Logan, 
now deceased, Elizabeth C. Gwathmey, wife of Isaac R. Gwathmey, 
also deceased, Cecilia and Richard C. Anderson, Jr., and the said 
Richard C. Anderson, Jr., having, since the death of the said 
George, departed this life, leaving as his children and heirs at law 
your orators, the said Elizabeth C. Miller, wife of the said Anderson 
Miller, Jr., Annita G. Anderson and Louis Arthur Anderson, who 
has, as above stated, died without issue, the said George C. Gwath- 
mey, one of your orators having administered upon the estate of the 
Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Your orators further show that the said 
George Rogers Clark died seized in his own right of the real estate 
in the said supposed will described, as well as of other real estate 
not therein named, and entitled to a large amount of money due from 
the state of Virginia for services rendered to the said state as an 
officer in the settlement of Kentucky and its conquest from the 
Indians, and other important services rendered by the said George, as 
well as for large advances made on account of the said state ; and 
that the said George Woolfolk has received, as administrator of the 
estate of the said George from the said state of Virginia and other 
sources, between $35,000 and $36,000, leaving an unsatisfied balance 
in favor of the said George against the said state of Virginia of about 
$30,000, which is now in course of adjustment, and will, as they 
understand, in all probability, be soon received by the said George 
Woolfolk as administrator. 

Digitized by 



Your orators further charge that some years before the death of the 
said George Rogers Clark, he had been, and, at the time of the 
execution of the said supposed will, was afflicted with paralysis pro- 
duced from apoplexy, whereby he was deprived of the use of his 
limbs and his mental faculties weakened and deranged ; and that the 
supposed will was drawn up by some of the persons in attendance 
upon the said George with a view merely of gratifying the wishes of 
the said George in making some disposition of his estate, with a be- 
lief that it would tend to relieve his mind from the excitements under 
which it labored, and was not considered by any of the persons pres- 
ent as a valid will but only designed, as above stated, and your ora- 
tors charge that the said supposed will is not the will of the said 
George Rogers Clark. 

Your orators would further show that all the real estate of which 
the said George died seized has been divided among his heirs as 
though he had died intestate, the said supposed will, although in the 
possession of General William Clark from the death of the said 
George till its probate, being always regarded by him and all the 
other devisees as invalid, having been executed at a time and under 
circumstances which rendered the said George incompetent to make 
disposition of his ©state. 

Your orators would further show that the said George Wool folk 
has distributed four-sixths of the money thus received, as above 
shown, among Lucy Croghan, William Clark, the heirs and personal 
representatives of Owen and Anne Gwathmey, and Dennis and 
Frances Fitzhugh, reserving in his hands two-sixths of the same, 
amounting to near $7,000, to be paid to the heirs and personal repre- 
sentatives of Jonathan Clark and Elizabeth C. Anderson, if the said 
supposed will shall be set aside, which appropriation of the said 
money has been assented to by nearly all the heirs of the said George 
Rogers Clark, but has not been made because of the great number of 
the heirs, it being thereby sufficient to obtain their assent and the 
infancy and coverture of others. 

Digitized by 



Your orators make William Clark, Lucy Croghan, John Croghan, 
William Croghan, George Croghan, Thomas S. Jessup and Anne, 
his wife; John O'Fallen, Benjamin O'Fallen, Charles W. Thruston, 
Bernard Farrar and Anne C. Farrar, his wife ; Clark Fitzhugh and 
Henry S. Coxe, Temple Gwathmey, Samuel Gwathmey, Diana M. 
Bullitt, Frances Jones, Peter Priest and Lucy, his wife ; George 
Woolfolk, administrator as aforesaid, and George Woolfolk, and 
Catharine, his wife; Owen Gwathmey, William Gwathmey, Eleanor 
Gwathmey and Matilda Gwathmey, children and heirs of John 
Gwathmey, deceased; Benjamin Gwathmey, Richard Gwathmey, 
Anne Eliza Gwathmey and Maria Louisa Gwathmey, children and 
heirs at law of Isaac Gwathmey, deceased, defendants hereto, and 
pray the commonwealth writ of Spa against them and that they may 
answer the allegations hereof. Your orators pray that an issue may 
be directed to try whether the said pretended will is the will of the 
said George Rogers Clark or not, and that, if it shall be found not 
to be the will of the said George Rogers Clark, then the same may 
be set aside, and distribution and division of his estate among your 
orators and the defendants hereto, the heirs of the said George Rog- 
ers Clark, as though the pretended will had never existed, and that 
all such other and further relief may be granted to your orators as the 
equity of their case may authorize, and they, as in duty bound, will 
ever pray, etc. Bullock & Miller, P. Q. 

To this bill of complaint, Governor William Clark, of 
Missouri, the youngest brother of General George Rogers 
Clark, responded, under oath. May 5, 1837, substantially 
as follows: 

The answer of William Clark to a bill filed against him and others 
in the Louisville Chancery Court by the heirs of Jonathan Clark, de- 
ceased, and others. This respondent, now and at all times reserving 
to himself the benefit of all just exceptions to said answer, for answer 
thereto saith : That it is true the execution of the will referred to was, 
under the circumstances, referred to and set forth in complainant's bill. 

Digitized by 



This respondent wrote the will of the said George R. Clark, referred to 
by complainant, at the desire of said George, and he will state that the 
[some words illegible] to the execution of the said writing, on the 
part of the said George, was that he might will his claim against the 
state of Virginia for locating ioi,cxk) acres of land on the Mississippi, 
in behalf of the state of Virginia, and two or three tracts of land to 
Major Croghan, and it was not contemplated or spoken of that any 
claim, except as above stated, should pass by said writing. The said 
George always expressing himself as having been badly treated by 
the state of Virginia in refusing to liquidate his accounts upon princi- 
ples of justice, it pressed upon his mind and rendered him, on this 
subject, very much dissatisfied. It harassed his mind, which was 
thought to add to his unhappy affliction, and the execution of this 
writing was hoped would give some relief to his situation. 

This respondent does not claim, and will not receive, but one-sixth 
of whatever may be coming from the said L. W. Woolfolk, adminis- 
trator of said G. R. Clark. This respondent having fully answered, 
prays to be dismisvsed, etc. William Clark. 

September 8, 1837. Attorneys Pirtle and Speed suggest that El- 
eanor Gwathmey, of full age, has intermarried with Walter Bement 
since commencement of the suit ; also Matilda Gwathmey, of full 
age, has intermarried with Joseph S. Bates, and Martha Pearce has 
intermarried with Robert C. Stanard, and asking that said husbands 
be made parties. 

November 3, 1837. C W. Thruston answered that he was en- 
tirely willing that such a decree should be made in the case as just- 
ice and equity might seem to demand. 

Up to this period, the proceedings seem to have been 
of an entirely amicable character, but the status was 
slightly changed on the 12th of January, 1838, by the 
appearance of a new part}' in court with the following 

Digitized by 



To the Honorable the Chancellor of the Louisville Chancery Court: 

The petition of James D. Breckenridge, executor and trustee, and 
Mrs. Maria Breckenridge, devisee in trust of General R. O. Breck- 

Your petitioners state that on the 5th November, 181 5, Gen. Geo. 
R. Clark made his last will, in which he devised to Major William 
Croghan 3,600 acres of land in Bracken county; also 3,922 acres 
below May field creek on the Mississippi, and to his brother, Will 
Clark, all his lands and land claims northwest of the Ohio river, and 
to his nephews, John and Benjamin O'Fallon, 1,500 acres on Clark 
river, a branch of Tennessee. Also, 1,500 acres on Cumberland 
river, at the mouth of Little river. 

He devised to his brother, William Clark, his friends, Major Will 
Croghan, Owen Gwathmey and Dennis Fitzhugh, his claim to the 
locator's fees or part of an entry of about 100 and 1,000 acres made 
by him in the surveyor's office in Lincoln county, which lands are sit- 
uated between Tennessee river and the river Mississippi. Also, all 
his land and claims of every description not otherwise disposed of to 
them and their heirs and assigns forever. This will was admitted to 
record in Jefferson county where Clark died, in October, 1830, Gen- 
eral Clark having died many years before. 

In 1816 Owen Gwathmey, one of the devisees in the said will, for 
a valuable consideration, assigned to his son, John Gwathmey, a cer- 
tain part of the land and money devised to him by General Clark, and 
in 18 19 the said assignment was transferred to Ra. Breckenridge, de- 
ceased. Owen and John Gwathmey are both dead, the former in- 
testate, leaving several children and no administrator on his estate. 
George Woolfolk administered upon the estate of General Clark, with 
the will annexed. 

Your petitioners have brought their suit in this honorable court to 
recover such land and money as said Breckenridge* s estate may be 
entitled to under the will and assignments aforesaid. 

Some time since Isaac Clark, etc., instituted their suit in this hon- 
orable court against General Will Clark, etc., amongst other things, 

Digitized by 



to set aside the will. Should the will of General Clark be set aside, 
Owen Gwathmey would be entitled to no part of the estate, though 
all his children as nephews and nieces of General Clark would. 

Your petitioners are apprehensive that sufficient vigilance may not 
be used to sustain and support the said will by testimony, etc. Your 
petitioners pray that the plaintiffs in said suit may be compelled to 
make them defendants in said suit to set aside the said will. 

J. D. Breckenridge. 

And on the 26th of the next April, an amended bill 
was filed by the plaintiffs as follows: 

The amended bill of Isaac Clark and others to their original bill 
exhibited in the Louisville Chancery Court against William Clark 
and others: 

Your orators, in obedience to Your Honor's order, amend their bill 
herein and make James D. Breckenridge and Maria Breckenridge 
parties hereto. They state that the land alluded to in the contract 
mentioned in the petition is the same mentioned in the pretended will 
of said General G. R. Clark, called ''My claim to the locator's fees, 
or part of an entry of about one hundred and one thousand acres 
made by me in the surveyor's office of Lincoln county, which lands 
are situated between Tennessee river and the river Mississippi," and 
is not the land immediately below the mouth of the Tennessee river 
or that land mentioned in the petition, but this land lies about forty 
miles below the mouth of the Tennessee river, has never been carried 
into grant, and never can be, as they suppose. 

They say it is true that General G. R. Clark did contract, a great 
many years ago, to sell to Humphrey Marshall this tract of land im- 
mediately at and below the mouth of the Tennessee river, granted in 
1795, and containing together 73,362 acres; but this contract was 
canceled long since by agreement between General William Clark, to 
''whom said land was conveyed by said G. R. Clark in 1803, and said 
Marshall, and no money was ever paid by said Marshall to any one 

on account of his contract for the purchase of said land, nor was any 


Digitized by 



judgment ever recovered or any decree made against him for any 
money in respect to said contract, and this contract was the only one 
ever made by said G. R. Clark with said Marshall. There never 
was any contract or agreement between said G. R. Clark and said 
Owen Gwathmey, by which said Gwathmey was entitled, as is recited 
in said agreement with said John Gwathmey, but said provision afore- 
said in the will of said Clark no doubt alluded to in said writing, and 
the land therein mentioned never was contracted to be sold to said 

They charge that the said contract was champertous, at any rate, 
and void. 

They report and charge that the said George Rogers Clark, at the 
time when the said pretended will was executed, had been struck with 
paralysis, and was so affected thereby, and by age and disease gener- 
ally, that he was not of sound mind, and was not capable of making 
a wHll, etc. 

They pray as in their original bill, etc. Pirtle. 

May 17, 1839. General Thomas S. Jessup and Ann H., his wife, 
answered through Judge Pirtle that they do not personally know 
whether General George Rogers Clark was at the time of executing his 
alleged will capable of making a will or not ; and that they rely 
upon the answer of General William Clark filed in the case, and 
accept his statements as a part of their answer, etc. 

Feb. 21, 1840. James D. Breckenridge and Maria Breckenridge 
answered the complaint denying that said George Rogers Clark was 
at the time of making said will of unsound mind. They charged 
that said will was duly made, and that said Clark was capable at the 
time of making it, and of sound mind and memory ; and that said 
will was a valid testamentary act made in due form of law. 

Loughborough & Field, Attorneys. 

On the 24th of February, 1846, Samuel Gwathmey deposed that 
from the time General George Rogers Clark was afflicted with 

Digitized by 



paralysis, up to the time of his death, he was not at any time within 
that period competent to make a will, as he believes. Deponent 
can not speak of particular dates; he does not know when the 
will was made, and if made within that period deponent does not 
think he was competent in mind to make said will. Deponent 
states that he was so w^ell satisfied of said Clark's incompetency to 
make his will, that he would receive only his share in one-sixth of 
certain moneys collected for said Clark's estate, when, by the will, 
he was entitled to receive a share in one-fourth of said moneys. He 
frequently saw General Clark both before and after his affliction of 
paralysis, and after said affliction his mind was impaired and memory 
defective so as to render him incompetent to make a will as before 

Mrs. Amelia Clark* testified, June 25, 1847, that her husband and 
herself were well and intimately acquainted with General George 
Rogers Clark for many years before his death — there were, perhaps, 
but few who knew him better than deponent did in his several rela- 
tions. For a long time (many years) before his death, he had been 
laboring under great bodily afflictions — he was paralyzed — his bodily 
afflictions and habits together had greatly shattered and impaired his 
intellect, and his speech also became much impaired, so much so that 
his most familiar friends and acquaintances could scarcely, and with 
difficulty, understand him. Deponent thinks he was from these 
causes incompetent at the time to make a valid will. Deponent saw 
General Clark both before and after the date of the will, though 
more frequently before ; she thinks it was a year before his death that 
she did not see him, but at and before his will was made his bodily 
infirmities and afflictions had been so great and bore so heavily upon 
his mind and had so impaired his faculties as to render him almost a 
child. His afflictions also rendered him incapable of moving about. 

March 30, 1849. William Clark states, by Pirtle & Smith, his 
attorneys, that, as administrator de bonis non of George Rogers Clark, 

* Seems to have been signed Cornelia H. Clark, but is Amelia in body and 
oflRcer's certificate. 

Digitized by 



he has now in his hands $6,347.90, which he received from the state 
of Virginia on account of moneys which the state had assumed to pay 
his representatives for services during the revolution, but which she 
had formerly refused to pay as early as the year 1790, and to which 
he did not allude in his will, as he had, long before the will was writ- 
ten, given up all expectation of obtaining any money for his services 
from Virginia, and, but for the act of Congress of 1832, no money 
ever would have been paid or any debt acknowledged. The said 
claims in his will allude to claims connected with lands. States he is 
ready to pay this money over to representatives of said General Clark 
as may be entitled to it, the complainants not having received the 
money derived from the United States or Virginia and said Woolfolk's 
estate being insolvent. 

September 20, 1850. Complainants state that since filing of bill 
and amendments defendant, George Croghan, has departed this life 
intestate, leaving Serena Croghan, his widow, and George Crog- 
han, Angelica Croghan (now Wyatt) and Serena Croghan, an 
infant, his children and heirs, and that no administration has been 
granted on his estate, . . . ; further state that Ann Jessup has 
departed this life, leaving Lucy Ann Jessup, Mary Jessup (now 
Blair), intermarried with James Blair, and Isaac Jessup, William 
Jessup, Charles Jessup and Julia — said Ann, William, Charles and 
Julia being infants — her children and heirs ; further state that Samuel 
Gwathmey has died intestate, leaving Polly Gwathmey, his widow, 
and Baylor Gwathmey and Rebecca Gwathmey (now Tyler), inter- 
married with Henry Tyler, his children and heirs, and no administra- 
tion has been granted of his estate, . . . ; further state that 
John Croghan has died, leaving a last will, which has been duly 
proved and execution thereof committed to George C. Gwathmey, 
one of the executors therein named, with the complainant, William 
F. Bullock and Joseph R. Underwood, to whom the estate of the said 
John Croghan was devised by said Will in trust for the heirs of the 
said George Croghan and Ann Jessup ; further state that defendant, 
George C. Gwathmey has also died, leaving a will, which has been 

Digitized by 



proved and execution committed to Joshua F. Bullitt, one of the ex- 
ecutors therein, devising his estate to his children, Alfred Gwathmey, 
Ellen Gwathmey, Louisa Gwathmey and John Gwathmey — Louisa 
and John being infants — ask that guardians be appointed for said in- 
fants and that all the parties named be made parties to the suit and 
required to answer. 

September 20, 1850. Death of complainant Sarah Vick was sug- 
gested, and revivor asked in name of her children, viz. : Henry G. 
Vick, Ann P. Vick, Mary Vick and George R. C. Vick, by their 
father, Henry W. Vick. 

Thomas P. Smith, commissioner of the court, reported that the 
deposition of J. B. Gwathmey showed that prior to the year 1840, 
George Woolfolk, as administrator of the estate of George Rogers 
Clark, received about $25,000 and distributed the same to all the 
heirs of said Clark in the proportions to which they were respectively 
entitled as heirs by the law of descents, except to the representatives 
of Jonathan Clark, deceased, and Elizabeth Anderson, deceased, a 
brother and sister of said General George Rogers Clark ; there being 
six heirs, the four who received their portions of said $25,000 re- 
ceived about $4,000 each. It will therefore require about $8,000 to 
equalize the heirs of said Jonathan Clark and Elizabeth Anderson 
with the others. 

The question of fact was finally submitted to a jury, who 
returned a verdict ^'that the writing purporting to be the 
will of General Clark is not his will," whereupon the court 
entered the following decree: 

State of Kentucky, Louisville Chancery Court, 

24TH November, 1851. 
Isaac Clark, Etc., Complainants, 

vs. In Chancery. 

William Clark's Heirs, Etc., Defendants. 

General George Rogers Clark, in 18 15, executed a writing pur- 
porting to be his last will, and died in 1820.* The complainants bring 

^Mistake. He died in 1S18. 

Digitized by 



this suit for the purpose of vacating the will and for distribution of 
the estate. George Woolfolk was appointed administrator, with the 
will annexed, and received about twenty-five thousand dollars assets 
of the estate. Of this sum he paid four-sixths to the devisees, who 
constituted four-sixths of his heirs at law. 

No part of this fund has been paid to the representatives of his 
sister, Mrs. Anderson, or his brother, Jonathan Clark. A verdict has 
been rendered in this case by a jury upon an issue out of chancery to 
try the validity of the will, **that the writing purporting to be the will 
of General Clark is not his will," and it is now ordered and decreed 
that said writing be set aside and annulled. 

After the death of George Woolfolk, William Clark was appointed 
administrator of the estate and has received and paid into court the 
sum of $6,485.42. It is now ordered and decreed that the costs of 
this suit be paid out of the sum so paid by William Clark, and that 
the residue be paid to the representatives of Jonathan Clark and 
Mrs. Anderson — that is, that one-half be paid to the representatives 
of Jonathan Clark and the other half to the representatives of Mrs. 

To George W. Clark, William Clark, Isaac Clark and to Eleanor 
Temple one-fifth of one-half each; to Edward Peace (^Edmund 
Pearce)^ Jonathan Peace (^Pearce)^ William F. Bullock and wife, 
William Bodley and wife, Robert C. Stanard and wife, George B. 
Kinkead and wife, Henry C. Brudle {Pindell) and wife and to Henry 
W. Veech ( Vick)^ in right of his deceased wife, Sarah Veech ( Vick)^ 
one-eighth of one-fifth of one-half each — the said Bullock and wife, 
Bodley and wife, Stanard and wife, Kinkead and wife, Brudel (/V«- 
dell)* and wife and Sarah Veach's ( Vick*s^ representatives to re- 
ceive but six shares or portions. The other half of said sum is decreed 
to the representatives of Mrs. Anderson — that is, to Elizabeth Gwath- 
mey, Ann C. Logan and Cecilia Anderson, one-fourth of one-half 
each, and to S. M. Flournoy and Aeminta Gray, one-eighth of one- 
half each, the share or portion of Aeminta Gray to be paid for her 
to John T. Gray, her guardian. 

* The number of clerical mistakes in the record of this decree seems to be 

Digitized by 



It is ordered that this controversy as to any money which may have 
been received by Woolfolk, as administrator aforesaid, be reserved 
for further order and decree ; and the complainants may have execu- 
tion of this decree forthwith. 

A copy. Attest: Ch. I. Clark. 

State of Kentucky: 

At a county court held for Jefferson county, at the court-house in 
the city of Louisville, on the 12th day of April, 1852, the foregoing 
instrument of writing, purporting to be a certified copy of a decree of 
the Louisville chancery court, rendered on 24th November, 185 1, set- 
ting aside and annulling the writing bearing date in 1815 and purport- 
ing to be the will of George Rogers Clark, was this day produced in 
court and ordered to be recorded and is recorded in my office as clerk 
of said court. Attest: Curran Pope, Clerk. 

On the 22d of April, 1853,. Robert O. Woolfolk, exec- 
utor of George Woolfolk, filed the following under oath: 

Respondent, Robert O. Woolfolk, admits that he is the sole surviv- 
ing executor of George Woolfolk, deceased, who was administrator 
of General George Rogers Clark, deceased. 

Respondent admits the receipt of assets from his said testator suffi- 
cient, as he believes, to pay the amount of any decree that may be 
rendered against him in this case. 

Respondent states that one Levi Jones, administrator of one John 
Halker, obtained a decree in the Louisville Chancery Court in case 
No. 999, against said George Woolfolk, administrator of said G. R. 
Clark, on the 25th June, 1839, for $3,333-33, vvith six per cent, in- 
terest from July 6, 1802, subject to a credit of $1,157 on 12th De- 
cember, 182 1 ; said decree and the said suit are referred to as part 
hereof. On the 3d July, 1839, said George Woolfolk gave his indi- 
vidual notes, with George C. Gwathmey surety, to said Halker's ad- 
ministrator, for $5,000 in full satisfaction of said decree, as shown 
by the receipt of W. Browne, attorney for said Halker's administra- 
tor, filed in said suit No. 994, and referred to as part hereof. 

Digitized by 



Respondent further states that when said G. R. Clark died he was 
regarded as insolvent ; he left no property, nor claims for money or 
property, respondent believes, except a claim of long standing against 
the commonwealth of Virginia for services as a general in the Vir- 
ginia State Line in the Revolutionary War, and for moneys advanced 
by him for said commonwealth in said service. 

Said George Woolfolk was a lawyer, and at the request of the 
heirs of said G. R. Clark, or some of them, he became the adminis- 
trator of said Clark in Virginia as well as in Kentucky, for the pur- 
pose of prosecuting said claims against the commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, and under an agreement that he should have for his serv^ices a 
contingent fee equal to one-fourth the sum that might be recovered. 

Respondent believes and charges that the said George Woolfolk 
had a written contract to that effect, which was destroyed by fire, 
with most of said George Woolfolk's papers, some time before his 
death. Respondent does not know whether he will be able to prove 
said contract; but he states that it has been usual and customary 
throughout the western country, for persons employing attorneys to 
prosecute such claims, to allow contingent fees equal to from one- 
fifth to one-half of the sum recovered. Respondent states that said 
George Woolfolk went three times to Richmond, Va., and Washing- 
ton City, and spent about six months on one occasion, and from 
three to four months on each of the others, in attending to the prose- 
cution of said claims, and was at considerable expense in paying 
counsel fees, traveling expenses, etc., all of which he was obliged to 
pay out of his own funds, having received no funds from the said es- 
tate until the money referred to in complainant's original bill was 
received by him. That money was made out of the aforesaid claims, 
respondent believes, and charges that one-fourth of said sum would 
be a reasonable fee to allow said George Woolfolk for his expenses, 
trouble, and risk of loss in prosecuting said claims. 

The receipts of the heirs to whom said Geo. Woolfolk paid four- 
sixths of the money received by him, as stated in the original bill of 
complaints, having been destroyed by fire, respondent can not state 

Digitized by 



how much was paid to them, but he believes that said Geo. Woolfolk 
retained twenty-five per cent, of said four-sixths for his fee for col- 
lecting same, expecting to make a like deduction from the other two- 
sixths when the same should be distributed. 

After receiving the money mentioned in complainant's original 
bill, said Geo. Woolfolk brought suit in chancery in the Henrico 
circuit court against the state of Virginia claiming a large balance as 
administrator of said G. R. Clark, and employed Chapman Johnson, 
of Richmond, Va., to attend to the same, and as respondent believes 
paid him a fee therefor, but how much he can not state, as the said 
Johnson's receipt, if he gave any, has been destroyed by fire or lost. 

Respondent, after his father's death, went to Richmond, Va., at 
the request of said Johnson to see about said suit and about having 
administration de bonis non taken out for the purpose of prosecuting 
said suit, and it cost respondent some $200. After consultation with 
said Johnson it was concluded that his son, G. N. Johnson, should 
administer; he did so, and the sum of $6,347.90 received by Wm. 
Clark, administrator de bonis non of said G. R. Clark, as stated in 
an amended bill in this case, was made out of the state of Virginia 
by said suit and by said G. N. Johnson, administrator de bonis non^ 
in the state of Virginia. Respondent supposes and asks that some 
allowance should be made to him on account of said Geo. Woolfolk's 
expenses and services therein. 

Respondent further states that said Geo. Woolfolk paid to Mrs. Ann 
C. Logan, one of the plaintiffs, the sum of $275 as shown by her re- 
ceipt herewith filed, and bearing date 13th January, 1838. 

Respondent claims credit for the $5,000 paid to Halker's adminis- 
trator, the $275 paid to Mrs. Logan, and claims compensation for the 
collection of the money undistributed by said Geo. Woolfolk and for 
the prosecution of the aforesaid suit in the Henrico circuit court, and 
is ready to pay any balance that may be found due to plaintiffs, but 
he denies that plaintiffs are entitled to interest as prayed for by them. 

Bullitt & Smith, P. D. 

Digitized by 


1 140 


November 20, 1865. William Clark, administrator de bonis non 
of George Rogers Clark, deceased, petitions the court for an order 
allowing him to receive $3,ocx> in compromise of the claims herein 
against the estate of George Woolfolk, deceased. He states that it 
appears that said George Woolfolk, as administrator, collected on 
a claim in Virginia $25,000 or $26,000, and paid four shares out 
of six, retaining twenty-five per cent, for his repeated visits to Vir- 
ginia, and realizing a contested and complicated claim against the 
government; that the $5,000 retained for the complainants (the other 
heirs) was paid in compromise of a judgment of Holker for a much 
larger amount, and that this left but $1,250 of the $25,000 in his 
hands. He states that the parties are so numerous and scattered that 
a regular revivor, etc., would occasion heavy loss, and he deems it 
best to accept the $3,000 offered by Robert O. Woolfolk, executor of 
George Woolfolk, deceased, in full satisfaction. He asks leave to 
compromise and give a full release to Woolfolk on these terms. 

BoDLEY, Attorney. 

On the same date the last-mentioned petition was filed 
the following order was made : 

Isaac Clark and Others, Plaintiffs, 

Against > Order. 

William Clark and Others, Defendants. J 

William Clark, administrator de bonis non of George Rogers 
Clark, deceased, this day filed his petition asking to be permitted to 
accept the offer of Robert O. Woolfolk to compromise the claims 
herein in behalf of said G. R. Clark's estate, against the estate of 
George Woolfolk, deceased, by receiving the sum of $3,000 in full 
satisfaction of the claims in this suit against said Woolfolk. Where- 
upon it is ordered, that said compromise be approved, and the said 
William Clark is authorized to make release of said claims accord- 

Digitized by 



ingly for said sum of $3,ckdo (and on motion of W. S. Bodley, attor- 
ney for the plaintiffs, this suit is dismissed) . 
See order book No. 60, page 445. 

Note. — All the entries in this case are not included in the foregoing proceed- 
ings, but enough to show the material action taken, and all that is of historical 
importance. It is possible the copyist has made mistakes in not giving correct- 
ly some of the names mentioned. 

Digitized by 




The star (*) indicates that the person was dead in 1895. 


1. Eleanor Eltinge,* married Rev. Benjamin Temple.* 

2. John Hite, died unmarried. 

3. Isaac, died unmarried. 

4. Mary, died in childhood. 

5. Ann,* married James Anderson Pearce.* 

6. William,* married Frances Ann Tompkins.* 

7. George Washington,* married Martha Price. 

Children of Eleanor Eltinge Clark and Rev. Benjamin Temple, 

1. Mary,* married Henry Winbourn,* Mississippi. 

2. Sarah, widow of Lewis Lee, lives in Louisville, Ky. 

3. Eleanor,* married Josiah Newman,* Mississippi. 

4. Clark,* married Frances Brashear.* 

5. Robert*, married Anne C. Mills,* Hernando, Mississippi. 

6. John B.,* married Susan M. Bibb,* Mary Falls,* Blandina Broadhead. 

7. Rev. James N., married first Margaret A. McMahon,* second Narcissa 

H. Barksdale,* lives at Paducah, Ky. 

8. Elizabeth Ann, married Rev. George Beckett, New York City. 

9. Lucy Croghan, married Judge R. C. Bowling,* Russelville, Ky. 
10. Julia Clark ;* 11, George William.* 

Children of Ann Clark and yames Anderson Pearce , Louisville^ Kentucky. 

1. Sarah,* married Henry W. Vick* (a cotton planter), Vicksburg, Miss. 

2. Edmund* (fanner), married Myra Steele,* second Mrs. Mary Grinnell.* 

3. Mary,* married William F. Bullock* (lawyer), Louisville, Ky. 

4. Ellen,* widow of William S. Bodley * (lawyer), Louisville, Ky. 

5. Martha,* widow of Robert C. Stanard * (lawyer), Washington, D. C. 

6. Jonathan * (farmer), married Francena Low,* Spottsylvania countj', Va. 

7. Eliza, widow of George B. Kinkead * (lawyer), Lexington, Ky. 

8. James Ann, widow of Henry C. Pindell* (lawyer), Louisville, Ky. 

Children of William Clark* and Frances Ann Tompkins* Louisville^ Ky. 

1. Frances Ann,* married first, Samuel Lawson,* second, Mr. Biddle.* 

2. Jonathan *(doctor), married Emma Noble, Paducah, Ky. 

3. Ellen, married Newton E. Milton, Memphis, Tenn. 

4. Mary, married Dr. George E. Cooke.* 

5. Katherine,* married W. H. Churchill,* Louisville, Ky. 

6. Eugenia; 7, Eliza; 8, William (married Annie Bailey,* Louisville, Ky.) 

Children of George W. Clark * and Martha Price* Fayette County^ Kentucky. 

1. Sarah, married Shepherd Rogers,* Clark county, Ky. 

2. Ann,* married William Bell,* no children, Lexington, Ky. 

3. Elizabeth,* married John McMurtry,* Lexington, Ky. 

4. Julia, married Joseph R. Gross,* Fayette county, Ky. 

Digitized by 




Children of Mary Temple and Henry K. Winbourn. 

I, Benjamin;* 2, Ann Mary;* 3, William;* 4, Ellen;* 5, John;* 6, Sarah;* 
7, Victoria;* 8, James;* 9, Lucy Cook; 10, Columbia; 11, Alexander.* Vic- 
toria, married Horace Smith. She died and he married her sister, Columbia. 
William, married Sarah Miller;* Lucy, married Roland J. Cook. 

Children of Eleanor Temple and yosiah Newman^ Mississippi. 

1, Harriet,* married Mr. Cocke;* 2, Lucy, married Mr. Cocke* (brothers); 
3, Josiah.* 

Children of Clarh Temple* and Frances Brashear* 

1, Benjamin;* 2, Mary Ellen;* 3, Dr. James R.; 4, Walter; 5, Camilla,* 
married Edward Stevenson;* James R., married first, Miss Kirby, second. Miss 

Children of Robert Temple and Anne C. Mills. 

I, Betty B.; 2, Eleanor C.;* 3, Fanny M.; 4, Annie M.;* 5, William 
Robert ;* ' 6, James Edward ; 7, George Rogers Clark ;* 8, Sue B.; 9, Lem- 
uel B. ; 10, Louisa B.;* Fanny M., married Clarence C. Ward. 

Children of John B. Temple* and Blandina Brodhead {his Third Wife). 

I, Eleanor;* 2, Mary, married R. Alexander Robinson, Jr., Louisville. 
3. Blandina, married Dr. Wm. M. Griffiths,* Louisville; 4, Annie. 

Children of Rev. James N. Temple and his First Wife, Margaret A. McMahon* 
I, Frances Carter;* 2, Sally Lee, married Francis N. Gardner. 

Children of James N. Temple's Second Wife^ Narcissa H. Barhsdale* 

Some died in infancy, and four daughters survived her. 

I, Robertine, has since died, unmarried; 2, Eleanor Eltinge, married Dr. 
Charles H. Brother; 3, Willie, Paducah, Ky.; 4, Susan Polk. 

Children of Elizabeth Ann Temple and Rev. George Beckett. 
They lost three and their fourth, John Temple Beckett, lives in N. York City. 

Children of Lucy Croghan Temple and Judge R. C. Bowling. 

1. James R., married Emma Walters. 

2. Temple,* left children, two sons and a daughter. 

3. Ella, married Judge Umphrey McThus. 

4. Elizabeth;* 5, Annie, married Rev. G. W. Eichelberger, Adairville, Ken- 
tucky; 6, Lulah (married George Holeman, Adairville, Kentucky). 

Children of Sarah Pearce* Vicksburg, Miss.^ and Henry W. Vich* (a cot/on 


I, James Pearce;* 2, Henry Gray;* 3, Ann Pearce;* 4, Susan;* 5, Mary; 
6, George Rogers Clark.* Mary married Dr. Alonzo J. Phelps. 

Children of Edmund Pearce* and his First Wife, Myra Steele. 

I, James Anderson;* 2, Amelia Neville,* married George Weissinger; 3, 
Richard Steele;* 4, John C, married Susjinnah Steele.* Louisville, Ky. 

Digitized by 



Children of Mary Pearce * and Judge William F, Bullock* 

I, Ann;* 2, Edmund;* 3, William F.* (married Ella Ballard, Louisville, 
Ky.); 4, Alfred Carr;* 5, Mary;* 6, Sarah;* 7, Edmund;* 8, Pearce (married 
Penelope Lowry, Shelby county, Kentucky); 9, Henry;* 10, Wallace (married 
Nellie Rogers, New York state). 

Children of Ellen Pearce* and Judge William S. Bodley* 

I, Hugh Shiell; 3, Ann James; 4, Elizabeth;* 5, Martha Stanard; 6, 
Pearce; 7, Harry Innes;* 8, William Stewart; 9, Temple; 10, Stanard;* 11, El- 
len Pearce * Pearce married Mary McHenry ;• Temple married Edith Fosdick, 

Child of Jonathan Pearce and Francena Loiv. 
George Low, who married Indiana Bourges. 

Children of Eliza Pearce and George B. Kinkcad^ Lexington^ Ky. 

1. Stanard, married Katharine Carneal,* Ashland, Ky. 

2. (Dr.) John, married { \ ^^^^^^^l;,^ \ Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

3. Ellen* 

4. James Pearce. * 

5. Annie, married Rev. Dr. Ben B. Warfield, Princeton College, New Jersey. 

6. Henry, married Edith Hamilton, Lexington, Ky. 

7. Margaret, married Rev. John Fox, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

8. William, married Sarah Shipman, Galveston, Texas. 

9. Mary; 10, Frank;* 11, Churchill;* 12, Jimmie Pindell (James Ann); 13, 
Eliza Pearce. 

Children of Frances Ann Clark* and Her First Husband^ Samuel Lawson.* 
I, Charles; 2, Fannie* (married Mr. Burks). 

Children of Jonathan Clark * and Emma Noble. 
I, Fannie; 2, Edmund; 3, Emma; 4, , dead. 

Children of Ellen Clark and Newton E. Milton. 

1, Mary Louisa,* married Karl Junglbuth, Louisville, Ky. 

2, Charles, J., married Lucy Loring, St. Louis, Mo; 3, Frank, St. Louis, Mo. 

Children of Mary Clark and George E. Cooke. 
I, Fannie;* 2, George.* 

Children of William Clark and Annie Bailey* 
I, Katharine; 2, Louise; 3, William Rogers;* 4, Annie Winford.* 

Children of Sarah Clark aud Shepherd Rogers* Lexington^ Ky. 

I, Martha C, married James N. Embry, Waxahachie, Texas; 2, Fanny Clark; 
3, Laura; 4, Jerry E., married Nettie Howell, Lexington, Ky. 

Children of Elizabeth Clark* and John McMurtry, Lexington^ Ky. 

I, George (married Sadie E. McMurty); 2, John; 3, Elizabeth, married 
Philip Bird; 4, Edmund; 5, Julia, married Mr. Bryson; 6, Annie, married Mr. 
Watkins; 7, Eleanor; 8, Isaac. 

Children of Julia Clark and Joseph R. Gross, Fayette County, Ky. 
I, Edward T.; 2, Joseph; 3, MatticC. (married S. St. McCann); 4, George C. 

Digitized by 



Children of William Winboitrn* and His First IVi/e, Sarah Miller.* 

I, Marj E., married Mr. Kelly; 2, William A.* 3, Matthew B ; 4, Sarah 
Victoria; 5, Henry Duncan. 

Children of H. Victoria Winbourn and Horace C. Smith. 
I, H. Victoria Smith • 

Children of Lucy F. Winbourn and Roland y. Cook. 

1. Frances; 2, Manie Lee; 3, Lucy Winbourn;* 4, Janie Clark; 5, James 
R.; 6, Winbourn; 7, Sue Louise.* 

Children of Columbia C. Winbourn and Horace C. Smith * 

I, Huesea; 2, Marion W., married Tames C. Hicks; 3, Eleanor T., married 
Dr. A. A. McClendon; j\, Martha M., married F. T. Johnson; 5, George C; 
6, A. M. B.;* 7, Henry K.; 8, DeWitt H.: 9, Lucy Newman; 10,* Scottie. 

Children of Alexander Winbourn* and Louise Covington* His First Wife. 
1, Eleanor T.; 2, Henry K.; 3, Ann Mary; 4, Mary E.; 5, Lucj' Newman. 

Child of Alexander Winbourn* and Fannie Lee Gregg^ His Second Wife. 

I, Alexander. 

Only Child of Harriet Newman Cache. 
I, Benjamin.* 

Children of Dr. James R. Temple and His First Wife, Miss Kirby.* 
I, Mary F. (married John McDaniel); 2, Warner R.;» 3, Robert E. 

Children of Dr. James R. Temple and His Second Wife^ Miss McCoy. 

I, Charles B. (married Miss Tucker); 2, William C.;* 3, Lucy B.; 4, Max 
G. (twins); 5, A. J.;» 6, B. A.* (twins); 7, Rena.* 

Child of Camilla Temple* and Edward Stevenson. 
I, Eleanor T.* 

Children of Dr. Walter Temple. 
I, Harry; 2, Eleanor;* 3, Camilla; 4, Curran B.; 5, Mary. 

Children of Fannie Temple and Clarence C. Ward. 
I, Clara L. (married J. Newell Brooks); 2, Lloyd; 3, Richard; 4, Clarence. 

Children of Mary Temple and R. A. Robinson. Jr. 
I, John T.; 2, Wm. A.; 3, Richard A., Jr. 

Child of Blandina Temple and Dr. Wm. M. Griffiths. 
I. Blandina T. 

Children of James R. Bowling and Emma Walters. 
I, R. W.; 2, Wm. L. 

Children of Temple Bowling* and Sadie Anderson. 
I, Ula: 2, Temple; 3, Umphrcy. 

Digitized by 



Child of Annie Boivling and G. W. Eichclherger. 
I. Roberta B. 

Child of Lttla Bowling and George H. Holman. 
I. Lucie M. 

Children of Sally aad Francis N. Gardner. 
I, Temple; 2, Nelly. 

Children of Mary Vick and Dr. Phelps. 

I, Nannie; 2, Henry Vick; 3, Mary Pearce; 4, Ellen Bodlej'. Nannie mar- 
ried Peter George; Mary Pearce Phelps married Renato Piola Casselli, of the 
Italian army, live at Rome. They have one daughter. 

Only Child of A melia Pearce* and George Weissinger. 
Ann Amelia, married J. Hoadley Cochran. 

Children of John C. Pearce and Susannah Steele. 
I, Mj'ra Steele; 2, Amelia Neville; 3, John; 4, William Bodley; 5, James. 

Children of Wm. F. Bullock* and Ella Ballard. 
I, Ballard; 2, William; 3, Mary Pearce; 4, J. Pindell. 

Children of Pearce Bullock and Penelope Lotvry. 

I, Helen;* 2, Lowry; 3, Anderson; 4, Henrj'; 5, Mary Elizabeth; 6, 
Edmund; 7, Lunsford Y.; 8, Helen; 9, Thomas; 10, Pearce. 

Children of Wallace Bullock and Nellie Rogers. 
I, Ellen; 2, Mary E; 3, ■ *; 4, Agnes;* 5, William W. 

Children of Pearce Bodley and Mary McHenry.* 
I, Beverly Meriwether; 2, Innes Harwood. 

Child of Temple Bodley and Edith Fosdick. 
I, William Fosdick.* 

Children of Stanard Kinkead and Katherinc Carneal,* 
I, Eliza; 2, Davis; 3, Stanard; 4, William. 

Children of John Kinkead and Annie Dodge* {his first wife). 
1, Cornelia; 2, George. 

Children of Margaret Kinkead and John Fox. 
I, Eliza Pearce ; 2, Edward.* 

Children of Henry P. Kinkead and Edith Hamilton. 
I, Jennie; 2, John;* 3, Elise. 

Children of Martha C. Rogers and yames N. Embry^ Waxahackie^ Texas. 

I, Fannie R., married J. Rush Williams; 2, J. Will; 3, Jerry R.; 4, Jacob; 5, 
George C. 

Digitized by 



Children of Mary Louisa Milton and Karl yunglbutk, 
\y Karl; 2, Marion. 

Son of Charles J. Milton and Lucy Loring, Alonzo Loring. 

Children of Jerry E. Rogers and Nettie Howell, 
I, Anna G.; 2, Fannie C; 3, Florence H. 

Children of Elizabeth McMurtry and Phillip Bird. 
I, BettieC; 2, Sara H.; 3, Annie B.; 4, G.Lee; 5, Virginia R.; 6, Temple B. 

Children of Julia McMurtry and Ollie Bryson. 
I, Harry G.; 2, Bessie C; 3, ClymO; 4, Isaac N.; 5, Eleanor T.; 6, Dorothy. 

Children of Annie McMurtry and Thomas Waikins. 

I, Thomas B.; 2, John; 3, Elizabeth C; 4, Jane W.; 5, George C; 6, 
Caroline; 7, Harry W. 

Child of Mattie Gross and S. S. McCann. 
I. Julia G. McCann. 


1, Child of Charles B. Temple and Miss Tucker. 

Child of Ann Amelia Weissinger and J. Hoadley Cochran, 

Children of Marion W. Smith and James 'C. Hicks, 
I, Susie Clark; 2, Robert; 3, James (twins). 

Children of Martha M. Smith and F, T. Johnson. 
I, Floy; 2, George Russel. 

Child of Clara L. Ward and C. Newell Brooks. 
I. Vera Brooks. 

Child of Nannie Pkelps and Peter George. 
I, Alonzo Phelps;* 2, 

Child of Mary Phelps and Renato Piola- Casselli. 
I. Theresa Mary. 

Child of Fanny R. Embry and C. Rush Williams. 
I, Rush Williams. 

Note. — For the information contained in the foregoing list the author is in- 
debted to Miss Ann J. Bodley, of Louisville, Kentucky, one of the descendants 
of General Jonathan Clark. 


Digitized by 







John; Temple; Samuel; Diana Moore; Ann (married Wm. Booth, no chil- 
dren); Elizabeth; Benjamin and Lucy (twins); George; Isaac R.; Frances Ma- 
tilda; Catharine. 

Children of yohn Gwafhmey and Ann Booth. 

Owen; William; Ellen (married first Mr. Burnett, second Samuel Hillman); 
Matilda (married Mr. Bates). 

Children of Temfle G-wathmey and Ann Marks, 

Sidney (married Mr. Woods); Diana (married Mr. Thurston); Eliza (mar- 
ried Mr. Tilly); Fortunatus (married Miss Lyons); Henry (married Mary 
Eliza Casey); Catharine; Frances Matilda (married Thomas WoUan). 

Children of Samuel G-wathmey and Mary Booth. 
Mamie; William; Baylor H.; Rebecca (married Henry Tyler); Mary Eliza. 

Children of Diana Moore Givathmey and Thomas Bullitt. 

Mary (married first Gen. Adkinson, second Col. Stewart); Ferdinand; Alex- 
ander (married first Fanny Smith, second Irene Williams); Washington; Eloise 
(married Mr. DeKantrow); Owen (married Virginia Berry); Ann (married 
Richard Clough Anderson); Diana (married Phillip Kearney); Cora. 

Children of Elizabeth Gwathmcy and Richard Clough Anderson^ yr. 

Elizabeth (married first Mr. Miller, second Lieut. Stephen Johnston, third 
Fayette Flournoy); John Clark; Arthur; Anneto (married John T. Gray). 

Children of Lucy Gwathmey and Peter Priest, 
Temple; Richard O.; Ferdinand. 

Children of George Gwathmey and Sophia Girard, 

Alfred (married Virginia Keats); Julia (married Mr. Bacon); Frances Ann; 
Elizabeth; Ellen (married General Cary Fry); George; Sophy; Eloise (mar- 
ried Mr. Poindexter); Mary Atkinson; John; Kate. 

Children of Isaac P. Gwathmey and Elizabeth C. Anderson. 

Benjamin; Richard; Isaac Benjamin; Richard C; Owen; Mary Eliza; 
Maria Louisa. 

Child of Prances Matilda and Mr. Skidmore {first husband). 

Children of Frances Matilda and Mr. Jones (second husband). 
John W. (married Harriet Boswell); William H. (married Kate Given); 

Digitized by 



Children of Catharine Gtvathmey and George Woolfolk, 
Richard O. (married Mrs. May); Ann; Elizabeth; George (married Miss 
Owen); Frances (married Phillip Wallan). 


John; Nicholas; Charles; Edward; William; Ann; George. 

Child of William Croghan and Mary O'Hara, 
Mary, married Captain Edward W, H. Schenley. 

Children of Ann Croghan and Thomas y, yessup, 
Lucy Ann; Mary Serena; Jane Findley (married Augustus S. Nicholson); 
Julia Clark; William; Charles. 

Children of George Croghan and Serena Livingston. 
Mary Angelica; St. George; Serena Livingston (four died in infancy.) 


Children of Mary O^Hara Croghan and Edivard W. H, Schenley. 
Wm. Croghan; Edward; Alfred; Elizabeth; Jane; Agnes; Richmond; Alice; 

Child of Lucy Ann yessup and Lorenzo Siigreaves. 

Children of Mary Serena yessup and yames Blair. 
Violet (married Henry Janin); James Lucy (married George Wheeler) ;Jessup. 

Children of Mary Angelica Croghan and Rev. Christopher Wyatt. 
Fanny; William; Christopher; Mary Livingston. 

Children of St. George Croghan and Cornelia Ridgely. 
Cornelia; Lucy Serena; George; Elizabeth. 

Children of Serena Livingston Croghan and Augustus F, Rogers, 
Cornelia Livingston; Montgomery; Marian St. George; Nannie Augustus; 
Henry Croghan; Grace; Robert. 

Children of Fanny Wyatt and Henry Allen. 
Wyatt; Fanny; Harriett; Lucius. 

Children of William Wyatt and yane Kirby. 
Christopher; Merritt; Cornelia. 

Children of Christopher Wyatt, yr.^ and Isabel Morris. 
Alley n; Katharine. 

Children of Mary Livingston Wyatt and Henry K. Newhall, 
Alice; Donald; Cornelia. 

Digitized by 



Child of Cornelia Croghan and Horatio Hornet. 
Mary Sophia. 

Children of Lucy Serena Croghan and Spencer Brown, 
Lucy; Florence; Spencer, Jr. 

Child of Elizabeth Croghan and Duncan Kennedy. 

Duncan, Jr. 

Child of Cornelia Livingston Rodger s and Norval St. Nohes. 
Virginia Rodgers. 


Richard Clough, Jr. (married Elizabeth Gwathmey, no family); Elizabeth; 
Cecilia; Ann (married John Logan). 


Children of Ann Anderson and John Logan, 
John Allen; Richard A.; Robert W.; Elizabeth C. (married Mr. Simpson); 
Sarah Jane (married James M. Gambel); Catharine Mary; Charles Isaac. 




Governor Clark was first married to Miss Julia Hancock of Fincastle, Vir- 
ginia, January 5, 1808. She died June 27, 1820, and on the 28th November, 1821, 
he married Mrs. Harriet Kennerfy Radford* of St. Louis, Missouri. His chil- 
dren by the first wife were : 

I, Meriwether Lewis Clark* (married, first, Abby Churchill, had seven 
children, second, Julia Davidson, who had no children by him); 2, William 
Preston*; 3, Mary Margaret*; 4, George Rogers Hancock*; 5, John Julius,* 

By the second wife he had, i, Jefferson Kearney (who married Miss Mary 
Susan Glasgow, May 8, 1849); and 2, Edmund,* who died unmarried. 

Children of Meriwether Lewis Clark and Abby Churchill. 
I, William Hancock (married Camilla Gaylord, of New York, August 22, 
1883); 2, Samuel Churchill* (killed at battle of Pea Ridge); 3, Mary Eliza*; 
4, Meriwether Lewis, second, (married Mary Martin Anderson, May, 1871); 5, 
John O'Fallon, second*; 6, George Rogers, second; 7, Charles Jefferson (married 
Lena Jacob, July 5, 1873). 

Children of George Rogers Hancock Clark and Eleanor Ann Glasgow 

I, Julia (married Robert Stevenson Voorhis); 2, Seddie Leonida*; 3, John 
O'Fallon, ist (married Beatrice Chouteau, January 15, 1867); 4, Ellen Glasgow 
(married Willis Edward Lauderdale, October 26, 1865). 

Digitized by 



Children of Meriwether Lewis Clarh^ second, and Mary Martin Anderson. 
1, John Henry Churchill; 2, Carrie Anderson; 3, Marie Barbaroux. 

Children of Charles yefferson Clarh and Lena yacob. 
1, Mary Susan; 2, Evelyn Kennerly; 3, Marguerite. 

Child of yulia Clark and Robert Stevenson Voorhis, 
Eleanor Glasgow. 

Children of yohn C Fallon Clark, first, and Beatrice Chouteau. 

I, Henry Chouteau;* 2, Beatrice Chouteau; 3, Carloto; 4, William Glas- 
gow; 5, Clemence Eleanor; 6, John 0*Fallon, third; 7, Harriet Kennerly; 8, 
George Rogers Clark, the third. 

Children of Ellen Glas^-w Clark and Willis Edward Lauderdale. 
1, Seddie Clark married Wilmot E. Ellis, April 8, 1890; 2, Walter Clark. 

Children of Seddie Clark and Wilmot Edward Ellis. 
I, Edward Lauderdale. 

Note. — The information in the above list was furnished the author by Will- 
iam Hancock Clark, Esq., eldest grandson of Governor Clark. 
*Those marked with a star were dead in 1895. 




Descendants of Frances Eleanor Clark and Dr. yames O^ Fallon {her first 

John; Benjamin. 

Children by second husband. Captain Charles Mynn Thruston. 
Charles William; Ann Clark. 

Children by third husband, yudge Dennis Fitzhugh. 

Clark (married Susan Rudd, had one daughter, Ann Clark); Lucy (married 
Henry Sydney Coxe). 


Children of yohn O' Fallon and Harriett Stokes (first wife), 

Ellen; William; Harriett. 

Children of yohn O' Fallon and Ruth Caroline Sheets (second wife), 
Caroline; James Joseph; Benjamin; Henry Algernon; John Julius. 

Digitized by 



Children of Benjamin (y Fallon and Sophia Lee. 

Fannie Clark; John; William Clark (married Miss McCreary); Charles 
Thruston; Emily Rousseau; Ellen. 

Children of Charles William Thruston and Mary Eliza Churchill. 
Samuel Churchill (married KateKellar); Frances Ann; Mary Eliza; O'Fallon. 

Children of Ann Clark Thruston and Dr. Bernard Gaines Farrar. 

Charles Thruston; John O'Fallon: Benjamin O'Fallon; Bernard Gaines; 
James Sweringen; Ellen Frances. 


Children of Caroline G^ Fallon and Dr. Charles Alexander Pope. 

Ruth Caroline; John OTallon; Charles; Adelaid Eliza Wyatt; Emily Alice 

Child of yames Joseph O'Fallon and Ann Harris. 
Harris Taylor. 

Children of Benjamin O'Fallon and Sallie Champe Carter {his first wife). 
Clarence Carter; Ruth Caroline; Rebecca Rosalie; Harriet Louisa. 

Children of Benjamin O'Fallon and Mary Shreve Carter {his second wife). 
Sallie Carter; Florence Mary; Howard Lawrence; Carter Randolph; Ethel. 

Children of John yulius O'Fallon and Caroline Mastin. 
Frank Mastin; Caroline Ruth (married Joseph Miller); Charles Pope. 


Children of Clarence Carter O^ Fallon and Harriett Bates Johnson. 
Nancy Lucas; Sallie Claire Campe Carter. 

Child of Ruth Caroline O Fallon and Phillip Grymes Randolph. 
Nathaniel Burwell. 

Children of Rebecca Rosalie O"* Fallon and William Fitzhugh Randolph. 
Mary Carter; Beverly; Benjamin O'Fallon; William; Estore. 

Children of Harriett Louise O* Fallon and Daniel Britain Ely. 
Ruth; Mildred; Amy Britain. 

Children of Frank Mastin O'Fallon and Anita Glasgow. 
William Glasgow; John Julius. 

Children of Fanny Clark O^ Fallon and Dr. David Middleton Cooper {her 

first husband). 
Sophia; Astley. She had no children bv her second husband, M. Wall. 

Child of Ellen O'Fallon and Frank Smith. 
Dr. Albert Sidney Johnston. 

Digitized by 



Children of Frances Ann Thruston and Andrew yackson Ballard. 

Charles Thruston; Bland Ballard; Abigail Churchill; Samuel Thruston; 
Rogers Clark Ballard Thruston (who adopted his mother's family name of 


Children of Charles Thruston Ballard and Emilina Modeste {Mina) Breaux. 

Abby Churchill; Emilie Locke; Mary Thruston; Charles My nn Thruston; 
Gustave Breaux; Fanny Thruston; Churchill; Mina Breaux. 

Children of Samuel Thruston Ballard and Sunshine Harris, 
Mary Harris; Theodore Harris; Samuel Thruston, Junior. 
John O'Fallon Farrar married first Caroline Garland — they had no children. 

Children of John O'Fallon Farrar and Sally Christy {his second wife). 

William Christy (married Clara Jennings, and has six children); Charles 
Thruston (married Anna Gorman, has two sons, Benedict and Thruston); 
Ellen Morgan (married James C.Duke, has one child, Sarah Christy); Benjamin 
(married Carlotte S.Gardner); Calvin Christy; John; Eliza Christy (married 
Clarence C. Obear); Arthur Barret; Frank Blair. 

Children of Benjamin O'Fallon Farrar and Anna Kennett. 

Lucy Swon; Bernard Gaines (married Eliza Howard); Luther Kennett; 
Martha Sweringen (married M. D. Burns, has one child, Kennett Farrar); John 
Royal; Agness Kennett (married Professor W. B. Potter, have three children, 
Mary Chauncey; Anna Farrar; Horatio Potter); Franklin Dick; Coburn; Harry. 

Children of Bernard Gaines Farrar and Isabel J. Mitchell, 

Francis Jerdone; Ann Clark Thruston (married George C. W. Belcher, and 
has one daughter, Isabel Jerdone); Alexander Mitchell; Bertie Cecil. 

Child of yames Sweringen Farrar and Eliza Christy (his first wife). 
James Sweringen. 

Children of yames Sweringen Farrar and Adele /Rutherford. 
Lucile; Bernard Royal; Adele. 

Children of Ellen Frances Farrar and White Kennett {her first husband), 
Harry Percy; Samuel H.; Anne Clark Thruston. 

Children of Ellen Frances Farrar and S. T. Houser (her second husband). 
Ellen T.; Thomas. 

Children of Ann Clark Fitzhugh and Allen y.Polk. 

Susie H. (married T. W. Keesee, and has two children, Zelda and T. W., Jr.); 
Anna Lee (married S. A. Pepper, and has two children, Allen and Zelda); Zelda 
H. (married D. T. Hargraves); Robin A. 

Note. — The information in this list was kindly furnished the author by R. C. 
Ballard Thruston, Esq. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Abbott, Edward, lieutenant-governor, 
200, 201, 223, 224, 474. 

Abbott, William, Sr., 1061. 

Abbott, William, Jr., 1061. 

Adams, Francis, 1061. 

Adams, John, 762. 

Adams, William, 1119. 

Adamson, John, 365 note, 585. 

Adee, Alvey A., 773. 

Ademhard, , 365 note. 

Adhemar (Adimar), British commis- 
sary, 354, 576, fym, 

Ainsley, Amos, 586, 608, 1057. 

Alexander, Miss, 962. 

Allan, John, 1051. 

Allen (Allan), David, 842, 1117. 

Allen, Ethan, 625. 

Allen, Isaac, 1061. 

Allen, John, Sr., 1061. 

Allen, John, Jr., 1061. 

Allen, Samuel, 1060. 

Allery, Joseph, 1061. 

Ahnon*8 Remembrancer, 563. 

Alonton, Jacob, 1061. 

Amoneau, Charles, 1046. 

Anderson, Ann, 1008. 

Anderson, Annita(T., 1123. 

Anderson, Cecilia, 1008, 1123. 

Anderson, Charles, 1008, 1009. 

Anderson, Elizabeth, see Elizabeth 

Anderson, Elizabeth, 1009. 

Anderson, Fanny, 1008. 

Anderson, Hugh, 1008. 

Anderson, Isaac, 725, 727. 

Anderson, John, 1061. 

Anderson, John R., 1008. 

Anderson, Joseph, 842, 937. 

Anderson, Larz, 1008, 1009. 

Anderson, Louisa, 1008. 

Anderson, Lucelia, 1008. 

Anderson, Mary, 1008. 

Anderson, Matthew, 1008. 

Anderson, Richard Clough, 48, 49, 832, 
1006, 1150. 

Anderson, Richard Clough, Jr., 1008, 
1009, 1123. 

Anderson, Robert, 1008, 1009. 

Anderson, Sarah, 1008. 

Anderson, William, 1008. 

Anderson's, 583. 

Andree, Jean, 1060. 

Andrews, Joseph, 1049. 

Antia, Mich., 1047. 

Antier, Francis, 1062. 

Apperson, Richard, 1062. 

Appleton's Cyclopedia, 144 note. 

Appleton's Cyclopedia of American 

Biography, 874, 916, 1015. 
Arbuckle, Captain, 470. 
Armstrong's Station, 973. 
Arnold, Benedict, 702. 
Arquoite, Francois, 586. 
Ash, John, 842, 1117. 
Ash, Reubin, 1117. 
Asher, Bartlett, 1062. 
Asher, William, 842. 
Atcheson, George, 1067. 
Auabache, 700. 
Auglaise, 986. 
Aux Miamis, 210 note, 228, 430 note, 

444, 575. 

Back, John, 1062. 

Badollet, Albert, 270. 

Badollet, John, 270. 

Bailey, David, 842. 

Bailey, John, see John Baley. 

Baker, Lieutenant, 726. 

Baker, Richard, 365 note, 585. 

Baley (Bailey, Bayley), John, 204, 

262, 316, 317, 323, 324, 367, 386, 427, 

439, 531, 550, 572, 577, 698, 746, 839, 

861, 1068, 1117. 
Ballard, Bland, 1060. 
Ballard, Bland W., 973, 1062. 
Ballard, James, 1061. 
Ballard, Proctor, 1060. 
Ballenger, Larkin, 1062. 
Bancroft, George, History of the U. 

S., 124, 216. 
Banks, Rev., 891. 
Barber, Captain, 513. 
Barber, John, 1062. 


Digitized by 




Barbour, James, 880. 

Barbour, Philip, 689. 

Bare Banks, 72(5. 

Barlow, Joel, The Columbiad, 614. 

Barnet, Robert, 842. 

Barny, William, 1062. 

Barois, Ja., 740. 

Baron, Joseph, 585. 

Barrataria island, 474. 

Barren river, 945. 

Barron, Major P., 740. 

Barrv, William, 1062. 

Bartholomew, Joseph, 859, 1115. 

Bartholomew, W. H., 859. 

Bartlett's, 582. 

Bass, David, 1062. 

Batey, James, 1055. 

Bathey, Elisha, 79, 580. 

Batteast, Indian chief, 512. 

Batten, Thomas, 842. 

Baubin, , 696. 

Baulon, Hypolite, 1036. 
Bauvais, Rago, 1044. 
Baxter, James, 842. 
Bayard, Mrs., 322, 377, 379. 
Bayard, Samuel, 322. 
Bayard, Thomas F., 660. 

Bayless, , 148. 

Bayley John, see John Baley. 

Bazadone, , 807, 811. 

Beargrass, 788. 

Beargrass creek, 131, 135, 144, 151, 

750, 754, 830, 929, 963. 
Beaudouin, I. B., 586. 
Beaverdam, 612. 
Beckley, William, 1119. 
Bedford, 863. 
Beggs, James, 859, 1115. 
Bell, Sam, 842. 
Bell, William, 842, 1117. 
Bellefeuille, Antoine, 1057, 1058. 
Bellefeuille, L. F., 576, 585, 608, 651. 
Bell Grove, 112 note. 
Bement, Walter, 1129. 
Bender, John, 1062. 
Bender, Lewis, 1062. 
Bender, Robert, 1062. 
Bennet, William, 33. 
Bentlev, James, 842, 1035, 1117. 
Bentlev, John, 842, ia34, 1117. 
Benton, Thomas, \(M^2. 

Berard, , 10()2. 

Berrey, William, 1034, 1035. 
Berrv, James, 580. 
Berrv, William, 1062. 
Bethey* Elisha, 843. 
Bienvenue, Antoine, 1049, 1054. 
Big Cove Valley, 123. 

Big creek, 971. 

Biggar, James, 843, 967, 1117. 

Big Gate, see Lajes. 

Biggs, William, 1067. 

Bigras, Alex., 586. 

Bigraw, Alexander, 1062. 

Bilderback, Charles, 843. 

Bill, Samuel, 33. 

Bingamore, Adam, 1062. 

Binkley, William, 1062. 

Bird, Colonel, 677. 

Bird, Samuel, 1062. 

Biron, J. B., 1060. 

Blackamoore's, 582. 

Black Bird, 503. 

Blackford, Joseph, 79, 1117. 

Blackford, Samuel, 843, 1117. 

Blackford's Reports, 865. 

Black's, 582. 

Blair, Arch., 624. 

Blair, John, 92, 1062. 

Blancher, Pierre, 1062. 

Blankenship, Henry, 843. 

Blearn, David, 1060, 1062. 

Blein, Pierre, 1061. 

Bliss, Professor, 455, 456. 

Blomer, Captain, 241. 

Blue Lick, 464, 758, 760. 

Blue Licks, Battle of, 253, 693, 760, 945. 

Bodley, Ann J., 9<)5. 

Bodlev, Ellen, 1123. 

Bodlev, Temple, 12, 788. 

Bodley, William, 1123. 

Bogard, Jacob, 365 note. 

Bogerts, Jacob, 586. 

Boishriant, , 198. 

Bollinger, James, 1062. 
Bolton, Daniel, 1060. 
Bolton, Lieutenant-Colonel, 225. 
Bond, Bland, 1060. 
Bond, Shadrach, 1060. 
Boneux, Pierre, 1055. 
Boone, Captain, 580. 
Boone, Daniel, 179, 927. 
Boone, 'Squire, 580, 750. 
Boone's, 580, 581, 582. 
Boonesborough, 457, 465, 580. 
Boone's Station, 750. 
Booth, Ann, 997. 
Booth, Isaac, 365 note, 585. 
Booth, Mary, 997. 
Booth, William, 963, 997. 
Booth, William Avlett, 997. 
Booton, Travis, 843. 
Booton, William, 843. 
Borden, William W., 970, 972. 

Boreman, , 712. 

Boss, David, 1062. 

Digitized by 




Bosseron (Biiseron), Francis (Major, 
Captain), 233, 32(>, 333, 354, 356, 532, 
544, 546, 672, 739, 740, 815, 1036, 

Botetourt, 582. 

Bouche, John, 1062. 

Bouiliuot, EliaH, 614. 

Bound Brook Encampment, 993. 

Bowen, Ebenezer, 843. 

Bowen, William, lOtil. 

Bower, Joseph, 1116. 

Bowling Green, 945. 

Bowman, A., 946. 

Bowman, Ahnim (Abraham), 111,862, 
979, 994, 1002. 

Bowman, Abraham, Jr., 982. 

Bowman, Captain, 582. 

Bowman, Catharine, 982. 

Bowman, Christian, 10<32. 

Bowman, Eleanor B., 12. 

Bowman, Eliza, 982. 

Bowman, Elizabeth, 142, 143. 

Bowman, George, 111, 112, 116, 118, 

Bowman, Geor^'e, Jr., 982. 

Bowman, Isaac, 12, 111, 115, 121, 244, 
3<i9, 374, 558, 666, 672, 840, 862, 979, 

Bowman, Isaac, Jr., 982, 984. 

Bowman, Isaac S., 12. 

Bowman, J., 946. 

Bowman, John, a Kentucky pioneer, 
65; first county lieutenant of Ken- 
tucky, 111; brother of Joseph Bow- 
man, 124; requested to send men to 
G.R.Clark, 129, 448; consultation 
with Clark, 137 ; expedition of against 
Ohio Indians, 369, 553; arrival in 
Kentucky with troops, 466, 471 ; 
promise of assistance to Clark, 552; 
mention of, 580. 581. 

Bowman, John, Jr., 982. 

Bowman, John B., 12, 985. 

Bowman, Joseph, a Kentucky pioneer, 
6,5; at Harrodsburg in 1774, 83, 581 ; 
directed to raise company for Illi- 
nois expedition, 10«>, 469; biograph- 
ical sketch, 108; certificate of death, 
109; nephewof John Hite, 115, 563; 
excellent officer, 124,557: desertions 
from command, 127; knowledge of 
Clark's plan, 139, 471 ; commanded 
a company in Illinois expedition, 
163; capture of Kaskaskia, 171, 559, 
564; capture of Cahokia, 192, 418,1 
482, 559, 565; in command at Caho- , 
kia, 202, 420, 489, 5(>0; treated with , 
Indians, 20>, 209, 422; expedition to 
Rock river and neighboring towns, I 

209, 559, 564; ordered to Kaskaskia, 
212; elected a judge, 484; reliance 
of Clark upon, 213 ; arrival at Kas- 
kaskia with re-enforcements,214, 277, 
396, 435, 516; was in Clark's Vin- 
cennes expedition, 262; account of 
march, 292, 296, 302, 568; ordered 
to shoot deserters, 305 ; position in 
attack on fort, 323, 572; account of 
attack, 3:i4, 572; present at meeting 
of Clark and Hamilton before fort, 
340, 539; capture of Indians, 343; 
injured by explosion of powder, 349, 
575 ; commissioned a major, 350, 576 ; 
brother of Col. John Bowman, 369; 
movement with troops, 370, 553; or- 
dered to recruit, 373, 380, 553 ; death 
of, 374 ; funeral expenses, 375 ; bur- 
ied at Vincennes, 376; commanded 
second division in attack on Fort 
Sackville, 386 ; account of campaign 
against Cahokia, 402; letter of thanks , 
for commission, 403; letter of to 
George Brinker, 558 ; letter of to Col. 
John Hite, 563; journal of, 567; 
land allotted to heirs of in Clark's 
Grant, 839; pay-roll of company, 

Bowman, Joseph, Jr., 982. 

Bowman, Man', 982. 

Bowman, Mary D., 12, 985. 

Bowman, Marv Hite, 111, 116. 

Bowman, Philip, 982, 984. 

Bowman, Rebecca, 982. 

Bowman, Robert, 982. 

Bowman, Susan, 982. 

Bowman, Washington, 982. 

Bowman's Mill, 121. 

Bovles, John, 843. 

Bradies, , 4^)9. 

Brady, T., 1049. 

Brady, Thomas, 1043, 1046. 

Brand, John, 8+1. 

Brant, Indian chief, 724. 

Brashear, Marsham, 1055. 

Brashear, Nicholas, 144. 

Brashear (Brashears, Breashear), 
Richard, 123, 262, 367, 373, 549, 577, 
840,935, 1118, 1119. 

Brazer, Peter, 1062. 

Brebane, John, 1058. 

Brebin, John, 608. 

Brebonne, John, 586, 608. 

Breckenridge, Alexander, 857, 858, 

Breckenridge, Henry Brown, 858. 

Breckenridge, James, 858. 

Breckenridge, James I)., 891, 1130. 

Breckenridge, Maria. 1130. 

Digitized by 




Breckenridge, Robert, 857, 858, 1080. 

Breckenridge, R. O., 1130. 

Breeden, John, 1060. 

Breeden, Richard, 1062. 

Brehm, Captain, 236. 

Bremner, see Brymner. 

Brenton, Adam, 383. 

Brenton, Thomas, 1062. 

Bressie, Richard, 1062. 

Briand, Bishop, 184 note, 187. 

Brinker, George, letter of Joseph Bow- 
man to, 558. 

Briscoe, John, Jr., 1050. 

Brocus, Miss, 935. 

Broadhead, Col. David, 705, 707, 709, 
712, 713, 714, 715, 717. 

Brodhead, Daniel, 1117, 1118, 1119. 

Brooke. George, 1048. 

Brossard. Pierre, 1060. 

Brouliette, Michel, 1036. 

Brown, Asher, 1062. 
* Brown, Calvin, 10(j2. 

Brown, Collin, 1060. 

Brown, Doran, 580. 

Brown, James, 841. 

Brown, John, 1062. 

Brown, Jos., 1048. 

Brown, Lewis, 1062. 

Brown, Low, 1062. 

Brown, Samuel, 1029. 

Brown, Sevellon A., 771. 

Brownsville, 106, 469, 941. 

Brush, Drewry, 1062. 

Brush, John, 1062. 

Brush, Thomas, 1062. 

Brut^, Bishop, 270. 

Bryan, Daniel, 581. 

Bryant, James, 843, 1117. 

Bryant, Robert, 585, 608. 

Bryant's Station, 758. 

Brymner, Douglas, 232, 384, 391, 392, 

Bubbriss, 298. 

Buchanan, W., 946. 

Buckley, William, 842. 

Buckner, Mary, 961. 

Buckner, Samuel, 961. 

Buckongehelas, 791. 

Buffalo island, 726. 

Bulcher, Gasper, 1062. 

Bulger, E., 946. 

Bulger, Edward, 843, 944, 1034. 

Bullett, Alexander 8., 1117, 1118, 1119. 

Bullock, Marv, 1123. 

Bullock, Will'iam F., 1123. 

Bunker Hill, 315. 

Burbridge, John, 1062. 

Burbridge, William, 1062. 

Burgoyne, General, 216. 

Burk, George, 1062. 

Burk, Nicholas, 843, 1117. 

Bume, Pierre, 1060. 

Burnett, Jacob, Early Settlement of 

Northwest Territory, 909. 
Burney, Simon, 1062. 
Bumham, W. S., 160. 
Burnley, Simon, 1062. 
Burnt Cabin Tract, 983. 
Burris, John, 1062. 
Bush, Drewry, 1062. 
Bush, John, 1062. 
Bush, William, 843, 1117. 
Buskey, Francis, 1062. 
Butcher, Gasper, 1062. 
Butler, John, 1062. 
Butler, Mann, 456. 
Butler, Mann, Historv of Kentucky, 

128, 139, 140, 153, 171, 567, 800, 806. 
Butler, Richard, 394, 790, 791, 792. 
Butler, William 0., 949. 
Butts, William, 1062. 
Byrd, British officer, 680, 683. 
Byrd, Colonel, 644. 
Byrd, Mary, 35. 
Byrd, Mrs., 642. 

Caapteenin creek, 61. 

Cabbage, Joseph, 1062. 

Cabbassie, B., 1062. 

Cabin creek, 80. 

Caderon, Charles, 1043. 

Caffee, Samuel, 586. 

Cahokia (Cauhow, Cohos, Kahokia), 
British post, 82; plan of Clark for 
expedition against, 82, 87, 467 ; plan 
laid before Governor Henry, 88, 468 ; 
plan approved and appropriation 
made, 92, 468 ; departure of expedi- 
tion, 158 ; Clark's purpose regarding, 
182; transfer of church property, 
184 note; residence of priests at, 
185 ; petition of Father Gibault for 
land at, 188 ; capture by Clark, 192, 
418, 482, 559, 565 ; an important post, 
197; withdrawal of French families, 
199 ; garrison established bv Clark, 
202, 420, 489; Indians treated with 
at, 205, 422, 492 ; Clark's stay at, 209, 
426; British spy, 210, 429; intention 
to vacate if besieged, 211, 430; dis- 
tance from Kaskaskia, 214 ; news of 
capture, 224; British did not attack, 
240; sent re-enforcements to Clark, 
277,568; conflictof civil and militarv 
authorities, 278 ; point to be guarded, 
372; military detachment for, 373; 

Digitized by 




movement against inaugurated, 677 ; 
attack on, 679, 680 ; La Balme raised 
men at, 694, 695 ; fort necessary at, 
700; garrison necessary, 701. 

Cahokia (Kohokias> river, 499. 

Cahokia Mission, 184. 

Callaway, Richard, 580. 

Calve, , 679. 

Calvin, Daniel, 1062. 

Calvit, Lieutenant Joseph, 374, 840. 

Cameron, Angus, 843. 

Cameron, James, 1061. 

Camp, Reuben, 843, 1118. 

Campht^ll, , 68. 

Campl)ell, Captain, 582. 

Campbell, Colonel, 164, 474, 582. 

Campbell, Arthur, 77, 463. 

Campbell, George, 1060. 

Campbell, John, 555, 843, 856, 861, 

Campbell, William, 722. 

Camper, Moses, 843. 

Camper, Tilman, 843. 

Campo, I^wis, 1062. 

Cami)o, Michael, 1062. 

Canadian archives, 217, 218, 220,232. 
236, 237, 384, 409, 1036. 

Captina creek, 61. 

Carbine, Henry, 1060. 

Cardinal, J. Baptiste, 1036. 

Cardinal, Nicholas, 335. 

Carleton, Guy, governor of Canada; 
letter of Lord Germain to concern- 
ing employment of Indian allies, 
217; deprived of management of 
war on frontier, 218; succeeded as 
governor by General Ilaldimand, 
220; letter of Lieutenant-Governor 
Abbott to, 223 ; letter of Governor 
Hamilton to, 224 ; mention of, 620, 

Carnahan's block-house, 722. 

Carney, Martin, 840. 

Carpenter, Joel, 894. 

Corroll, Bishop, 188. 

Cartville, Nathan, 1035. 

Casey. Peter, 961. 

Cash river, 166. 

Catfish island, 726. 

Catfish's road, 62. 

Cat plains, 2*^2. 

Catlett, Peter, 828. 

Cauthorn, Henrv S., 13, 267, 269, 271, 
288, 312, 321, 322, 323, 377, 870. 

Cedar creek, 111, 979. 

Celeron, de, British Indian agent, 204, 
219, 225, 427. 

Centralia, 289. 

Cerre, , 477, 478, 481, 484. 

Chabert, • 

-, 3a5 note, 585. 

Chambers, EUick, 1062. 

Chapline, Abraham (Abram), 262, 367, 

5.50, 555, 577, 840, 958. 1068. 
Chapman, Edward, 1062. 
Chapman, John, 365 note, 585, 1066. 
Chapman, Richard, 1062. 
Chapman, William, 843. 
Charles City court-house. 702. 
Charleston, Ind., 179. 
Charleston, S. C, 992, 994, 1003, 1008. 
Charlestown, 693, 936. 1122. 
Charlestown Landing, 1122. 
Charleville, Charles, 238, 1040, 1049, 

1053, 1054. 
Charleville (Charlovielle,Charlaville), 

Francis (Frans.), 262, 283, 323, 437, 

568, 1040, 1042, 1054. 
Charlottesville, 53, 64, 683. 
Chenowith, Eli, 148. 
Chenowith, Hannah, 151 note. 
Chenowith, James, 148, 151 note. 
Chenowith, Jane, 151 note. 
Chenowith, Millie (Mildred), 148, 149, 

151 note. 
Chenowith, Naomi, 149. 
Chenowith, Richard, 145, 146, 147, 

151 note, 843. 
Chenowith, Rose, 148. 
Chenowith, Thomas, 148, 151 note. 
Chenowith 's Fort, 147. 
Cherokee Indians, 64, 70, 222, 395, 400, 

457. 461, 464, 674, 957. 
Cherokee river, 241. 
Cherry, Captain, 712. 
Cherry, William, 1066. 
Chesawey Indians, 400. 
Chesterfield, 612, 615, 619, 651, a52, 

Chicago, 144 note, 678, 679. 
Chick. William, 1062. 
Chickasaw Indians, 305, 400, 511, 673. 
Chillicothe, 681.682, 759, 1006, 1033. 
Chinn, Mary, 982. 
Chippewa Indians, 2a5, 246, 422, 446, 

510, 791. 
Choctaw Indians, 222, 674. 
Choheren, Dennis, 843. 
Chouteau, A., 1053. 
Chrisman, Henry, 1034. 
Chrisman, Jacob, 111, 116. 
Chrisman's Spring, 111. 
Christian, Colonel, 138, 797. 
Christy, Wm., 894. 
Cincinnati, 170, 757, 1012. 
Cist, Charles, Cincinnati Miscellany, 

Clairmont, Michael, 1062. 
Clark, see also Clerk, see note p. 36. 

Digitized by 




Clark, Adams, 1060. 

Clark, Amelia, 1133. 

Clark, Andrew, 843, 1117. 

Clark, Ann, daughter of Jonathan 
Clark, 31, 33. 

Clark, Ann, daughter of John Clark, 
36, 997, 1148. 

Clark, Ann, mother of George Rogers 
Clark, 34, 35, 43,44, 45, 46, 62, 683. 

Clark, Benjamin, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35,36, 
note, 37. 

Clark, Benjamin Wilson, 830. 

Clark, Cornelia, 1133. 

Clark, Edmund, 37, 38, 43, 44, 45, 47, 
868, note, 898, 900, 1001. 

Clark, Eleanor, 1123. 

Clark, Elizabeth, wife of Jonathan 
Clark, 31, 32, 33. 

Clark, Elizabeth, daughter of Jona- 
than Clark, 31, 33. 

Clark, Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Clark, 37, 831, 1006, 1008, 1150. 

Clark, Evard, 866. 

Clark, Everard, 830, 831. 

Clark, Frances Eleanor, 11, 37, 44, 962, 
1009, 1151, 1124. 

Clark, Francis T., 903. 

Clark, George, 843, 954, 1123. 

Clark, George Rogers, most igjpor- 
^tantfigurejn .history of N. 'WrTer- 
TrltDT^, 59; ancestry, 29; named for 
an uncle. 35; birth, 36; received 
military Dounty land, 38; letter to 
his father, 40; Durial place, 44; be- 
quest to, 47; an executor of his 
father's will, 49; birthplace, 53; so- 
cial position of family, 54 ; friend- 
ship with Thomas Jefferson, 55; 
early education, 56 ; letter of Jeffer- 
son to, 57; trip west as surveyor, 
59; diary of trip, 60; life in the 
west, 63; journey down the Ohio, 
63 ; participated in Indian troubles in 
1774 and in Dunmore's War, 64 ; vis- 
ited Kentucky, 65, 458 ; engaged as 
surveyor, 66; engrossed land, 67; 
revisited Virginia, 68, 458; returned 
to Kentucky, 69, 458; developed 
military and political sagacity, 69; 
arranged meeting of settlers of Ken- 
tucky country, 70, 458; purpose of 
meeting, 71, 458; chosen member of 
Virginia legislature and departure 
for Virginia, 71, 458; hardships en- 
countered, 72, 459; conferences with 
Gov. Patrick Henry and executive 
council, 73, 461; obtained powder 
for Kentucky settlements and rec- 
ognition of Kentucky as part of Vir- 

ginia, 75, 463 ; present at meeting of 
Virginia legislature, 76, 463 ; organi- 
zation of Kentucky as a county of 
Va., 77, 463; returned to Kentucky 
with powder, 78, 463, 684 ; planned 
campaign against British p^osts, 82, 
467 ; sent spies to them, 84, 467 ; ad- 
venture in Kentucky, 85 ; regard of 
settlers for, 86; revisited Virginia, 
87, 468; laid plan of campaign be- 
fore Gov. Henry, 88, 468; confer- 
ences regarding plan, 91 ; plan ap- 
proved by executive council and ap- 
propriation made, 92, 468; public 
instructions regarding campaign, 
94; private instructions, 96; assur- 
ance that grants of land would be 
made those engaging in campaign, 
99; letter of Jefferson, Wythe and 
Mason to, 102; gratification at ap- 
proval of plans, 105 ; return to the 
west with full authority, 106, 469; 
troops of expedition not on conti- 
nental establishment, 125 ; interfer- 
ence with recruiting plans, 127; 
journey down Ohio, 128, 470; ar- 
rival at falls, 129, 131 ; reasons for 
choosing Corn island as camping 
ground, 131, 471 ; cabins, etc., built, 
136; destination of expedition dis- 
closed and desertions from com- 
mand, 139, 472; small guard and 
few families left at Corn island, 141 ; 
size of command, 152, 153, 473 ; dis- 
couraging prospects, 154; prepara- 
tions for departure, 157; start by 
boat, 158, 473 ; eclipse of sun, 159 ; 
change of plan, 163 ; chance recruits, 
164, 474; C]aiJ^! fl_persona l_appear:L 
ance^ lS5;Toats left benincf, 167, 
"ir75; bewildered guide, 167, 475; 
capture of Kaskaskia, 168, 476; 
brilliant feat, 170 ; treatment of Gov. 
Rochblave and wife, 171, 243, 477, 
489; details of capture, 176; man 
sent to reconnoiter Vincennes, 177 ; 
policy toward inhabitants of Kas- 
kaakia, 181, 190, 478 ; assistance from 
Father Gibault, 183, 191 ; capture of 
Cahokia and other towns, 192, 482 ; 
courts established, 484; importance 
of Cahokia, 197; neighboring towns, 
198 ; plan for capture of Vincennes, 
200, 483 ; Father Gibault sent there, 
200, 487; inhabitants of take oath 
of allegiance to U. 8., 201, 488 ; doubt 
as to course to pursue, 202; Capt. 
Helm appointed commandant at 
Vincennes, 203, 490 ; capture of fort 

Digitized by 




near Wea towns, 204, 510; pence 
made with Indian tribes, 205, 490; 
treachery of Indians, 205, 4i)8 ; coun- 
cils with Indians, 206, 502; return 
to Kaskaskia, 209; spies sent out, 
210, 513; uncertainty as to plans of 
British, 210, 513; departure for Ca- 
hokia. 211, 513; dangerous advent- 
ure, 211, 513, 516; false report of 
approach of British, 212, 513; re- 
turn to Kaskaskia and prepara- 
tion for defense, 213, 513; re-en- 
forced by Capt. Bowman, 214,516; 
news of capture of Vincennes by 
British, 214, 514, 516; Indian raids 
instigated by British, 215; Chirk 
would not employ Indian allies, 223, 
326, 532; British prepare for a 
campaijjn against, 225; expedition 
marches, 226; proj?ress of expedition, 
227; four of Helm's men captured, 
229; ignorance of British move- 
ments, 230; letter of Helm to, 233; 
surrender of Fort Sackville to Brit- 
ish, 234, 5(>8; use of liquor by both 
Americans and British, 236; liquor 
expenditures in Illinois campaign, 
237; later intemperance of, 238; 
British repairs to Fort Sackville, 
239, 320 ; no further movement by 
British, 239; long ignorant of cap- 
ture of Vincennes, 240; receipt in 
Virginia of news of capture of Vin- 
cennes, 245; letter of Gov. Henry 
to delegates in congress, 245 ; reso- 
lution of thanks passed by Virginia 
legislature, 248; Illinois countr>' 
made a county of Virginia, officers 
appointed and the raising of further 
troops provided for, 248; instruc- 
tions of Gov. Henry to Countv Lieu- 
tenant Todd, 249; letters of Gov. 
Henry to Clark, 253, 258 ; letter of 
Clark to (tov. Henry announcing in- 
tention of attacking Vincennes, 2()0; 
difficulties of Clark*s situation, 2()5, 
518 ; his indomitable resolution, 266 ; 
aided by Francis Vigo, 267,271, 275, 
518; purpose of Vigo's visit to Vin- 
cennes, 276; his capture, 276; in- 
formation of condition of British 
garrison at Vincennes given Clark, 
277, 518, 5()8; re-enforcements gath- 
ered, 277, 520, 568; boat built to 
carry supplies and artillery, 280, 520, 
568; sword sent to Clark by Vir- 
ginia legislature, 283, 404; size of 
his command, 2^, 568 ; sets out for 
Vincennes, 287, 520, 568 ; route and 

distance, 288; Bowman*8 journal of 
march, 2i)2, 567; Clark's account of 
march, 293, 520; exposure tells upon 
the men, 2^)9, 570; expedients used 
to encourage them, 299, 521; wet 
condition of country in early days, 
301 ; expedition sights Vincennes, 
302, 527,571 ; Clark's account of last 
march, 303, 525; halt urged, 304, 
525; Major Bowman ordered to 
shoot deserters, 305, 526; dry land 
reached, 306, 527; provisions cap- 
tured from Indians, 307, 527 ; situa- 
tion critical, 308, 528 ; letter sent to 
inhabitants of Vincennes, 309, 528, 
572; advance of expedition upon 
town, 311, 529; topography of local- 
ity, 312, 315; Lieut. Bayley ordered 
to advance and fire on fort, 316, 318, 
324, 531, 572; history and descrip- 
tion of Fort Sackville, 318; diagram 
of surroundings, 323; the attack, 
324, 531, 572; inhabitants of Vin- 
cennes supply Clark with ammuni- 
tion, 326, 532 ; progress of siege, 327, 
532; Lamothe permitted to enter 
fort, 330, 5;i5; Hamilton's account 
of attack, 333; letter of Clark to 
Hamilton demanding his surrender, 
335, 536, 573; refusal of Hamilton 
and renewal of attack, 336, 536,573; 
letter of Hamilton to Clark propos- 
ing truce for three davs, 337, 537, 
573; Clark's reply, 338, 537, 574; 
Hamilton's account of renewal of 
attack, 338; meeting of Clark and 
Hamilton at St. Xavier Church, 339, 

537, 574 ; their conference, 340, 397, 

538, 574; alarm of Major Hay, 342, 
539; Indians killed before gate of 
fort, 342, 346, 574; treatment of 
Francis Maisonville, 345; capitula- 
tion of Hamilton, 347, 539, 574; pos- 
session of fort not taken at once, 
348, 539; evacuation of fort, 349, 
541, 575 ; arrival of The Willing, 349, 
544, 575 ; Clark commissioned colo- 
nel, 350; dates of events in siege, 
353; expedition sent up Wabash 
river, 353, 544, 575 ; capture of Brit- 
ish stores, 1^54, 546, 576; excitement 
in Vincennes, 357 ; impulse to march 
on Detroit, 358, 361, 542; campaign 
against proposed, 362, 543; expedi- 
tion deferred, 362; Hamilton and 
other prisoners sent to Virginia and 
others released, 364, 546, 577 ; oath 
of neutrality taken by prisoners, 3(>5, 
576; officers chosen for Vincennes 

Digitized by 




and the fort 367, 549, 577 ; departure 
for Kaskaskia, 365; war made on 
Delaware Indians, 368, 550; dis- 
couraging outlook for Detroit expe- 
dition, 369; plan abandoned, 370; 
general orders isnued, 372; disposi- 
tion of troops, 380, 553 ; official re- 
port sent to governor of Virginia, 
381 ; messenger captured, 382; letter 
replying to resolution of thanks of 
Virginia legislature, 384 ; part of let- 
ter called "G. R. Clark's Journal,*' 
385; Clark papers in Canadian ar- 
chives not originals, 392; second 
report sent governor of Virginia, 
394 ; resolution of Virginia house of 
delegates praising Clark, 404 ; letter 
of to George Mason describing Illi- 
nois campaign, 411 ; Clark's memoir 
of the Ilhnois campaign, 457; opin- 
ion of as to value of Kentucky to 
the U. S., 466; stay at Louisville, 
554, 663 ; treatment of prisoners tak- 
en at Vincennes, 606, 609 ; discussion 
of treatment of Hamilton, 614; ef- 
forts for his exchange, 642 ; paroled, 
652; exchanged and sailed for Eng- 
land, 658; Clark, founder of Louis- 
ville, ()64; plan for city, ()65; plan 
for fort at mouth of Ohio, 667 ; letter 
to Col. John Todd, outlining plan, 
668; approved by To<ld, 671; de- 

Earture for mouth of Ohio, 673; 
uilt Fort Jefferson, 673; attacked 
by Indians, 674; return to Ken- 
tucky, 676; enrolled troops for ex- 
pedition, 677; danger in the west, 
677 ; British attacks, 679; march be- 
gun, 681 ; capture of Piqua, 682, 684 ; 
troubles in Illinois country, 687; 
need of Clark at Fort Jefferson, 689 ; 
letter of Captain Williams to, 690; 
distress at Fort Jefferson, 691, 694; 
expedition of La Balme, 694 ; defeat 
of, 695; campaign against Detroit 
reconsidered, 697, 702; proceedings 
of council of war, 698; trip of Clark 
to Virginia, 702 ; skirmish with Brit- 
ish there, 703; Gov. Jefferson's ap- 
proval of plan for Detroit expedi- 
tion, 703 ; Clark commissioned brig- 
adier-general, 704; reasons for not 
conferring a continental commis- 
sion, 706; supplies {jromised, 707; 
difficulties met with, 710, 718, 731 ; 
departure, 718, 723 ; Lochry's defeat, 
722; Anderson's journal, 725; ig- 
norant of Lochry's defeat, 72^); 
death-blow to Detroit campaign. 

730; Clark's conduct needs no de- 
fense, 731 ; arrival at falls of Ohio, 
735; troubles in Illinois and Ken- 
tucky, 735 ; dissatisfaction at Vin- 
cennes, 737 ; trouble with Vincennes 
land claims, 740; mistreatment of 
inhabitants of Illinois and Ken- 
tucky country, 745; needs of Vin- 
cennes garrison, 747; troubles in 
Kentucky, 748; endeavors to im- 

Erove matters, 753; Fort Nelson 
uilt, 754; urged value of armed 
boats on Ohio, 756; river patrolled, 
757 ; successful campaign against In- 
dians, 758; last of great Indian ex- 
peditions, 761 ; peace with Great 
Britain, 762; value of Clark's con- 
quests, 762; organization of N. W. 
Territory, 768; territory N. W. of 
Ohio ceded to U. S., 779; western 
troops neglected by Virginia, 780; 
Clark not a member of Continental 
Army, 782; relieved of command, 
783; destitution of, 784,790; letter of 
to governor of Va., 784; pension al- 
lowed and claim against govern- 
ment paid after his death, 785 ; let- 
ter to Vigo, 785; disappointments, 
787; letter to Gen. Jonathan Clark, 
788 ; negotiated treaty with Indians, 
791 ; chosen to lead expedition 
against Indians, 796, 800, 801 ; de- 
parture of expedition, 802; deser- 
tions and abandonment of plan, 803 ; 
garrison established at Vincennes, 
805; goods of merchant impressed 
and trouble resulting, 807 ; cnticisms 
of Clark, 809, 8l0 ; acts of, disavowed 
by Virginia legislature, 811; court 
of inquiry demanded by Clark, 812; 
report of investigating committee, 
814; arranged tnice with Indians, 
816; trialsof adversity, 817; accept- 
ance of a French military commis- 
sion, 818; proposal for volunteers, 
819; government condemned pro- 
posed expedition, 821; expedition 
abandoned, 822; land allotted to in 
Clark's (irant, 839 ; board of Clark's 
Grant commissioners, 855; chose lo- 
cation for Clarksville, 861; built 
mill, 862; Clarksville a failure, 8()5; 
cottage, 866; loneliness, 868; paral- 
yzed, 869 ; leg amputated, 869 ; ques- 
tion of swords, 871 ; facts and tradi- 
tions about swords, 874; bill of re- 
lief, 878 ; letter of governor of Va.. 
880; answer of Maj. Croghan, 882 ; 
presentation of sword, 883; death. 

Digitized by 



1 163 

887 ; contemporary tributes, 888 ; last 
infirmities, 892 ; will, 893; validity, 
8f)5; burial, 897; identification of 
grave, 898 ; reinterment, 898 ; grave, 
900; Htatue at Indianapolis, 904; 
monuments proposed, 908; various 
estimates of Clark, 909; sketches 
of men who served under, 923 ; inci- 
dents connected with Clark's Grant, 
969; brothers and sisters of Clark, 
991 ; origin of statue of Clark at In- 
dianapolis, 1023 ; letter of Clark to 
Dr. Samuel Brown, 1029; pay-roll of 
Bowman's company, 1034; return of 
militia of Post V^incennes, 103(>; act 
organizing county of Illinois, 1037; 
Clark's account against state of Vir- 
ginia, 1040; Hamilton's disburse- 
ments, 1057 ; right to impress during 
campaign of 178(5, 10o9 ; list of oflicers 
and privates who served under Clark 
but who were not allotted land, 1060 ; 
allotment of land in Clark's Grant, 
1068; land claimants who sold their 
rights, 1117; supreme court decision 
concerning Chirksville and Clark's 
Grant, 1120; location of towns in 
Clark's Grant, 1122; legal pro- 
ceedings establishing invalidity of 
Clark's will, 1123; descendants of 
Clark's brothers and sisters, 1142. 

Clark, George W., 903. 

(^lark, Isaac, 900, 903, 1123. 

Clark, Jefferson K., 11, 12, 1019. 

Clark, John, earliest known ancestor 
of George Rogers Clark, 30. 

Clark, John, brother of Jonathan 
Clark, 30, 31. 

Clark, John, father of George Rogers 
Clark, 31 ; bequests to, 32, 33 ; birth 
and marriage, 34; places of resi- 
dence, 35, 36, 37; deeds for land, 36, 
note; removal to Kentucky, 43; 
death, 43; grave, 44, 45, 46, 8<n); 
will, 46; codicil, 50; probate, 51 ; no 
descendants in Albemarle county, 
Virginia, 55. 

Clark, John, brother of George Rogers 
Clark, date of birth, 36; military 
service, 38; death, 43; mention of, 
47; unmarried, 868, note; sketch, 
998; served under George Rogers 
Clark, \m2. 

Clark, John H., 994 

Clark, John Uite, iHK), 903. 

Clark, Jonathan, grandfather of Geo. 
Rogers, 30, 31, 36, note. 

Clark, Jonathan, brother of George 
Rogers, military service, 38; moved 


to Kentucky, 43; place of burial, 44, 
900 ; bequest to 46 ; mention of, 47, 
48; an executor of his father's will, 
49; mention of, 65, 67, 68, 69, note, 
83, 112, note ; letter of George Rogers 
Clark to, 788; married, 868, note; 
reinterment, 898; grave, iKK); sketch 
of, 991 ; descendants, 1 142. 

Clark, Jonathan, son of Benjamin, 830. 

Clark, Lucy, see Lucy Croghan. 

Clark, Marston Greene, 34, 50, 830, 
831, 832, 866, 978. 

Clark, Meriwether Lewis, 11. 

Clark, Michael M.,984. 

Clark, Richard, 37, 38, 373, 689, 840, 
868, note, 1000, 1117. 

Clark, William, brother of George 
Rogers, date of birth, 37; military 
service, 38 ; bequests to, 46, 48, 49, 
51 ; an executor of his father's will, 
49 ; mention of, 56 ; fac-simile of re- 
ceipt for land certificate, 138; ex- 
plorations of ,765 ; married, 868, note ; 
bequests to, 893, 8t)4, 895 ; mention 
of, 991 ; sketch of, 1011 ; mention of, 
1 1 23 ; descendants of, 1 150. 

Clark, William, son of Benjamin, 34, 
38, 828, 829, 840, 857, 865, 1015, 10(J8. 

Clark, William, 903. 

Clark, William Hancock, 11, 871. 

Clark river, 894. 

Clark's Grant, legislative acta provid- 
ing for, 826; land selected, 828; 
soldiers entitled to land in, 833; 
allotments, 839; allotments small, 
8.')5; historical incidents connected 
with, 9(>9; decision of supreme court 
of Indiana concerning,! 120 ; location 
of towns, 1122; proceedings of com- 
missioners of, 10tJ8. 

Clark's Point, 866. 

Clarksville, 3(i6, 6(i5, aSl, a32, 861, 970, 
972, 1015, 1074, 1079, 1082, 1085, 1120, 

Clerk, Benjamin, 36 note. 

Clerk, John, 3(» note. 

Clifton, Baldwin, 1117. 

(Clifton, Thomas, 843, 1034, 1117. 

('linch mountain, 582. 

Clinch river, 461. 

Clinton, Sir Henr\',641, ()58, 1058. 

Coburn, James, 1118. 

Cochran, Kdward, 10(i2. 

Cochran, George, 10(>2. 

Coi»les, Andrew. 10<i2. 

Cofer, William, 843. 

Coffee, Sanuiel, mi2. 

Coger (Cogar), Jacob, 844, 1034. 

Coger (Cogar), Peter, 844, 1034. 

Digitized by 


1 164 


Cohongoruton river, 111. 
Cohoe, see Cahokia. 

Colbert, , 674. 

Cole, Christopher, 859, 1116. 

Collins, John, 270. 

Collins, Lewis, Historical Sketches of 

Kentucky, m, 67, 78. 80, 81, 147, 151, 

694, 751, 752, 755, 916, 945, 953, 959, 

Compera, Francis, 1062. 
Compera, Lewis, 1062. 
Conley, Thomas, 1061. 
Conn, John, 1062. 
Connelly, ('olonel, 716. 
Connelly, Doctor, 1031. 
Connolly, Thomas, 586. 
Conore, Andrew, 843. 
Conroy, Patrick, 1062. 
Consler, Herman, 1048. 
Consule, Harm an. 843. 
Continental money, depreciation of, 

369, 400, 554, 687, 710, 712, 736, 737, 

744, 748, 934. 
Contraw, Francis, 1062. 
Convance, Paul, 1062. 
Cooks, 582. 
Cooi)er, Joseph, 1062. 
Cooper, Ramsey, 1062. 
Coontz, Christopher, 1062. 
Cooprider, Henry, 744. 
Copland, Cornehus, 843. 
Corder, James, 1062. 
Cordew, James, 1062. 
Corn, Ebenezer, 579. 
Corn island, 131, 133, 150, 151, 152, 153, 

157, 471, 663, 754. 
Corneilla, Patrick, 1062. 
Comia, Pierre, 1047. 
Corns, John, 1062. 
Corvdon, 942. 
Cosby, Eliza Lydnor, 964. 
Cosby, Fortunatus, 964. 
Coste, J. B. De, 1062. 
Cot Plains, 569. 
Coues, E., History of Lewis and 

Clark Expedition*, 982, 1012. 
Coulson, Captain, 747. 
Conltersville, 288, 289. 
Coupraiter, Henry, 744. 
Cournoyer, Pierre, 740. 
Cowan, Andrew, 1062. 
('owan, Jared, 959. 
Cowan, John, 580, 843. 
Cowan, Mason, 1062. 
Cowdry, John, 10(52. 
Co wen, Dennis, 1062. 
Cowgill, Daniel, 1062. 
Cowgill, John, 1118. 
Cox, E. T., 971, 972. 

Cox, James, 1062. 

Cox, Richard, 844. 

Cox, Sandford C, 987 note.. 

Coxe, Henrv S., 1124. 

Cozer, Jacob, 844. 

Cozer, Peter, 844. 

Crab Orchard, 953, 956. 

Craig, , 721. 

Craig, John J., 809, 814. 

Crane, John St., 1062. 

Cravens, Robert, 942. 

Crawley, John, 1063. 

Craze, Noah, 844. 

Creacraft, Lieutenant, 723. 

Creacroft, Major, 726. 

Crely's Ferry, 288. 

Cresap, Captain Michael, 62, 64, 1029. 

Crittenden, John, 893, 1060. 

Crockett, Anthony, 1060. 

Crockett, Joseph, 688, 711, 716, 721, 

731, 1066. 
Crockett, Lieutenant, 374. 
Croghan, Angelick, 1004, note. 
Croghan, Ann, 1004, 1125, 1132. 
Croghan, Charles, 1004, 1125. 
Croghan, Edmund, 1004. 
Croghan, Eliza, 1004, 1125. 
Croghan, George, 1003. 
Croghan, George, Jr., 1004, 1005, 1125. 
Croghan, John, 894, 895, 1004, 1125. 
Croghan, Lucy Clark, 11, 37, 882, 887, 

899, 1002, 1124,1149. 
Croghan, Nicholas, 1004. 
Croghan, Serina E., 1004, note. 
Croghan, Major William, 48, 49, 731, 

82t), 832, 856, 879, 882, 891, 893, 894, 

1003, 1080, 1118, 1119, 1124, 1149. 
Croghan, William, Jr., 1004, 1125. 
Crosley, William, 844. 
Crump, William, 841, 1117. 
Crutcher, Henrv, 1061. 
Cumberland, 580, 673. 
Cumberland Ford, 582. 
Cumberland Gap, 72, 459, 959. 
Cumberland river, 894, 959. 
Cure, Jean Baptist, 1063. 
Curney, John, 1066. 
Curry, James, 844, 937. 
Curtis, Rice, 844. 
Cuyahoga, 542. 

Dagenet, ■ 

-, 740. 

Dafley, David W., 859, 1116. 

Dain, John, 365 note. 

Daine, Jean, 586 

Dalton, Lieutenant, 373. 690. 

Dalton, Valentine Thomas, 810, 814. 

840, 1118. 
Damewood, Boston, 1048, 1063. 

Digitized by 



1 165 

Daniel, John W., 915. 

Daniel, Robert, 147. 

Daniel, Senator, 10. 

Daniel, Walker, 800, a59, 1068. 

Danville, 151, 801, 816, 856, 1008. 

Dardv, Baptinte, 1063. 

Dardy, John, 1063. 

Darine, Henry, 10<>6. 

Darnell, Cornelius, 1063. 

Daunois, I. B., 586. 

Davies, Asael, 844. 

Davies, Colonel, 757. 

Davies, J., 1119. 

Davies, Walter, 1118, 1119. 

Davis, James, 840. 

Davis, Joseph, 1063. 

Davis, Robert, 844. 

Davis, W., 1118. 

Davis, William, 731. 

Dawson, , Life of William Hen- 
ry Harrison, 791 . 

Dawson, James, 844, 1118. 

Day, William, 1063. 

Dean, Charles, 1056. 

Dean, James, 1063. 

Decker, Jacob, 1061. 

Decrand, P., 1063. 

De Galvez, Bernardo, 241. 

Dejean, Philip, 3.54, a=>5, 444, 576, 586, 
(M)7, 618, 620, 622, 624, 631, 636, 637, 
641, 1057. 

De Kalb, Baron, 642, 654. 

Delaware Indians, 61, 246, 367, 448, 
550, 554. 610, 791. 

De Leyba, Francisco, 426. 

Deline, L. E., 740, 743. 

Demoushelle, Louis, 586. 

Denerchelle, Lewis, 1063. 

Denny, , 512. 

Denny, Major, 176, 177. 

Denoi, ,503. 

Denton, Thomas, 1061. 

De Peyster, Captain, 225, 355 note. 

Detering, Jacob, 10(is. 

Detroit, most important British post 
in Northwest country, 82; hope of 
Clark to capture, 127; capture of in- 
stnictions from governors at, 172, 
175; presents sent Indians from 
British at, 206, 427 ; French at did 
not sympathize with Americans, 
210; news of capture of Kaskaskia 
at, 224 ; British exhort Indians at, 
225; spies sent toward by Clark, 
230; condition of garrison. 246; ne- 
cessity for expulsion of British from, 
250, 256; Indian aid against, 258; 
possibility of campaign against, 259, 

444; reports of attack on, 2(>0; trail 
from Kaskaskia to, 288; Indian par- 
tisans from in Fort Sackville, 341 ; 
stores from captured by Clark, 354; 
impulse of Clark to march against, 
358, 361, 444, 448; campaign against 
proposed, 362; enterprise deferred, 
3(>3; prisoners sent home to, 365; 
444, 543; preparations for expedi- 
tion against, 369, 544; plan aban- 
doned, 370, 450; opportunities to 
capture lost, 371, 399; hope of Clark 
to capture, 399; necessity for driv- 
ing British from, 400; Clark's hope 
of influencing French at, 428; in- 
fluence of British at, 655 ; apprehen- 
sion of raid from, 688; march of La 
Balme against,695 ; campaign against 
reconsidered, 697, 699; plan for ex- 
pedition against approved by Gov- 
ernor Jefferson, 703; Washington's 
oninion of it, 704 ; Washington un- 
able to undertake reduction of, 707, 
708; number of men deemed neces- 
sary for and difficulty of raising 
them, 710; delays and vexations, 
712; prospect for success, 714, 716, 
721; expedition marched, 718; cam- 
paign against Detroit abandoned, 
721 ; British knowledge of expedi- 
tion, 724; Lieut. Anderson taken to, 
727 ; campaign against hopeless, 730; 
C'lark's plan needs no defense, 731 ; 
fear of attack, 747. 

Detroit French Fur Company, 318. 

Detroit river, 227. 

Devernai, Father, 187. 

Devins; Belser, 3a5 note, 585. 

Dewit, Henry, 300 note, 841, 1118. 

Dickson, I^wis, 1119. 

Digges, Dudlev, 92. 

Dillard, Captain, 128, 139, 140, 414, 471, 

Dillon, John B., History of Indiana, 
132, 455, 783, 814, 912. 

Dixon, Josiah, 79, 579. 

Dodge, , 1067. 

Dodge, Captain, 284, 689. 

Dodge, Israel, 736. 

Dodge, John, 621, 687, 736. 

Dodge, J. R., Red Men of the Ohio 
Vallev, 64. 

Dodge Plains, 373. 

Dohertv, Edward, 1063. 

Dohertv, Frederick, 844, 1063. 

Doherty, John, 1063. 

Doherty, Neal, 844. 

Dolphin, Peter, 1063. 

Digitized by 





Dolphin, Pierre, 586. 

Donne, John, 14o, 150, 151, rote 1051, 

Donne, John, Jr., 151 note. 
Donne, Martha, 151 note. 
Donovan, John, 1063. 
Donow, Joseph, 1063. 
Doran, Patrick, 844, 1035. 
Doud, Roger, 10<i3. 
Dougherty, Neal, 145, 151 note, 164. 
Douglass, James, 960. 
Douthitt, John, 1116. 
Doyal, John, 964. 
Doval, Samuel H., 965. 
Dovle, John, 964, 1063. 
Drake, J., 946. 
Draper Collection of Manu8cript8,Wis- 

consin Historical Society, 338, 445, 

Draper, Lyman C, 100, 456, 874, 916. 
Drinckwater, William, 365 note, 585. 
Druiechelle, Lewis, 1063. 
Drumgold, James, 1061. 
Dubord, I. B., 586. 
Dubuysson, Colonel, 642, 654. 
Duckworth, James, 365 note, 585. 
Dudley, Amistead, 844, 1047. 
Duff, John, 165, 474, 844, 1118. 
Duiaunay, Father, 185. 
Dulhoneau, Pierre, 1063. 
Duncan, Archibald, 1063. 
Duncan, Benjamin, 1063. 
Duncan, Charles, 1063. 
Duncan, David, 1063. 
Duncan, Joseph, 1063. 
Duncan, Nimrod, 1063. 
Duncan, Samuel, 1063. 
Dunn, Jacob P., Indiana: A Redemp- 
tion from Slavery, 918, 1059. 
Dunmore, Lord, 217, 991, 9i)2. 
Dunmore's War, 64, 123, 138, 179,991. 
Duplasi, Captain, 695. 
Durrett, James, 1063. 
Durrett, Reuben T., 12, 134, 136, 144, 

151, 159, 455, 897, 925, 927, 934. 
Durrett, Reuben T., Centenary of 

Louisville, 144, 151, 664, 666, 756, 

910, 937. 
Durrett, William, 1063. 
Durst, Daniel, 1061. 
Dusablong, B., 1063. 
Duselle, Mons., 1063. 
Dust, Samuel, 1034, 1035. 

Early Chicago and Illinois, 694, 736, 

Eastin, Philip, 962 note. 
Eastis, James, 1063. 
Edwards, John, 856, 1075. 

Edwards, Ninian W., 951. 

Edwardsville, 951. 

Eighteen-mile island, 828. 


Elligood, Lieutenant-Colonel, 664. 

Elliott, , 580. 

Elliott, James, 79. 

Ellis, AbnerT., 270. 

Elms, James, 844. 

Elms, John, 844. 

Elms, William, 841, 1118. 

Embarrass river, 276, 296, 297, 312, 

313, 438, 523, 569, 570. 
English, Robert, 1063. 
Espy, Josiah, 866. 
Estill, Captain, 757. 
Estiirs Station, 757. 
Evans, Captain, 373, 374. 
Evans, Charles, 844. 
Evans, Jesse, 1060. 
Evans, Stanhope, 1063. 
Ewing, George W., 270. 

Fache, Lewis, 1063. 

Fairfax, Lord, 112, 963. 

Faith, Elizabeth, 151 note. 

Faith, John, 151 note. 

Faith, William, 145, 150, 151 note. 

Fallen Timbers, battle of, 966. 

Falls of the Ohio, intention of Clark 
to establish fort at, 129; chosen as 
camping ground, 132, 414; fort built 
at, 143, 415, 558, bCA ; first author- 
ized pilot of, 146; great change in, 
159 ; passage of by Clark, 163 ; scouts 
sent toward by British, 231; troops 
ordered to be stationed at, 258 ; post 
at, 260; Indians returning from raid 
at killed, 343; point to l^ guarded, 
372; messenger killed at, 382,403; 
land at given Clark by Indians, 451 ; 
necessity for fort at, 470; increase, 
of settlement, 509; Clark's march 
to, 553 ; prisoners taken to, 608 ; ar- 
rival at, 610; geographical advan- 
tages of, 664; council of war held 
at, 698; condition of garrison, 749, 
753 ; Fort Nelson built at, 754 ; ren- 
dezvous at, 758 ; departure of expe- 
dition, 802; currency at, 929. 

Farers, John, 1063. 

Fans, Isaac, 844. 

Farrar, Anne C, 1124. 

Farrar, Bernard, 1124. 

Fear, Edmund, 844. 

Ferguson, Benjamin, 859, 1116. 

Ferguson, Dr., 869. 

Ferguson, Pickney C, 366. 

Fergus's Historical Series, 199. 

Digitized by 



1 167 

Fever, William, 1061. 
Field. Daniel, 10(>3. 
Field, Lewis, 1063. 
Fields, Benjamin, 1060. 
Fields, John, 692. 
Fincastle, 1018. 
Finley, Samuel, 844. 
Finn, James, 844. 
Fi^h creek, 62, 64. 
Fisher, Isaac, 1051. 
Fishing creek, 123, 260, 726. 
Fisk, John, American Revolution, 912. 
Fitzhugh, Clark, 1010, 1124. 
Fitzhugh, D., 1002. 
Fitzhngh, Davis, 894. 
Fitzhugh, Dennis, 1010, 1124. 
Fitzhugh, Frances, see Frances Elea- 
nor Clark. 
Fitzhugh, Lucy, 1010, 1124. 
Flanaghan, Dominick, 844. 
Fleming, Colonel, 1085. 
Fleming. William, 1118. 

Filming, , 226. 

Flin, Peter, 579. 

Flogget, William, 844. 

Florida, 402, 698, mx 

Floyd, Charles, 751. 

Flovd, George Rogers Clark, 869. 

Floyd, Henry, 840. 

Floyd, Isham, 844, 1118. 

Flovd, Colonel John, 681, 748, 750, 751, 

758, 869. 
Flovd Station, 752. 
Foche, Lewis, 1063. 
Fontainebleau, 959. 
Forbes campaign, 123. 
Fort Bowman, 197. 
Fort Chartres, 186, 198, 199, 245, 756. 
Fort Clark, 197, 373, 576. 
Fort Dearborn, 144, note. 
Fort Finney, 863. 
Fort Gage, 940. 
Fort Greenville, 1012. 
Fort Henry, 722. 
Fort Jefferson, 317, 372, 667, 673, 676, 

(i87, 688, 694, 701, 780. 
Fort Knox, 377. 
Fort Laurens, 932. 
Fort Mcintosh, 791. 
Fort Massac (-Massacre), 164, 166, 167, 

415, 474, 475. 
Fort Nelson, 754, 755, 756, 781, 936, 

Fort Niagara, 727. 
Fort Patrick Uenry, 109, 111, 349, 372, 

Fort Pitt, 60, 61, 62, aS, 67, 96, 230, 395, 

4()3, 4()9, 512, 580, 6^), 705, 709, 712, 

716, 717, 732. 

Fort Sackville, name changed to Fort 
Patrick Henry, 111, 343; Captain 
Bowman wounded at, 214 ; siege of 
conducted without Indian aid, 223; 
news of capture by British slow to 
reach Clark, 230; messengers from 
captured by British, 231 ; surrender 
of to Hamilton, 234; Hamilton re- 
mained at, 240 ; Clark's attack wholly 
unexpected, 306; the attack, 316; 
when built, 318; why named, 319; 
description of, 319 ; strengthened by 
Hamilton, 320; location, 320; dia- 
gram of position, 323; Hamilton or- 
dered to surrender, 335 ; refusal, 336 ; 
propKJsition of Hamilton, 337; re- 
fusal, 338; conference of Clark and 
Hamilton, 339; killing of Indians 
before gate, 342 ; effect upon garri- 
son, 347; capitulation, 347 ; evacua- 
tion, 349; dates of events in siege, 
353 ; disposition of prisoners taken 
at, 364; Lieutenant Brashears ap- 
pointed to command, 367; fatal in- 
jury to Major Bowman at siege of, 
374; Major Bowman may have been 
buried at, 376; location of, 377. 

Fort Stephenson, 1005, 1006. 

Fort Steuben, 863. 

Fort Washington, 791, 1012. 

Fort Wayne, 144 note, 694. See Aux 

Foster, Henry, 10(i3. 

Foster, William, 844. 

Fountain Blue, 959. 

Fourteen-mile creek, 178, 971, 984. 

Fox Indians, 400, 422. 

Fox river, 296, 569. 

Frankfort, 67, 949. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 762. 

Fraser, John, 58.5, 608. 

Frazier, Abraham, 10()1. 

Frederic Town, 652, 711. 

Freeman, Captain, 612. 

Freeman, Peter, 1063. 

Freeman, William, 844. 

Fremont, 1006. 

French, Henr}% 1055. 

French Lick, 673. 

Froggat, William, 1118. 

Froman, Paul, 111, 112, 116. 

Frost, Stephen, 844. 

Fry, John, 37. 

Fuller, Esther, 953, 958. 

Funk, Henry, 844, 1034. 

Gaffee, I. B., 685. 

Gaffes, , 365 note. 

Gage, General, 184. 

Digitized by 




Gagnia, Jacque, 1063. 

Gagnia, Lewis (Louis), 846, 1118. 

Ga^nier, Jacques, 586. 

Gains, John, 1063. 

Gains, William, 1063. 

Gallagan, Owen, 1063. 

Gallagher, Owen, 585. 

Galloway, J., 145. 

Gauielin, Antoine, 1042,1055. 

Gamelin, Paul, 586. 

Gamelin, Pierre, 739, 743. 

Gamilan, , 372. 

Gardner, Andrew, 269. 

Gardner, Dexter, 269. 

Gardner, J., 863. 

Garfield, James A., 914. 

Garner, William, 1063. 

Garrett, John, 1061. 

Garrison, James, 1067. 

Garrot, Robert, 844. 

Garuldon, Baptist, 1063. 

Gaskins, Thomas, 845. 

Gaso river, 815. 

Gassnia, Lewis, 845. 

Gates, General, ()54. 

Gatewood, Elizabeth, 982. 

Gauchdon, Baptist, 1063. 

Gaunia, Abraham, 1063. 

Gavlor, Gasper, 845. 

Geddes, David, 1058. 

George, John, 1063. 

George, Robert, 3r>6, 367, 372, 399, 448, 
549, 550, 576, 688, 6t)0, 691, 698, 840. 

George, Reuben, 35. 

Georgetown, 80, 947. 

Gerault, Lieutenant John, 373, 840, 

Germain, J. B., 1063. 

Germain, Lord George, 217, 218, 225, 

Germantown, 941. 

Gerrard, Eli, 83, 581. 

Gibault, Father Piere (Peter), great 
aid to Clark, 183; biographical 
sketch, 184; waited upon Clark, 191, 
418, 479; influence of, 199; appreci- 
ated by Clark, 200; went to Vin- 
cennes to secure allegiance of in- 
habitants to American cause, 201, 
487 ; sent to Spanish side of Missis- 
sippi, 213; British learn of his mis- 
sion to Vincennes, 224; blessed 
Clark's troops, 226, 287, 437, 520; 
vilified by Hamilton, 241 ; praised 
by Patrick Henry, 256; further aid 
to Clark, 267 ; respect of people for, 
267 ; expenses to Vincennes, 1046. 

Gibbons, Samuel, 1063. 

Gibson, General, 703. 

Gibson, Colonel John, 709, 710, 712, 
713, 714, 715, 716, 718, 932, 998. 

Gibson, John, 1051, 1052, 1056. 

Gilbert, John, 1047. 

Gilmore, George, 845. 

Girault, John, 1054. 

Girty, Simon, 682, 757. 

Gist, John, 1063. 

Gist, Thomas, 960. 

Gist's creek, 960. 

Givine, Belser, 585, 608. 

Glass, Michael, 845, 1118. 

Glenn, , 580. 

Glenn, David, 79, 845. 

Godfrey, Francis, 845. 

Godin, Pierre, 1054., 

Gognia, Pierre, 1063. 

Goliher, Owen, 365, note. 

Gomier, Abraham, 1063. 

Gooch, William, 116, 119. 

Goodloe, Henry, 1061. 

Goodman, Daniel, 580. 

Good speed, , History of Knox 

County, Indiana, 318. 

Goodwin, Amos, 1063. 

Goodwin, Edward, 1063. 

Goodwin, William, 845, 1118. 

Goosh, Samuel M., 942. 

Gordon, John, 1063. 

Goudav, James, 1035. 

Graden, William, 79, 579. 

Graham, C. C, 150. 

Graham, James, 145, 150, 151 note, 
1047, 1063. 

Graham, Mary, 151, note. 

Grand Door of the Wabash, see To- 
bacco's Son. 

Grand Kite, 261. 

Grand River, 450. 

Grant, Captain, 226. 

Grassv Flats, 972. 

Gratiol, Jean, 1063. 

Gratiott, Jean, 1063. 

Grave creek, 60, 61, 123, 725. 

Graves, Thomas, 36, note, 54. 

Gray, George, 845, 985. 

Gravson, AmlDrose, 581. 

Grayson, Frederick W. S., 891. 

Gray ton. Captain, 657. 

(ireat Blackbird, 246. 

Greathouse, , 1029, 1033. 

Greathouse, William, 845. 

Great Salt Lick creek, 260. 

Green, James, 1063. 

Green, John, 845. 

Greene, Robert, 1060. 

Green, Samuel Ball, 1066. 

Green, Thomas, 815. 

Greenbrier, 470, 564. 

Digitized by 



I 169 

Greene, General, 34. 

Green river, 150, 680. 

Greenwood, Daniel, 1063. 

Greer, Charles, 10(>6. 

Grimes, John, 845, 1118. 

Grimshaw, John, 585. 

Grim8hire, John, 1063. 
, Grolet, Francis, Sr.. 1063. 
; Grolet, Francis, Jr., 1063. 

k Groots, , 1067. 

L Grover, Sarah T., 941. 
,' Guerin, Pierre, 740. 
■\ Guess, John, 1063. 
\ Guihoga, 542. 

Guion, S. Frederick, 1063. 
' Guthrie, Jamen, 978. 
' Guthrie, William, 845. 

Gwathmey, , 583. 

Gwathmey, Ann, see Ann Clark. 

Gwathmey, Ann, 997. 

Gwathmey, Balor H., 998. 

Gwathmey, Elizabeth, 1(H)<), 1123. 

Gwathmey, George C, 895, 1123. 

Gwathmey, Inaac R., 1009. 

Gwathmey, John, 983, 997, 998. 

Gwathmey, Marie, 9^>8. 

Gwathmey, Mary, Eliza, 9i)8. 

Gwathmey, Owen, 47, 894, 997, 1148. 

Gwathmey, Rel)ecca, 998. 

Gwathmey, Samuel, 51, 892, 997. 

Gwathmey, William, 998. 

Gwin, William, 845. 

Hacker, John, 845. 

Haggin, , 580. 

Hain, William, 1061. 

Haldimand, (general, 220, 227, 236, 355, 
mk), 677, 679. 

Halford, Elijah W., 770. 

Hall, William, 10(>3. 

Hamburg, 1122. 

Hamilton, Alexander, 61$, 652. 

Hamilton, Henry, spy of in Cahokia, 
210,429; at Vincennes, 211 ; obnox- 
ious to Americans, 215; first pro- 
posed instigation of Indian rai<ls, 
216; suggestion adopted, 217; man- 
agement of frontier war given to, 
218; cause of animosity of Ameri- 
cans toward, 220; letter of Gen. 
Haldimand to, 221 ; Lieut.-Gov. Ab- 
bott advised against Indian policy 
of, 223; learned of Clark's capture 
of Illinois towns, 224; prepared to 
recapture them, 225; departure of 
expedition, 226; progress, 227; ap- 
proach to Vincennes, 231 ; surrcnrler 
of Fort Sackville, 234, 429; praise of 
Indians, 235; inhabitants required 

to take oath, 239 ; fort repaired, 240; 
Father Gibault reviled, 242; infor- 
mation of capture reached Clark, 
261,277; Clark resolved to attack, 
262; expedition marched, 287,520, 
568; in sight of Fort Sackville, 307, 
437, 527, 571; attack ordered, 316, 
439, 531, 572; description of fort, 
319 ; diagram of, 323 ; plan of attack, 
324 ; progress of siege, 327, 532 ; de- 
mand to surrender, 335, 387, 441 , 536, 
573; refused, 336, 387, 441, 536, 573; 
proposition of Hamilton, 337, 441, 
539, 573 ; declined, 338, 387, 389, 537, 
574 ; condition of garrison, 339 ; con- 
ference of Hamilton and Clark, 339, 
389, 537, 514; killing of Indians be- 
fore fort, 342, 388, 442, 574 ; capitula- 
tion, 347, 391, 444, 540, 574; evacua- 
tion, 349, 575 ; Hamilton sent as pris- 
oner to Va., 445, 364, 398, 546, 576; 
mortification of, 605 ; intercession of 
in behalf of prisoners, 606; account 
of journey to Va., (KM); treatment 
harsher, 612; hand-cuffe<l. 615; ar- 
rival at Williamsburg, 618; condi- 
tion of prison, 619; directions of 
executive council regarding, 620; 
sensation caused by, 624; the first 
instance of American retaliation, 
627 ; treatment deserved, 628 ; a pris- 
oner of war, 631 ; question of treat- 
ment submitted to Gen. Washington, 
633; his answer, 634; severity re- 
laxed, 636; letters of Jefferson re- 
garding, 637, 638, 639: instructions of 
Virginia council regarding prisoners, 
640; approval of Washington, ()41 ; 
efforts for exchange, 642; proposi- 
tion of exchange for Col. Mathews, 
644, 647 ; great suffering, 650 ; signed 
parole, 651 ; the parole, (552; change 
of opinion by Jefferson, 653 ; permis- 
sion to Hamilton to go to N. 1 ., iMio ; 
approval of Washington, 656; jour- 
ney to N. Y., 657; exchanged and 
sailed for England, 658; subsequent 
career, 660; ancestry, 661. 

Ham met, James, 845. 

Hampton, (r)6, 657. 

Hancock, Eliza, see Eliza Clark. 

Hancock, George, 1004, 1125. 

Hancock, Julia, 1018. 

Hand, General, 97, 128, 413, 469. 

Hannastown, 722. 

Hanover, 461. 

Hanover Court-House, 637. 

Hanson, J. R., 1048. 

Hardin, Francis, 845. 

Digitized by 


1 170 


Hardin, John, 1011. 

Harding:, Major, 757. 

Harei8, John, 1049. 

Harlan (Harland), Major Silas, 79,83, 
581, 690, 691, 692, 693, 758, 845, 1050. 

Harlan's Station, 693. 

Harman, V., 946. 

Harmer, General, 966. 

Harper's Ferry, 111. 

Harris, James, 845. 

Harris, John Maline, 845. 

Harris, Samuel, Sr., 845. 

Harris, Samuel, Jr., 845. 

Harrison, Benjamin, president, 770. 

Harrison, Benjamin, governor of Vir- 
ginia, 731, 783. 

Harrison, Burr, 580. 

Harrison, Colonel, 384, 721, 722. 

Harrison, James, 585, 1061. 

Harrison, Captain Richard, 373, 698, 
840, 935. 

Harrison, Nathaniel, 92. 

Harrison, William, 1051. 

Harrison, William Henry, 666, 978, 

Harro<i, , 580. 

Harrod, James, 79, 85, 122, 457. 581, 

Harrod (Herod), William, 64, 83, 122, 
124, 139, 153, 163, 469, 473, 608, 681, 

Harrodsburg, 80, 82, 139, 472, 579,582, 
583, 076, 677, 684, 693, 800, 801. See 

Harrod 's creek, 9(>1. 

Harrod's Station, 945. 

Harrodstown, 68, 70, 72, 78, 79, 82, 83, 
84, 85, 122, 139, 151, 457, 458,464, 
4()5, 467, 473, 945, 959. See Harrods- 

Hart, Miles, 1063. 

Haswell, John II., 771. 

Hatten, Christopher, 845. 

Haut, Henry, 1061. 

Hawkins, Joseph H., 878. 

Hawkins, Samuel, 1061. 

Hawlev, Richard, 1063. 

Hav, Andrew P., 860, 1115. 

Hay, Ann, 860. 

Hav, Major John, 226, 231, 340, 342, 
347, 576, 5a5, 607, 619, 637, 641, 651, 
6.52, 653,656, 1057,1058. 

Havs, James, 1063. 

IlaVs, Thomas, 845, 1118. 

Hazard, John, 1061. 

IIazlePat<!h, 581. 

Head, James, 1063. 

Heath, General. 613 

Helm, Achilles, 107. 

Helm, John Larue, 108. 

Helm, Leonard, 64, 65, 79, 83, 106, 107, 
108, 122, 124, 127, 139, 163, 203, 204, 
205, 231, 232, 233, 234. 246, 276, 325, 
340, 341, 354, 366, 368, 372, 387, 420, 
427, 444, 4<39, 473, 537, 544, 546, 547, 
550, 576, 577, 738, 840, 933. 

Helm, Mary, 107. 

Helm, Sarah, 107. 

Helm. William, 1049. 

Helvinstone, Major, 68. 

Henderson, Colonel, 67, 77, 463. 

Henderson & Co., 70, 457. 

Hendricks, William, 941. 

Hendrix, Andrew, 10(>3. 

Hening's Statutes, 746, 826, 933, 1039. 

Henly, Thomas J., 978. 

Henry, Captain, 575. 

Henry, David, 234,845. 

Henry, Hugh, 234, 845. 

Henry, Isaac, 234, 845. 

Henrv, John, 234, 845. 

Henrv, Moses, 234, 325, 367, 531, 550, 
577; 740, 1046, 1049. 

Henry, Patrick, alive to Virginia's 
needs, 73; plan for Illinois cam- 
paign presented to by Clark, 88, 461 ; 
advised with others upon it, 89; 
Geo. Mason's estimate of, 90 note; 
instructions given Clark, 93, 96 ; con- 
sidered treatment of Rochblave's 
family harsh, 175; letter of Clark to, 
230; letter of to Virginia delegates 
in congress, 245; letter of instruc- 
tions to John Todd, 249; letter of 
Clark to, 262 ; Clark probably sent 
copy of report to, 394 ; letter of Bow- 
man to, 403 ; letter to Richard Henry 
Lee, 611 ; plan for fort at mouth of 
Ohio, 666; letter of Clark to, 796. 

Henry, William Wirt, Life of Patrick 
Henry, 55.*395, 409, 612, 702, 800. 


Herculaneum, 1122. 

Hesse, , 679. 

Heth, , 713. 

Heth, Andrew, 857 note, 1082. 

Heywood, Berry, 1063. 

Heyworth, Berry, 1063. 

Hibernia, 1122. 

Hickman, Edwin, 36 note. 

Hicks, David, 1061. 

Hicks, Mordica, 1063. 

Hico, Peter, Sr., 1063. 

Hico, Peter, Jr., 1063. 

Higgins, , 62. 

Higgins, Barney, 845. 

Higgins, Henry, 79. 

Higgins, John, 581. 

Digitized by 




Higgins, Peter, 960. 

Hip^ins, Thomas, 940. 

Hildebrand, James, 1063. 

Hill, Hardy, 1051. 

Hinkston, 960. 

H inks ton's cabin, 464. 

Hinsdale, Burke A., 918. 

Hinsdale, Burke A., Old Northwest, 


Hinton, , 986. 

Hinton, Evan, 1055. 

Historical Magazine, 912. 

History of the Falls Cities, 133, 149. 

Hite, , 580. 

Hite, Abraham, 960, 994. 

Hite, Eleanor Brit?coe, 984. 

Hite, George, 1063. 

Hite, I., 946. 

Hite, Isaac, 65, 79, 946, 961, 962, 994. 

Hite, Isaac, Jr., 994. 

Hite, Major Isaac, 112 note. 

Hite, Jacob, 112 note. 

Hite, John. 115,563,962. 

Hite, Jost (Joist), 111, 112, 115,116, 

962 note, 984, 994. 
Hite, Rebecca, 997. 
Hite. Sarah, 112 note, 900, 994, 1142. 
Hoagland, Richard, 987. 
Hoar, George F., 915. 
Hobbs, James, 106^^. 
Hoglan, Henrv, 1051. 
Holder, John,'814. 
Holdman. Henrv, 1055. 
Holker, John. 1117, 1118, 1119. 
Hollenback, Daniel, 960 
Holler, Francis, \OiiS. 
Hollis, Joshua. 10(>4. 
Hohnan, George, 9S(), 987, 988. 
Holman, Josenh, 988. 
Holman, Washington, 988. 
Holman, William J., 988. 
Holms, James, 845. 
Holston river, 106, 127. 138, 139, 413, 

Honaker, Frederick, 1034. 
Honaker, Ilenrv, 846, 1034. 
Honaker, Peter; 846. 
Hooper, Thomas, 846, 1118. 
Hoops, Adam, 1118, 1119. 
Hope, Lieutenant-Governor, 660. 
Hopkins, Richard, 10<)1. 
Hopkins, Samuel, 803, 1008. 
Horn, Christopher, 1064. 
Horn, Jeremiah, 10()4. 
Horn (Home), John, 58.5, 608. 
Horse-Head Bottom, 1030. 
Horseshoe Plain, 302, 571. 
Horton, Aaron, 10*>4. 
Horton, Adin, 1064. 

Houndsler, Charles, 1064. 

House, Andrew, 846. 

Howell, Peter, 1064. 

Howell, William, 1064. 

Hudson, William, 580. 

Huffman, Jacob, 1064. 

Hughes, John, 846. 

Hughs, John, 50, 51. 

Humphris, Samuel, 846. 
I Hunter, Ann, 151 note. 
' Hunter, David, 151 note. 
• Hunter, James, 151 note. 

Hunter, Joseph, 145, 150, 151 note. 

Hunter, Joseph, Jr., 151 note. 
I Hunter, Major, 711. 

Hunter, Martha, 151 note. 
I Hupp, Phillip, 1061. 
I Huron Indians, 403. 
j Huste, Ligey, 1034. 

Hutchings, Lieutenant, 140, 141, 414. 

Hutchins, Stephen, 859, 1115. 

Illinois, county of, formation of and 
appointment of officers, 248; John 
Todd appointed county lieuten"ant, 
249; letter of instructions to, 249; 
Clark's description of county, 453 ; 
invasion of by British, 679; trouble 
in, 687 ; conflict of civil and military 
authorities, 735; depreciation of 
currency, etc., 737, 745; land trou- 
bles, 740 ; act organizing, 1037. 

Illinois Grant, see Clark's Grant. 

Illinois Indians, 400. 

Impress, Right to, in compaign of 1786, 
I 1059. 
I India Company, 198. 

Inglis, Captain, 657. 

Ingram, Jonathan, 79. 

Innes, Judge, 801, 817. 

Innis, Harrv, 1059. 

Iowa (loway) Indians, 400, 609, 679. 

Irby, David, 1064. 

Irby, James, 841. 

Iron Banks, 673. 
I Irvine, General, 730. 
I Isaacs, John, 846. 

Island Number One, 674. 

' Jackman, J., 946. 
Jackson, Burwell, 828, 1117. 
James, Abraham, 846, 1034. 
James river, 611, 703. 
Jameson, David, 92. 
Jamieson, Thomas, 1061. 
Jannay, Peter, 963. 
January, James, 846, 985. 
Jacques, Harriet, iH>4. 
Jarrald, James, 846. 

Digitized by 






Jarrot, Nicholas, 1067. 

Jay, John, 762. 

Jefferson, Peter, 54, 55. 

Jefferson, Thomas, birth place, 54; 
friend of George Rogers Clark, 56 ; 
letter of to Clark, 57 ; consulted re- 
garding Clark's plan for Illinois 
campaign, 89; estimate of George 
Wythe, 90 ; letter of to Clark regard- 
ing land grants to soldiers, 99, 102 ; 
letter of, 160; opinion concerning 
instigation of Indian raids, 219; 
Clark probably sent copy of report 
to, 394; aid to prisoners, 613; advo- 
cated retaliation, 615, 620, 624; sub- 
mitted question to Washington, 632 ; 
further correspondence, 637, 638, 
639; approval of Washington, 641; 
letter regarding exchange of Hamil- 
ton, 644; letter to Colonel Mathews, 
647 ; letters to Washington, 653, 655 ; 
permitted Hamilton to go to New 
York, 655; plan for town, 666; es- 
tablished fort at mouth of Ohio, 667 ; 
letter of Colonel Todd to 671 ; fort 
named for, 673 ; letter of John Dodge 
to, 687 ; letters of Clark to, 703, 709; 
letter of to Colonel Smith, 711 ; letters 
to, 716; foresight of, 765; letter of 
to Judge Innes, 817 ; Clark's defense 
of, 1029. 

Jefferson, Thomas, Writings of, 625, 
632, 634. 

Jefferson's Dam, 55. 

Jefferson's Mill, 55. 

Jefferson's Works, 160, .395 note, 409, 
634, 638, 639, 640, 650, 656. 

Jefferson ville, 366, 6()4, 665 note, 863, 
866, 942, 982, 983, 997, 1122. 

Jennin^, Jonathan, 860. 

Jessamine creek, 934. 

Jessup, Anne, see Anne Croghan, 

Jessup, Thomas (S.), 1004, 1125, 1132. 

Jewell, Charles, 1064. 

Jewell, John, 1064. 

Jiants, John, 365 note. 

Johnson, Colonel, 958. 

Johnson, John, 846. 

Johnson, Sir John, 716. 

Johnson, SirWilliam, 1003. 

Johnston, Edward, 846, 1118. 

Johnston, Larkin, 35. 

Johnston, Samuel, 1064. 

Johnston, W^illiam, 1119. 

Jones, Charles, 846. 

Jones, David, 60, 846. 

Jones, Edward, 1064. 

Jones, George W., 809. 

Jones, John, 846. 

Jones, John Gabriel, 71, 76, 78, 79, 

458, 459, 461, 463, 579. 
Jones, J. R., 1117. 
Jones, John Rice, 275, 808, 810, 815. 
Jones, Mathew, 846. 
Jones, Richard, 33. 
Jovnes (Joines), John, 365 note, 585, 

846, 1118. 

Kanawha river, 59, 61, 128, 260, 413, 
470, 558, 563, 723. 

Kaskaskia (Kaskasky, Kaskaskies, 
Kaskaskias), a Britisfi post, 82; 
plans of Clark for expedition against, 
82, 87. 467; plan laid before Gov. 
Henry, 88, 468; plan approved and 
appropriation made, 92, 468; condi- 
tion, 92, 474; instructions to Clark 
regarding, 96, 97; departure of ex- 
pedition, 158,473; capture, 169,476, 
559, 564; brilliant feat, 170; treat- 
ment of Gov. Rochblave, 171, 277, 
477,489; policy toward inhabitants, 
181; confusion at, 181,478; Father 
Gibault settles at, 185; anxiety of 
citizens allayed, 191, 480, 417; dis- 
tance from Prairie du Rocher, 193, 
559, 564 ; name of fort at changed to 
Fort Clark, 197; French settlement 
at, 198 ; population French, 199 ; gar- 
rison, 202, 489; expedition sent from, 
204,418; return of Clark, 209, 426, 
431; departure for Vincennes, 211; 
false report of British approach, 212 ; 
preparations for defense, 213, 431 ; 
arrival of Capt. Bowman, 214, 435; 
news of capture, 224; not attacked 
by British, 240; uneasiness at, 260; 
British attack deferred, 261. 436; 
Vigo's departure, 275; his return, 
277; date of Clark's departure or 
Vincennes campaign, 279, 437; en- 
thusiasm, 280, 283 ; distance to Vin- 
cennes, 288; Jesuit headquarters, 
289; intercommunication with Vin- 
cennes, 289 ; prisoners taken to, 367 ; 
576; arrival, 367; point to be guarded, 
372; distress at, 692; La Balme 
raised troops at, 694, 695. 

Kaskaskia (Kaskia) Indians, 400, 420, 

Kaskaskia river, 197, 280, 288, 289, 
293, 513, 520. 

Kellar, Abraham, 262, 367, 373, 374, 
577, 840, 1034. 

Kellar, Isaac, 841, 1034. 

Kemp, Reuben, 1064. 

Kendall, Benjamin, 846. 

Digitized by 




Kendall, William, 846, 1118. 

Kennedy, , 296, 297, 623, 569, 


Kennedy, David, 1064. 

Kennedy, John, 580. 

Kennedy, Patrick, 367, 550, 577. 

Kennedy, Paul, 1047. 

Kennedy, William, 801. 

Kenton, Simon, 65, 79, 80, 177,681, 
846, 9<)6. 

Kentucky, early movement of settlers 
toward, 65; meeting of settlers, 70; 
delegates 10 the Virginia legislature 
chosen, 70, 458; supply of |)Owder 
obtained for, 75; recognition of as 
part of Virginia, 75; organization 
of as county of Virginia, 77; cause 
of it« rapid settlement, 132, 152,471 ; 
first settlement of, 457; inhabitants 
in 1776, 4(>4; loss in Indian wars, 
4()5; Clark's idea of importance of, 
4<)7; increase of population, 510, 
554, 6(33; British raid into, 680; 
trouble in, 735; in constant alarm, 
748, 7t)9; consultation of militia of- 
ficers of, 754; end of Indian inva- 
sions of, 7(H); early history, 1030. 

Kentucky Historical Society, 456, 567. 

Kentucky Reporter, 889. 

Kentucky river, (>(), ()7, 68, 70, 128, 
129, 260, 470, 558, (>64, 754. 

Keppel, Thomas, 585, 608. 

Kercheval, Samuel, History of the 
Valley of Virginia, 111, 112, 115, 

Kerr, William, 1064. 

Key, George, 846. 

Key, Thomas, 841. 

Kickapoo (Kiccapoo, Kickebue, etc.) 
Indians, 400, 420, 440, 442, 445, 679. 

Kidd, Robert, 1064. 

Killbuck, 1031. 

Kimbley, Isaac, 145; see Kimbly. 

Kimbly, Andrew, 150. 

Kimbly, Isaac, 150, 151 note; see 

Kimbly, Mary, 151 note. 

Kina, Christopher, 1064. 

Kincade, James, ICMH. 

Kincaid, Captain, 582. 

Kincaid, Joseph, ICKK). 

Kindser, Jasper, 582. 

King (ieorge, 10.*V>, 1064. 

King, Nicholas, 10<)4. 

King William Court-House, 651. 

Kinkead, Mrs. B., 683. 

Kinley, Benjamin, 1066. 

Kirk, Thomas, 10()4. 

Kirkley, James, 10(>4. 

Kite, 610. 

La Balme, Augustin M. de, 694. 

La Belle, Charles, 1064. 

La Casse, Jacque, 1064. 

Lacourse, Jacob, 1048. 

Lacroix, J. B., 1045, 1049, 1055. 

Lafaro, Francis, 1064. 

Lafaston, Francis, 1064. 

Lafayette, 204, 427 note. 
, Laflour, Pierre, 1064. 
' Lafont (Lefont), Dr. Jean B., 200, 487. 

Laform, John, 1064. 

Lafour, Pierre, 1064. 

Lafoy, , 365 note. 

Laird, , 580. 

Lajennesse, J. B. Vauchese, 1036. 

Lajes, 223, 506. 

Lamarch, Beauvard, ICKH. 

Lamarch, J. B., 10(>4. 

Lamarch, Lewis, 10(>4. 

Lamb, Martha J., History of the city 
of N. Y., 614. 

Lamothe (Lamotte), Captain William, 
241, 324, 325, 329, 330, 333, 3a'>, 339, 
386, 440, 531, 534, 543, 572, 576, 585, 
607, 615, 620, 623, 624, 631, 636, 637, 
641. 1057, 1058. 

Landers, John, 1041. 

Langlade, Captain, 678. 

Langlois, , 198. 

Lanserainte, , 365 note. 

La Paint, Lewis, 1064. 

La Plante, Baptiste, 270. 

La rose, Francis, 10(>4. 

La Salle, 169. 

Lasant Joseph, 1064. 

Lasley, John, 10(i4. 

Lasselle (Nicholas), 3(>5 note, 585. 

Lasonde, Joseph, 586. 

Laubrau, , 1064. 

Laughlin, Peter, 1064. 

Laurel river, 581. 

LaVenture, J., 10(n. 

Lavigm, Joseph, 1064. 

Laviolette, Baptist, KKU. 

Laviolette, Louis, 1064. 

Law, Edward E., 100. 

Law, Judge John, 10, 100, 270. 

Law, John, History of Vincennes, 183, 
740, 741, 916. 

Lawrenceville, 288, 312. 

I^any, Thomas, 585. 

I^eare, William, 846. 

Leazenby, Abel, 58.5, 608. 

I^Compt, Lovis, 1055. 

Lee, Arthur, 791. 

Lee, Elizabeth, 34. 

Lee, Hancock, 66. 

Digitized by 




Lee, Richard Henry, 611. 

Lee, Zebeniah, 1035. 

Leestown, 66, 67, 68, 81. 

Legare, Major, 575. 

Legrace, see Legras. 

Legrand, Gabrael, 740, 744. 

Legras (Legras, Legrace), Colonel, 
(Major), 826, 333, 3.54, 356, 532, 544, 
546, 575, 739, 740, 741, 743, 744, 799, 
1046, 1048, 1054. 

Lemon, John, 846, 1118. 

Leraoult, Captain, 226. 

Lenay, John, 1064. 

Lenay, Thomas, 1064. 

Leney, Thomas, 1061. 

L'Enfant, Francis, 1064. 

Leroux, I. B., 586. 

Lerrault, J. P., 1054. 

Leslie, General, 656, 657. 

Lewis, Benjamin, 1064. 

Lewis, Colonel, 457, 612. 

Lewis, General, 253. 

Lewis, James, 1064. 

Lewis, Merri wether, 765, 1011. 

Lewis, Virgil A., History of West Vir- 
ginia, 112. 

Lexington, Indiana, 178, 675. | 

Lexington, Kentucky, 684, 949, 951. 

Licking creek, 78, 79, 464, 554, 579, 

Licking river, 681, 682. 

Limestone, 464, 684, 966. 

Limestone creek, 78, 80. 

Lincoln, 753. 

Lincoln, Abraham, 951. 

Lincoln, Mrs. Abraham, 961. 

Lincoln, General, 994. 

Lincoln, Robert Todd, 952. 

Lindsay, Arthur, 846, 985. 

Lines, John, 847. 

Linetot, Godefroy, 740. 

Linitot, Major (Captain), 370, 373, 552, 
553, 554, 691. 

Linn, Asahel, 144, 145. 

Linn, Benjamin, 79, 84, 85, 467, 580. 

Linn, Captain, 579. 

Linn, Lewis F., 145. 

Linn, Lieutenant, 580. 

Linn (Lvnn), William, 143, 146, 203, 
489, 749, 839. 

Linn, William, Jr., 144. 

Linn's Station, 144. 

Liquor, use of in pioneer military 
forces, 236. 

Little Kanawha (Kanhaway) river, 
260, 726, 1030. 

Little river, 894. 

Little Turtle, 144 note, 695. 

Little Wabash, 294, 521, 522. 

Livingstone, George, 846, 1118. 

Livingstone, Miss, 1005. 

Livistone, George, 1034. 

Lochry, Archibald, 722, 725, 729. 

Lochry creek, 725, 729. 

Lochry island, 725. 

Lochry's defeat, 722, 729. 

Lockart, Pleasant, 846. 

Lockett, Pleasant, 846. 

Lockhart, Archibald, 1064. 

Lockhart's Tavern, 582. 

Locust creek, 893. 

Locust Grove, 887, 888, 889, 897, 899, 

909, 1004. 
Logan, Anne C, 1123. 
Logan, Colonel Benjamin, 465, G82, 

756, 758, 759, 801, 816. 
Logan, Hugh, 1064. 
Logan, John, 1124. 
Logan, Indian chief, 1029. 
Logan's Fort, 580,581. 
Logan's Station, 142, 956. 
Long Hunters, 137, 945. 
Long Island, 626, 652, 656, 999. 
Long, Philip, 1035. 
Long Reach, 726. 
Long, William, 1064. 
Longueville, Pierre, 586. 
Lorraine, Ensign, 367, 677. 
Louisville, 107, 132, 133, 144, 146, 147, 

159, 160, 471, 554, 663, 754, 865, 887, 

897, 910, 911, 932, 963, 982. 
Louisville Literary News, 567. 
Lourse, John, 1046, 1047. 

Love, , 582. 

Love, I., 582. 

Lovell, Richard, 846, 1061, 1118. 

Lower Blue Lick creek, 80. 

Lucan's Mills, 647. 

Luckto, Marv Dorsev, 964. 

Luckto, Sauf N.. 964*. 

Lunsford, Anthony, 1064. 

Lunsford, George, 846, 1118. 

Lunsford, Mason, 846. 

Lunsford, Moses, 847. 

Lusado, Abraham, 847. 

Lutterell, Richard, 847. 

Lygert, Daniel, 849. 

Lvnch, H., 946. 

Lynch's Ferry, 611. 

Lyne, John, 1118. 

Lyne, Joseph, 847. 

Lynn, see Linn. 

Lynn, Captain, 97. 

Lyon, Jacob, 1064. 

Lyons, Daniel, 580. 

McAfee, Robert B., History of the 
War of 1812, 1006. 

Digitized by 




McBead. Richard, 365 note. 
McBeath (McBeth), John, 334, 576, 

585, 607, 619, 1057, 1058. 
McBride, Isaac, 847, 1035. 
McCampbell, Samuel, 859, 1116. 
McCarty, R., 1055. 
McCarty, Richard, 262, 278, 284, 297, 

367, 373, 436, 437, 508, 523, 568, 570, 

575, 577, 840, 1043, 1048. 
McClain, Thomas, 1064. 
McClanihan, Robert, 1034. 

McClelland, , 81. 

McClelland (McClellan), John, 81, 

464 579. 
McClellan^s (McClelland'e) Fort, 80, 

81,82, 151,464,579. 
McClellan's Station, 947. 
McClock, Charles, 1035. 

McChire, , 954. 

McClure, Patrick, 1064. 
McComb, Mrs., 544. 
McConnell, Andrew, 79. 
McConnell, Ensign, 580. 
McConnell, Francin, 79. 
McConnell, William, 79. 
McCraw, Christ, 585. 
McCrow, Christ, 608. 
McCumprey, John, 1118. 
McDade, Richard, 585. 
McDaniel, Thomas, 1064. 
McDermet, Francis, 847. 
McDonald, Angus, 64, 123. 
McDonald, David, 847. 
McDonald, James, 1064. 
McDonald, John, 962. 
McDonald, Thomas, 1064. 
McDonough, Stace, 1067. 
McGann, John, 847. 
Mc(5ar (McGarr), John, 847, 1118. 

McGarry, , 580. 

McGarv, Captain, 369, 553. 

McGary, Hugh, 681, 682. 

McGovock, Hugh, 1066. 

McGuire, John, 1064. 

McGumrey, William, 1034. 

Mclntire, Alexander, 847, 1034. 

Mcintosh, 713. 

Mcintosh, General, 371, 390, 429, 611. 

Mcintosh, James, 1064. 

McKee, Archibald B., 270. 

McKee, British Indian Agent, 393. 

McKee, Captain, 727. 

McKee, Francis Vigo, 270. 

McKin, James, 10<)4. 

McKindlar, Patrick, 586. 

McKindley, Patrick, 1057. 

McKinlie (Mackinlie), Patrick, 686, 

McKinney, Daniel, 1051. 

McKinney, John, 1064. 

McKinney 's Station, 956. 

McKivors, John, 586. 

McLaughlin, Father, 379. 

McLeod, Torquil, 34. 

McLockland, Charles, 1064. 

McLung, J., 582. 

McManus, George, 151 note, 847. 

McManus, James, 151 note. 

McManus, John, Sr., 145, 146. 149, 151 
note, 847. 

McManus, John, Jr., 145, 146, 149, 151 
note, 847. 

McManus, Maiy, 151 note. 

McMichael (Michaels, Michel), John, 
365 note, 586, 1064. 

McMickle, John, 1064. 

McMullen (Macmullen), James, 365 
note, 585, 1064. 

McMullen (McMullan), Samuel, 847, 

McMurdo, Captain, 54. 

McMurtrie, , Sketches of Louis- 
ville, 970. 

McNeal, Archibald, 579. 

McNutt, James, 847, 985. 

McQuiddy, Thomas, 1064. 

Macgra, Christ, 608. 

Machiquawish, 678. 

Mackintire, Captain, 366, 576. 

Madison, 941, 942, 943, 951. 

Madison, James, President, 56. 

Madison, James, Colonel, 112 note. 

Mafield, Micajah, 1118. 

Magnian, Francois, 585. 

Maher, Patrick, 585. 

Mahoney, Florence, 847. 

Mahoney, J. H., 904. 

Maid, Ebenezer, 1064. 

Mailone, J. B., 1064. 

Maisonville (Masonville), Franci8,224, 
225, 298, 324, 329, 333, 335, 345, 346, 
386, 440, 570, 572, 576, 607, 651, 1057. 

Maisonville, Mons. De, 1064. 

Malheff, Joseph, 1064. 

Malboy, W^illiam, 585. 

Malbroff, Joseph, 1064. 

Mallet, P., 740. 

Mammelle Hill, 298, 315, 571. 

Manafee, James, 1047. 

Manchester, 78. 

Manifee, Jonas, 847. 

Mansiack, 259. 

Marietta, 908, 921. 

Marietta College, 773. 

Mark, Thomas, 1060. 

Marketan Indians, 246. 

Marr, Patrick, 847, 1118. 
I Mars, Alexander, 859, 1116. 

Digitized by 


1 1 76 


Marsh, John, 1064. 

Marshall, John, 112. 

Marshall, Sarah, 1008. 

Marshall, William, 1064. 

Marshall, Humphrey, History of Ken- 
tucky, 806. 

Martin, Captain, 460. 

Martin, Charles, 847. 

Martin, Elijah, 1064. 

Martin, Joseph, 1064. 

Martin, L., 1117. 

Martin, Pierre, 1064. 

Martin, Silas, 667. 

Martin, Solomon, 1064. 

Martin, Thomas Bryan, 963. 

Martin's, 582. 

Martinshurg, 693, 963 note. 

Martin's Fort, 72, 459. 

Martin's Stition, 680. 

Marysville, 1122. 

Mascoutin (Mascoutainge) Indians, 
219, 679. 

Mason, Charles, 585, 1061. 

Mason, George, 89, 90, 91, 99, 102, 411. 

Massac Road, Old, 166. 

Master, Barney, 1034. 

Mathews, Colonel, 638, 639, 640, 642, 
644, 647, 999. 

Mathews, Edward, 1061. 

Mauldinpr, ,582. 

Maumee, 986. 

Maumee (Miamis) river, 228, 548. 

Maumie Indians, 205, 422. 

Maurisette, M., 1064. 

Mauron, Peter, 1065. 

Maxwell, John, 1040. 

May, John, 798. 

Mayfield, Elijah, 1064. 

Mayfield, Isaac, 1064. 

Mayfield, James, 1064. 

Mayfield, Micajah, 847. 

Mayfield creek, 674. 

May's Lick creek, 80. 

Maysville, 78, 85, 288, 684, 966. 

Meadow Indians, 499. 

Meadows, Josiah, 1065. 

Meamonie Indians, 400. 

Means, John, 145, 150. 

Mechegame (Mechigamie) Indians, 
400, 420. 

Memphis, 1122. 

Menafield, Joseph, 1042. 

Menaze, Marie, 1054. 

Menomini (Minomie) Indians, 678. 

Mercer, Charles F., 878, 883. 

Merideth, Susana, 1119. 

Merrill, Samuel, 917. 

Merriweather, James, 841. 

Merriweather, William, 841, 1118. 

Mershorn, Nathaniel, 847. 
Meurin, Father, 184, 185, 186, 187. 
Meyers, see Mires. 
Miami (Miamie, Meami) Indians, 246, 

3(53, 548. 576, 695, 795. 
Miami (Meamies, Miamis, Meyamee) 

river, 228, 429, 724, 727, 733, 758, 

759, 796. 
Miami Town, see Aux Miamis. 
Miamis, 692, 696, see Aux Miamis. 
MiehiHmackinac (Mackinaw, ^lacki- 

nac), 172, 184, 225, 395,477,500,509, 

553, 554, 564, 677. 
Middle Fork, 960. 
Middle island, 725. 
Middletown, 751. 
Miles, Michael, 841. 
Millar, Ahraham, 847, 1034. 
Millar, George, 1035. 
Miller, Anderson, Jr., 1123. 
Miller, EHzabeth C, 1123. 
I Miller, John, 1065. 
i Milton, Daniel, 1065. 
I Mingo Town, 60. 
I Min^oe Indians, 259. 
Mime, Francois, 686. 
Mires (Miers, Mvers, etc.), Williaiji, 

349, 381, 382, 395, 398. 403, 544, 546, 

575,576,847, 1100. 
Missesogie Indians, 205, 422. 
Missie, Bernard, 1065. 
Missouri Indians, 510. 
Mobile, 699. 
Momib, 298. 

Monbrun, Timothy, 1036. 
Monet, J. B., 1065. 
Monongahail, 558, see Redstone. 
Monongahela river, 60, 61, 62, 67, 106, 

122, 123, 132, 469 note, 471, 558, 563. 
Monroe, James, 847. 

Montgomery, , 367. 

Montgomery, Captain, 581. 
Montgomery, Edward, 1065. 
Montgomerv, Ensign (Lieut.) James, 

367, 374, 577, 841, 1118. 
Montgomery, John, 137, 139, 140, 153, 

1H3, 203, 243, 258, 265, 280, 369, 370, 

372, 373, 380, 414, 449, 473, 489, 552, 

553, 676, 689, 690, 696, 737, 839, 1068. 
Montgomery, John, 847, 1119. 
Montgomery, William, 1065, 1118. 
Monticello, 54, 160. 
Montreal, 184 note, 236, 259, 450, 727. 

Moor, , 715. 

Moore, , 955. 

Moore, James, 1067. 

Moore, James F., 383, 857, 1080, 1117, 

Moore, John, 842, 487. 

Digitized by 




Moore, Peter, 1066. 

Moore, Robert K.. 60, 61. 

Moore (More), Samuel, 79, 84, 85, 467, 

Moore, Thomas, 847, 1118. 
Moran, Peter, 1065. 
Moravian Indians, 717. 
Moorehead (Morehead), George, 365 

note, 585. 
]^Iore's Fort, 682. 
Morgan, Charles, 585, 842, 1118. 
Morris, Jacob, 1065. 
Morris, James, IOCm. 
Morris, Richard, 830, 832. 
Morris, William, 1065. 
Muhlenberg, Colonel, 1002. 
Muhlenberg, Peter, m)l, 992. 
Mulberiy Hill, 43, 44, 45, 899. 
Mulby, William, 1061. 
Mumnailly, Joseph, 1065. 
Munam, Joseph, 1065. 
Munronv, Sylvester, 1065. 
Munsic Indians, 259. 
^lurdock, Edward, 1051. 
Murony, William, 1061. 
Murphy, John, 847, 1118. 
Murray, Daniel, 478, 1044, 1045, 1047, 

Murray, Edward, 1048. 
Murray, Thomas, 1061. 
Murry, Edward, 847. 
Murreer, Edward, 1035. 
Muskingum river, 64. 

Mustache, , 1065. 

Muter, -George, 1059. 
Muter, Judge, 801. 
Myers, Catherine, 383. 

Nagle, Maurice, 1118. 
Nakionin, 503. 
Nail, N., 946. 
Nan, Conrad, 1065. 

Nash, , 149. 

Nash, Francis, 1065. 

Nashville, 288, 289, 956. 

Natchez, 259, 275, 401, 610, 649,811, 

815, 935, 936. 
National Gazette, 791. 
Nave, Conrad, 1065. 
Neal, John, 1065. 
NeaviUe, J.,946. 
Neelie, H., 582. 
Neilson, N., 1118, 1119. 
Nelson, Enoch Gerrard, 847. 
Nelson, General, 702. 
Nelson, Governor, 712. 
Nelson, John, 1065. 
Nelson, Moses, 1065. 
Nelson, N., 1118. 

Neville, John, 1003. 

New Albany, 664, 665 note, 942. 

Newcomb, Silas, 159, 160. 

Newcomerstown, 61. 

Newell, J., 946. 

New Madrid, 188, 1012. 

New Market, 1122. 

New Orleans, 143, 170, 364, 399, 401, 
448, 576, 959. 

Newton, Peter, 848, 1119. 

New York, 613, 614, 625, 626, 638, 639, 
648, 651, 652, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 

Niagara, 225, 363, 450, 545. 

Nicholas, Colonel, 702. 

Nickajack Expedition, 956. 

Nine-Mile creek, 940. 

Nobbs, Mark, 1065. 

Norris, , History of the Shenan- 
doah Valley, 962. 

Northwest 'territory, states created 
from, 766; articles of compact, 768; 
seal of, 769. 

OTallon, Benjamin, 46, 49, 50, 51, 894, 
1010, 1124. 

O'Fallon, James, 832, 1010. 

O'Fallon, John, 46, 49, 60, 51, 870, 894, 
1010, 1019, 1124. 

0*Fin, James, 1065. 

O'Hara, James, 470. 

O'Harrow, Michael, 848. 

Oakdale, 288. 

Oakley, John. 848. 

Oates, Samuel, 1065. 

Ochipwa Indians, 679. 

Oharrard, Captain, 414. 

Ohio Company, 6<». 

Ohio river, mouth of, fort at contem- 
plated, 6()6; order to raise settlers 
for, 667; need for fort at, 669, 699; 
garrison necessary for, 701. 

Ohio Valley Historical Series, 244, 410, 

Ohnabadie, 386. 

Oliver, John, 1065. 

Oliver, Lewis, 1065. 

Oliver, Turner, 1065. 

Ome (Omi, Omee), see Aux Miamis. 

Omi river, see Maumee. 

Opay Indians, 400. 

Opequon creek, HI. 

Opost, 510, 511, 516, 553, 691, 692, 810, 
816, see Vincennes. 

Orben, Philip, 1034. 

Orde, Captain General of Dominica, 

Ordett, Lewis, 1065. 

Oreer, Daniel, 848. 

Digitized by 




Oreer, Jesse, 848. 

Oreer, John, 842. 

Oreer, William, 848. 

Orleans, 150. 

Orr, Major, 956. 

Orr, Robert, 722. 

Oaburn, Ebenezer, 848. 

Otisco, 1122. 

Ottawa (Ottawav, Outaway) Indians, 
205, 400. 422, 503, 678, 679, 791. 

Ottawa (Otawa) river, 259. 

Otter Lifter, 957. 

Oaabash Indians, see Wabash Indi- 

Ouiatanon (Ouiattanong, etc.), 187, 
219, 288, 354, 427, 510, 695, 802. 

Ouiatanon (Ouiattanong) Indians, 219, 

Ouitown (Weatown), 512, see Wea- 

Oundsley, Charles, 848. 

Outagamie Indians, 679. 

Ouyas, 372. 

Owdidd, Lewis, 1065. 

Owen, George, 1118. 

Owens, ^, 62. 

Owens, Abednego, 675. 

Owens, David, 61. 

Owens, George, 674, 675. 

Owens, Thomas, 675. 

Ozark (Osark), 414. 

Pagan, David, 848, 937, 1119. 
Page, John, 92, 875. 
Paguin, Francis, 1065. 
Pamcourt, 187. 
Pain tree, John, 848. 
Pangrass, Francis, 1035. 
Pangrass, Joseph, 1035. 
Pangrass, Michael, 1035. 
Panther, Joseph, 1065. 
Paper Money, see Continental Money. 
Papers Continental Congress, 409. 
Parault, Peter, 1065. 
Parisiewne, Baptist, 1065. 
Parker, Ann, 941. 
Parker, Colonel, 1006. 
Parker, Edward, 842. 
Parker, Nat, 1119. 
Parkinson, James, 585, 608, 1057. 
Parraderushi, see Prairie du Rocher. 
Parsons, Samuel II., 791, 792. 
Parton, James, 10. 

Parton, James, Life of Thomas Jeffer- 
son, 919. 
Patten, James, 145, 146, 151 note, 848. 
Patten's creek, 146. 
Patterson, John, 1065. 

Patterson, Robert, 81, 842, 985. 

Patterson, Samuel, 864. 

Patterson, William, 1065. 

Patton, James, 151 note. 

Patton, Martha, 151 note. 

Patton, Mary, 151 note. 

Patton, Peggy, 151 note. 

Paul, John, 848, 941, 1119. 

Paul, John Peter, 942. 

Paul, Michael, 941. 

Paul, Sarah Grover, 941. 

Paulus Hook, 993. 

Payne, Adam, 1065. 

Payne, William, 1065. 

Peaian Indians, 576. 

Pearce, Ann, 903. 

Pearce, Edmund, 1123. 

Pearce, Eliza, 1123. 

Pearce, James Anne, 1123. 

Pearce, John, 45. 

Pearce, Jonathan, 1123. 

Pearce, Martha, 1123. 

Peau Kashaa Indians, 231. 

Peepin, M., 1065. 

Peersley, William, 1119. 

Pellot, Charles, 1065. 

Peltier, Joseph, 1065. 

Pencour, 678, 679, 680. 

Pendergrest, Garret, 579. 

Penett, Joshua, 1065. 

Pensacola, 340, 402, 538, 699. 

Pepin, John, 1065. 

Peoria, 187. 

Peoria (Peoreana) Indians, 246, 400, 

Perault, James, 1053. 
Perault (Perrault) , Lieut. Michael, 373, 

841,937, 1119. 
Perkins, Samuel, 151 note. 
Perot, Nicolas, 1036. 
Perrian Indians, 400. 
Perry, William, 585, 608. 
Pertin, Captain, 582. 
Peters, John, 580, 848. 
Petersburg, 702, 1122. 
Petit Fork river, 292, 569. 
Petite Riviere (Wabash), 228. 
Pettice, Antoine, 1054. 
Pettit's, 581. 
Pevante, Michael, 736. 
Phelphs, Josiah, 848. 
Phelps, Thomas, 1051, 1055. 
Philadelphia, 366, 576, 625, 642, 695, 

711, 712,999. 
Philips, Henry, 1065 

Phillibert, , 739. 

Phillips, General, 612, 633, 634,635, 638, 

639, 654, Qd^. 

Digitized by 




Piankeshaw ( Peankishaw, Pianka- 

shaw, etc.) Indians, 204, 223, 231, 

246, 368, 400, 420, 440, 445, 451, 538, 

547. 551, 939. 
Piatt, Donn, 1«0. 
Pickawa, 759. 

Pickens, Samuel, 145, 146, 848, 1119. 
Pickering, Benjamin, 585, 608. 
Piere, William, 1061. 
Pipgot, James, 1067. 

Pilcher, , 978. 

Pillakishaw Indians, 246. 

Piner, Jesse, 848. 

Piqua, 682, 683, 684, 693. 

Pirtle, Henry, 410, 913. 

Pittman, Buckner, 842, 937, 1118. 

Pittsburg, 75, 78, 106,122,123,128,143, 

164, 170, 260, 371, 400, 402, 429, 463, 

470, 510, 512, 542, 554, 580, 718, 722, 

731,1003, 1031. 
Pittsburg Gazette, 933. 
Point Pleasant, battle of, 64, 138, 253, 

602, 959. 

Pollock, , 401, 689. 

Pontiac, 490, 506. 

Pool, Lucy, 830, 831. 

Poores, Archer, 1061. 

Pope, William, 10r>5, 1118, 1119. 

Pope, Worden, 891, 895, 963. 

Port Fulton, 1122. 

Portsmouth, 992. 

Porter, Ebenezer, 1065. 

Portwood, Page, 1061. 

Posey, Thomas, 864. 

Post Vincennes, see Vincennes. 

Potier, Pere, 226. 

Potomac river. 111. 

Pottawattomi (Pottawatima, Powto 

wantamie, etc.), Indians, 205, 246, 

400, 422, 506, 54<S. 679. 
Potter, James, 10«>5. 
Potter, William, 1065. 
Poue Indians, 400. 
Powell, I^vin, 1051, 1056. 
Powell, Micajah, 1065. 
Poweirs mountain, 582. 
Powell's river, 582. 
Powell's valley, 582. 
Powlin, Captain, 581. 
Prairie du Chien, 678. 
Prairie du Rocher (Parra de Rushi), 

185, 193, 198, 212, 214, 430, 513, 559, 

Prather, Henry, 848. 
Prescott, Alexander, 365 note, 686. 
Preston, Colonel, 645. 
Price, Meredith, 135. 
Princeton, Battle of, 1006. 
Prichard, William, 842, 1119. 


Priest, Peter, 848, 967. 

Prisoners, Treatment of daring the 

Revolution, 625. 
Proctor, General, 1006. 
Pruitt, Josiah, 848. 
Puan (Puant) Indians, 205, 246, 422, 

Pulford, John, 848. 
Puncrass, Francis, 1065. 
Puncrass, Joseph, 1065. 
Purcell, William. 848. 
Purviance's mill, 178. 
Pyatt, Jacob, 1052. 

Quebec, 172, 175, 184, 225, 477, 559, 

Quebec, Bishop of, 187, 188. 
Querez, Pierre, 743. 
Quick (Quirk), Captain Thomas, 373, 

Quimette, I. B.,586. 
Quiquaboe Indians, 219. 
Quirk, see Quick. 

Rabey, Cader, 1065. 
Raccoon creek, 955. 
Radford, Harriet Kennedy, 1018. 

Rainbault, , 607. 

Ramsey, James, 848. 

Ramsey, Joseph, 1060. 

Ramsey, Lieutenant, 374. 

liandall, Robert, 106,5. 

Randolph, Captain, 714. 

Randolph, Nathaniel, 79, 960, 961, 

Randolph, Thomas Jefferson, 64. 
Randolph, Wilson C. N., 54. 
Ranger, J. B., 1061. 
Rapin, I. B., 586. 
Rath, Frederick, 1119. 
Ravenscroft, Thomas, 1060. 
Rawdon, Ix>rd, 640, 654, 658. 
Ray, Andrew, 1060. 
Ray, James, 86. 
Ray, John W^, 133, 863, 864. 
Ray, William, 579, 848. 
Raymond, Orlando, 859, 1115. 
Reager, Elizabeth, 151 note. 
Reager, Henry, 151 note. 
Reager, Jacob, 145, 150, 151 note. 
Reager, Mariah, 151 note. 
Reager, Sarah, 151 note. 

Reaume, , 365 note. 

Reaume, Charles, 585. 

Rector, Elias, 964. 

Rector, John, 1061. 

Redd, Samuel, a5. 

Redstone, 106. 413, 469, 470, 558, 941, 


Digitized by 




Red Stone Old Fort (Settlement), 122, 

128, 152. 
Reed, Governor, 718. 
Reed, Luther IL, 270. 
Reidevel, General, 612. 
Renard (Rhenard) Indians, 240,609, 

()78. See Fox Indians, 

Renau, , 277. 

Renault, , 198. 

Reynolds, John, 912. 

Reynolds, John, Pioneer Tlistory of 

Illinois, 16.5, 169, 177, 209, 288,318, 

938,952, 9(U. 
Rhoads, Daniel, 927. 
Rhye Cox, 682. 
Rice, John, 1061. 
Richards, Dick, 1066. 
Richards, Lewis, 1061. 
Richland creek, 682. 
Richmond, Indiana, 987. 
Richmond, Virginia, 280, 612, 655, 656, 

702, 703, 712, 991,992. 

Riddle, , 673. 

liiedsel, General, 612. 

Rifle shooting in pioneer days, 375. 

Riley, Patrick, 10(>5. 

Rittenhouse, David, 160. 

Rivanna river, 63, 65. 

Riviere a 1' Anglais, 229. 

Riviere a Boete, 229. 

Rohert, I., 686. 

Roberts, Benjamin, 927, 1060, 1061. 

Roberts, Elias, 1065. 

Roberts, G. C, 895. 

Roberts, John, 1060. 

Roberts, Joseph, 1065. 

Roberts, William, 1060. 

Robertson, Donald, 66. 

Robertson, Lieut. James, 372, 841. 

Robertson, John, 1061. 

Robinson, Donald, 36. 

Robinson, Richard, 1065. 

Rochblave, Phihp, 169, 171, 172, 175, 

176, 177, 194, 221, 224, 225, 227, 243, 

262, 267, 420, 477, 489, 569, 560, 564, 

661, 664. 
Rockcastle river, 681. 
Rockhill, W. W., 1029. 
Rock island, 867. 
Rock river, 209. 

Rodgers, Augustus F., 11, 871 note. 
Rodgers, David, 1061. 
Rodgers, Joseph, 1065. 
Rodgers, Mrs. Serena L., 871. 
Rogers, Ann, see Ann Clark. 
Rogers, Byrd, 35. 

Rogers, Colonel, 262, 263, 401, 551. 
Rogers, Edmund, 828. 

Rogers, George, 36, 280, 683. 

Rogers, Giles, 35. 

Rogers, Giles, Jr., 36. 

Rogers, John, 243, 262, 280, 404, 436, 
620, 646, 668, 576, 607, 608, 609, 669, 
683, 840. 

Rogers, John, 31. 

Rogers, John, 33. 

Rogers, John, 36, 1118. 

Rogers, Joseph, 79, 683. 

Rogers, Lucy, 35. 

Rogers, Mafv, 35. 

Rogers, Mildred, 35. 

Rogers, Rachel, 35. 

Rolins, Anthony, 1051. 

Rood, Jesse, 1050. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, The Winning of 
the West, 176, 800, 914. 

Rose, , 148. 

Ross, James, 1061. 

Ross, John, 1061. 

Ross, Joseph, 848, 1119. 

Rousseau, Lovel H., 903 note. 

Rowan, John, 891. 

Rowland, Kate M., Life of George 

Mason, 100. 
I Roy, Julien, 1061. 

Royal Spring, 947. 

I Rozier, , Histor}*^ of the Missis- 

I sippi Valley, 284. 

Rubey, William, 842, 848. 

Rubideau, James, 1065. 
' Rubido, Francis, 1061. 

Rudido, James, 1065. 

Ruddell, , 673. 

Ruddell, Elizabeth, 143. 

Ruddell, Isaac, 111, 112, 121, 142, 840. 

Ruddeirs Station, 142, 680. 

Ruddle, Cornelius, 848. 

Rue, Richard, 986. 

Ruland, Israel, 740. 

Rulison, William, 848. 

Running Fly, The, 367, 577. 

Ruschan, Francis, 1065. 

Russel, Benjamin, 1065. 

Russell, , 263. 

RusselPs creek, 830. 

Rutherford, Larkin, 1065. 

Ryan, Andrew, 1061. 

Ryan, Lazerus, 1061. 

Sac (Sack) Indians, 205, 246, 400, 422, 

678, 679. 
Sacqueville, Jean, 318. 
Sadavis, Bel, 365 note. 
Sadler, William, 365 note, 585. 
Saguina, 503. 
Saguina Indians, 678. 

Digitized by 




St. Andre, Pierre, 586. 

St. Clair, Arthur, 188, 189, 393, 394, 

St. Croix, Lieutenant, 443. 
St. Francis XavierChurch,Vinceone8, 

321, 323, 338, 339, 376, 377, 378. 
Saint Genevieve, 186, 485, 514. 
St. Jean, Mary, 184 note. 
St. Joseph, 765. 
St. Joseph's river, 553, 554. 
Saint Leger, Lieutenant-Colonel, 216. 
St. Louis, 187, 192, 267, 268, 277, 289, 

477, 483, 677,811. 
St. Louis Trail (Trace), 288, 289. 
St. Mary, Baptiste, 1066. 

St. Michaels, , 1066. 

St. Philipps (St. Phillipe), 186, 193, 

198, 559, 564, 565. 
St. Pierre, I. B., 586. 
St. Vincents, see Vineennee. 
Salem, 288, 289. 
Saline river, 292, 569. 
Salt river, 693. 
Sample, Samuel, 932. 
Sanders, see Saunders. 
Sanders, Mrs., 581. 
Sandusky Indians, 694. 
Sandusky, Jacob, 79, 959. 
Sandy inland, 970. 
Sargent, Winthrop, 189 note, 740, 742, 

Sartine, John, 848. 
Sartine, Page, 848. 
Sassafras Bottom, 726. 
Saunders (Sanders), John, 165, 167, 

168, 415, 475, 848, 923. 
Saunders, Joseph, 1060, 1117. 
Sauk Indians, 509. 
Savage, Bryan, 1065. 
Savage, Dominick, 1065. 
Savannah, 992, 1006. 
Sawyer's, 582. 
Sayge Indians, 205, 422. 

Scaggs, , 581. 

Scates, David, 1065. 

Scharf, , St. Louie, 198, 921. 

Schieffelin (Shiflin), Lieutenant Jacob, 

576, 333, 585, 607, 651, 1057, 1058. 
Schmitt, Rev. Edm. J. P., 13, 184, 

Scioto river, 63, 260, 726, 966, 1030, 

Scoggin, Jonas, 1118. 
Scott, Charles, 947, 966, 993. 
Scott, William, 3()5 note, 586. 
Searay, John, lOiib. 
Searcy, John, 1065. 
Scare, William, 1065. 
Sebastian, Benjamin, 49, 1118, 1119. 

I Sellersburg, 1122. 

Sennilt, Richard, 1065. 

Severage, John, 1065. 

Sevems, Ebenezer, 849, 960. 

Sevems, John, 849, 960, 985, 1065, 

Sevbold, Robert, 1067. 
i Shackleford, Samuel, 1117. 
! Shadwell, 54, 55. 
I Shanklin, Robert, 960. 
I Shannon, , 715. 

Shannon, Mins, 270. 
' Shannon, Captain Samuel, 722, 724, 
' 726, 729, 789. 

Shannon, Captain W., 325. 531. 

Shannon, William, 1050, 1052, 1065. 

Shank, Jacob, 10()5. 

Shank, John, 1065. 

Sharlock, James, 1065. 

Shaw, Joseph, 1119. 

Shawanee Spring, 579. 

Shawnee (Shawanoe, Sawanav, etc.), 
Indians, 228, 241, 246, 259, 261, 400, 
452, 457, 553, 554, 759, 791, 799. 

Shawnee (Shawna) Towns, 450, 727, 

She, Edward, 365 note. 

Shea, , History of the Catholic 

Church in America, 188. 

Shelby, Captain Isaac, 549, 581, 821, 

Shelby, Captain James, 373, 840. 

Shelby, Edward, 365 note, 58(>. 

Shelbyville, 750. 

Shelly, Edward, 586. 

Shepard (Sheppard), George, 849, 

Shepard (Sheppard), Peter, 849, 1119. 

Shepardstown, 711. 

Sherlock, James, 1065, 1117. 

Sherman, John, 921. 

Shoemaker, Leonard, 1065. 

Ship, William, 1065. 

Shores, Thos., 579. 

Shryer, John D., 859, 1116. 

Siburn, Christopher, 1065. 

Sigonier, Francis, 1065. 

Sills, Samuel, 1061. 

Silver creek, 828, 832, 861. 

Simmons, J. M., 1050. 

Simpson, Thomas, 849, 1035. 

Simpson ville, 751. 

Sinclair, British lieutenant-governor, 
677, 679. 

Sinclair, John, 145, 150, 151 note. 

Sioux (Scioux) Indians, 679. 

Sitzer (Setzer), John, 145, 146, 849, 

Sitzer (Setzer), Michael, 849, 1034. 

Digitized by 




Skaggs, H., 945, 946. 

Skaggs's creek, 581, 954. 

Skinnor (Skinner), Alex., 925, 1119. 

Slack, William, 849, 1034. 

Slaughter, Colonel George, 691, 692, 
753, 781, 1060, 1065, 1119. 

Slaughter, Jamt;8, 1060. 

Slaughter, John, 1061. 

Slaughter, Joseph, 1060. 

Slaughter, Ensign (Lieutenant) Law- 
rence, 373, 841, 1119. 

Slaughter, Major, 258, 259, 750. 

Slaughter, Mary, 693. 

Slaughter, Robert, 692. 

Slaughter, Theo., 946. 

Slaughter, Thomas, 1119. 

Small wood. General, 702. 

Smith, Captain, 413, 414, 681. 

Smith, Charles, 962. 

Smith, Mrs. C. M., 951. 

Smith, David, 1065. 

Smith, George, 849. 

Smith, Henry, 1055. 

Smith, John, 710, 962, 1055. 

Smith, Joseph, 36 note, 1065. 

Smith, Josiah, 1061. 

Smith, Randal, 1065. 

Smith, William (B.), 106, 127, 128,469, 
471, 472, 849, 1119. 

Smith's islands, 658. 

Smithers, John, 1065. 

Smock, Henry, 1065. 

Smothers, John, 1065. 

Snellock, Thomas, 1065. 

Snow, George, 849. 

Society of the Cincinnati, 283. 

Sodowsky, Jacob, 79. 

Sotaio Indians, 503. 

Southall, J. v., 13, 36, 53, 54, 55. 

Sowers, Frederick, 1066. 

Spanish Ozark, 401. 

Sparks, Jared, writings of Washing- 
ton, 635, 641, 642, 647, 656, 707. 

Sparta, 288, 289. 

Spear, Jacob, 849, 1034, 1035. 

Speeds, Mayor, 135. 

Speers, Jacob, 1034, 1035. 

Spencer, John, 1066. 

Spilman, Francis, 849. 

Spilman, James, 849, 1119. 

Spittle (Spittal), George, 585, 608. 

Spottsylvania, 788. 

Spriggs, Joseph, 1118. 

Springfield, 209,951. 

Springville, 1122. 

Stagner, Barnev, Sr., 580. 

Stauntfm, 111, 932. 

Steel, David, 828. 

Stephenson, John, 1061. 

Stephenson, Samuel, 849. 
Stephenson, Stephen, 1119. 
Sterling, Lord, 993. 
Steuben, Baron, 703, 709, 713. 
Steubenville, 60, see Mingo Town. 
Stevens, Benjamin, F., 6&0. 
Stevens, Shep., 849. 
Stevenson, Benjamin C, 942. 
Steward's Crossing, 65. 
Stewart, British Indian agent, 241. 
Stewart, Sandy, 146. 
Stoball, Thomas, 1066. 
Stockley, Thomas, 722. 
Stone Fort Mound Builders, 1122. 

Stoner, , 580. 

Stoner's creek, 960. 
Stout, Elihu, 322. 
Strasburg, 979. 
Stratton, Sigismund, 960. 
Strode, Sam, 842, 1119. 
Stroud, Samuel, 1034. 

Stuart, , 222. 

Stuart, John T., 951. 

Stuart, Robert, 951. 

Sturgus, Minor, 891. 

Sturgus, Peter, 1055. 

Sugar Camp, 303, 304, 315, 325, 524, 

525, 531. 
Sullivan, General, 450, 647. 
Sullivan, George Rogers Clark, 870. 
Sutherland, John, 585, 608. 
Swan, John, 841. 

Swan, William, 145, 146, 149, 849, 1041. 
Swearingen, Van, 849. 
Sworden, Jonathan, 849. 

Talley, John, 849. 
Tamarois Mission, 185. 
Tandy. William, 37. 
Tannehill, Ensign, 712, 717. 
Tanguay, Repertoire, 184 note. 
Tardivan, Bartho., 1117, 1118, 1119. 
Tarsacon, Bartho., 1117, 1118, 1119. 

Taschereau, , History du Semi- 

naire de Quebec, 184 note. 
Tauway Indians, 205, 422. 
Taylor, Abraham, 849. 
Taylor, Benjamin, 1066. 
Taylor, Cap^n E., 67. 
Taylor, Edmund, 962. 
Taylor, Edward, 1066. 
Taylor, Captain Isaac, 374, 840, 1119. 
Taylor, Jack, 957. 
Taylor, James, 1066. 
Tavlor, Richard, 857, 1080. 
Tavlor, Thomas, 1066. 
Tavlor, William, 586, 608, 849, 1058. 
Tavlor, Zachary, 857. 
Teall, Levi, 849, 937. 

Digitized by 



1 183 

Teliaferro, Richard C, 1066. 

Temple, Benjamin, 1123. 

Temple, Eleanor, 1123. 

Temple, Eleanor E., 903. 

Ten Mile, 123. 

Ten Mile creek, 61. 

Tennessee river, 164, 167, 261, 415, 474, 
894 956 

Terrell, Richard, 832, 857 note, 1081, 
1117, 1118, 1119. 

Tewell, Ann, 151 note. 

Tewell, Jessie, 151 note. 

Tewell, John, 151 note, see Tuel. 

Tewell, Mary, 151 note. 

Tewell, Winnie, 151 note. 

Thomas, Edward, 1066. 

Thomas, Henry, 383, 1118, 1119. 

Thomas, ^, Travels in the West, 


Thompson, Captain, 727. 

Thompson, Charles, 772. 

Thompson, James, 1066. 

Thompson, Moses, 961. 

Thompson, William, 849, 1118. 

Thorini^n, Joseph, 1066. 

Thornton, Joseph, 849. 

Three Islands, 726. 

Thruston, R. C. Ballard, 11, 44, 45, 977. 

Thruston, Alfred, 964. 

Thruston, Algernon Sidney, 964. 

Thruston, Charles Mija, 1055. 

Thruston, Charles Mvnn, Sr., 961, 9(52. 

Thruston, Charles Mynn, 48, 49, 962, 
1010, 1124. 

Thruston, Buckner, 961 . 

Thruston, Catherine, 964. 

Thruston, Charles William, 1010. 

Thruston, Elizabeth Taylor, 963. 

Thruston, Fanny Badella, 964. 

Thruston, George Mynn, 964. 

Thruston, John, 841, 961, 964. 

Thruston, Lucius Falkland, 964. 

Thruston, Mary Buckner, 963. 

Thruston, Sarah, 964. 

Thruston, Thomas Whiting, 964. 

Tigard, Daniel, 1119. 

Tillis, Griffin, 1066. 

Tippecanoe, battle of, 1010. 

Tipton, Abraham, 1066. 

Tobacco's Son, 204, 223, 308, 326,451, 

Todd, Captain, 580. 

To<id, David, 949. 

Todd, Eliza, 949. 

Todd Hannah, 951. 

Todd, J., 946. 

Todd, Rev. John, 253. 

Todd, John, county lieutenant, com- 
mand of defeated by Indians, 78, 

464; displeased with Capt. Mont- 
gomery, 138; appointed county lieu- 
tenant of Illinois, 249 ; instructions 
to, 249; biographical sketch, 252; 
mention of, 255, 258 ; complained of 
Capt. McCarty, 278; appointment 
by, 356 ; Clark pleased by appoint- 
ment of, 401, 449; elected a burgess, 
680 ; letter of Clark to, 668 ; letter of to 
Gov. Jefferson, 671 ; letter to regard- 
ing La Balme, 695 ; troubles in Illi- 
nois during absence of, 735, 736; 
order regaining continental money, 
738, 745; land grants, 741, 743, 744; 
opposed building of Fort Nelson, 
756; killed, 758. 

Todd, John, Jr., 949, 951. 

Todd, Levi, 253, 841, 951, 985. 

Todd, Levi Luther, 949, 950. 

Todd, Mary, 949. 

Todd, Owen, 951. 

Todd, Robert, 81, 82, 83, 253, 373, 579, 
780, 840, 947, 1068, 1118. 

Todd, Robert N., 950. 

Todd, Robert 8., 951. 

Todd, Thomas, 816. 
i Todd, Thomas J., 949, 950. 

Toley, Daniel. 

Tompert, Mayor, 135. 
; Towles, Colonel (lieutenant), 652,654, 
! 655. 

Towow Indians, 246. 

Transylvania, 70. 

Transylvania company, 77. 

Tranthan, Martin, 1066. 

Travis, Robert, 145, 150, 151 note. 

Traylar, Henry, 1035. 

Treat, Beverlv, 842. 

Trigg, General, 964. 

Triplett, Pettis, 1066. 

Tripolet, Simon, 1055. 

Trotter, F., 1054. 

Trough Spring, 994. 

Tuel, John, 145, see Tewell. 

Tumbull, , 982. 

Turpen, Richard, 1066. 

Turpie, David, 920. 

Tuttle, Nicholas, 1066. 

, Two Islands. 726. 

Tygert, Daniel, 849. 

, Tyler, Henrv, 998 

T^ler, Henr>' S., 998. 
Tyler, William, 849. 

Underhill, James, 1066. 
Underwood, Joseph Rogers, 35, 683. 
Union Prairie, 302. 
Upper Blue Lick creek, 80. 
Utica, 366, 1122. 

Digitized by 




Valade, I. B., 586. 

Vallaite, Jean Batiste, 740. 

Valley turnpike, 115. 

Vance, Hanley (Handle), 849. 

Vance, Thomas H., 1035. 

Vanceburg, 967. 

Vanmeter, Isaac, 849, 967. 

Vannieter, Jacob, 841. 

Vanmeter Ferry, 945. 

Vaucheres, , 73s. 

Vauchers, Jean, 1047. 

Vaughan, John, 842, 1119. 

Veale, Peter, 10()6. 

Veasey (Vesev^ Ruben, 585, 608. 

Venshioner, 6eorge, 849. 

Vermillion river, 803. 

Viaux, Louis, 586. 

Vick, Henry W., 1123. 

Vick, Sarah, 1123. 

Vickrqy, Thomas, 1061. 

Vigo, Francis, 260, 262, 267, 275, 276, 
277, 396, 436, 568. 

Villard, Isaac, 1066. 

Villiers, Francis, 1061. 

Vincennes (St. Vincents, St. Vin- 
cennes), British post, 82; plan of 
Clark for expedition against, 82, 87, 
467; plan laid before Governor 
Henry, 88, 468; approved and ap- 
propriation made, 92, 468; name 
changed, 111; departure of expedi- 
tion, 158, 473; post of considerable 
strength, 163, 473; spy sent to, 177; 
Father Gibault sent to, 187; his of- 
fer to win allegiance of, 192, 419; 
population French, 199; Gibault se- 
cures allegiance to America, 200, 201 , 
419, 487, 488; Captain Helm placed 
in command at, 203, 420, 490; situa- 
tion at, 203,428; lack of news from, 
211; in possession of British, 211; 
Captain Bowman buried at, 214; 
British retreat to, 214; condition of 
post, 218 ; news of Clark's approach 
to, 224; British hope to capture, 
227 ; scouts from captured, 229, 231 
British emissary sent to, 231 ; ap 
proach of British, 232; capture by 
234, 429 ; size of British force, 235 
518; oath of allegiance taken by in 
habitants, 239; fort repaired, 240 
meeting proposed by Hamilton at 
241 ; capture long unknown to Clark 
241; information from, 246; inten 
tion of Clark to retake, 260, 436 
519; condition of British force at, 
261, 518 ; attractions of, 268 ; friend 
ship of inhabitants for Clark, 275 
date of capture by British, 275, 429 

purpose of Vigo's visit to, 276 ; val- 
uable information secured bv, 277, 
436, 518, 568 ; size of Clark's expedi- 
tion against, 284 ; departure of expe- 
dition, 287, 437, 568 ; distance from 
Kaskaskia, 288, 437; intercommu- 
nication with, 289; Clark's march 
to, 292, 437, 569 ; approach to, 302, 
307 ; 571 ; Clark's letter to inhabit- 
ants, 309, 439, 572; attack, 310, 439, 
572; topography about, 312, 315; di- 
agram of streets near fort, 323; 
Clark's force in town, 324; inhabit- 
ants furnish him ammunition, 326; 
progress of siege, 327, 573 ; Indians 
killed before fort, 342, 574 ; capitu- 
lation of Hamilton, 347, 574; evacu- 
ation of fort, 349, 575; dates of 
events in siege, 353 ; excitement in 
town, 357; officers appointed for 
town and fort, 366, 577; prisoners 
taken to Kaskaskia, 367, 576; a 
point to be guarded, 372; death of 
Major Bowman at, 374 ; buried at, 
376; old burial grounds, 377; com- 

gany raised for garrison at, 672; 
iritish plan against, 678; LaBalme 
raised men at, 694 ; fort necessary, 
699; garrison necessary, 701; dis- 
satisfaction, 737, 795, 798, 799; fraud 
in land claims, 740 ; depreciation of 
currency, 745; troubles of garrison, 
747; condition of affairs, 797; hos- 
tility at, 804; garrison established 
by Clark, 805; goods impressed and 
trouble resulting, 807: court of in- 
quiry demanded by Clark, 813; re- 
Eort of investigating committee, 814. 
ee Opost. 
Vincennes Historical and Antiquarian 

Society, 567. 
Vinette, Nicholas, 586. 
Virginia, relations to Transylvania and 
the Kentucky country, 70 ; Kentucky 
settlers send delegates to, 71 ; execu- 
tive council of sends powder to Ken- 
tucky, 75; recognition of Kentucky 
as part of, 75 ; is entitled to credit 
for Clark's campaign. 124 ; reimburse- 
ment by federal government for ex- 
penses of campaign, 126; cession of 
country N. W. of Ohio to federal 
government. 126, 779; importance of 
capture of Illinois posts to, 245 ; reso- 
lutions of legislature praising Clark, 
248; legislation respecting Illinois 
country, 248; neglect of western 
troops, 780; relieved Clark of com- 
mand, 783. 

Digitized by 



I 185 

Virginia State Papers, 124, 625, 632, 1 
671, 696, 704, 709, 711, 712, 715, 716, 
717, 722, 733, 748, 750, 753, 756, 757, 
758, 780, 781, 782, 784, 811, 813. 

Volets, Les, 229. 

Vonshiner, Thomas, 1066. 

Voorhees, Daniel W., 272, 920. 



Wabasha, 678. 

Wadde, David, 1067. 

Waddengton, John, 1066. 

Waggoner, Peter, 1066. 

Walen, Barney, 850. 

Walker, John, 842, 1061. 

Walker, Thomas, 849. 

Walker's Mill, 178. 

Wall, John, 585, 608. 

Wallabout Bay, 613. 

Wallace, Caleb, 1059. 

Wallace, David, 1066. 

Wallace, Judge, 801. 

Wallace, Mrs. William S., 951. 

Walls, Major, 781. 

Walnut Hill, 288. 

Walters, Barnabav, 1034. 

W. :ter8, Lewis, 1066. 

Walz, George, 1066. 

Ward, Lewis, 1066. 

Ward, Thomas, 1066. 

Warren's, 583. 

Warren's island, 571. 

Warrior's island, 303, 307, 31 1, 315, 324, 

385, 527, 530, 571. 
Warsaw, 693. 
Washington, Georgia, 59, 581, 632, 63^, 

637, 638, 639, 642, 653, 655, 656, 7()-», 

713, 716, 730, 740, 867, i)63 note, 993. 
Washington, Warner, 963. 
Washington, 178. 
Waters, Richard Jones, 1117, 1118, 

Watkins, Captain Charles G., 581 , 582. 
Watkins, Samuel, 366 note, 585, 850, 

1118, 1119. 
Watson, 1122. 
Wayne, Anthony, 822, 947. 
Wayne campaign, 144 note, 180. 
Wea Towns, 204, 370, 512, 549, 552, 675, 

see Ouiatanon. 
Weaugh, The, 510, 511, 554. 
Webb, George H., 895. 
Weedon, Colonel, 1003. 
Weight, William, 1066. 
Welch, Dominique, 850. 
Welch Indians, 510. 
Wells, Samuel, 751. 
Wells, William, 144. 
Wemate, J. B., 1066. 

West Augusta, 395, 4l3, 1031. 

West, Charles, 1055. 

West, John, 1066. 

Western Courier, 888. 

Western Sun, 791,995. 

Westham, 702. 

Westover, 702. 

West Point, Ky., 977. 

West Point, N. Y., 634, 641. 

Wethers, Benjamin, 10()6. 

Wharton, William F., 770. 

Wheat, Jacob, 106<). 

Wheel, Jacob, 1066. 

Wheeler, John, 1066. 

Wheeling, 62, 64, 123, 128, 470, 714, 717, 

718, 722, 723, 725, 732, 1031, 1032. 
Wheeling creek, 62, 260. 
Whitacre, David, 10(J6. 
White, Charles, 82, 464, 579. 
White Indians, 970. 
White, Layton, a50. 
White, Randall, 850. 1119. 
White, Randolph, 10()1. 
White river, 280, 3f;5, 438, 520, 533, 551. 
White, William, 1066. 
Whitecotton, James, 850, 967, 1119. 
Whitehead, Robert, 850, 1119. 
Whitehead. William, 850, 1119. 
Whiting, Elizabeth Thruston, 1K>3. 

Whitley, ,581. 

Whitley, William, 8,50, 952, 1119. 

Whitley's Station, 954. 

Whitten, Daniel, 10()6. 

Wickliffe, Robert, 253. 

Wickoff, William, 1119. 

Wiggin's Point, 971. 

Wilkinson, William, 1066. 

William, Jarred, 1119. 

Williams, Daniel, 850. 

Williams, David, 9<)0. 

Williams, Ensign, 373. 

Williams, George, 1066. 

Williams, James, 736. 

Williams, Jarrott, 841. 

Williams, John, 202, 279, 298, 349, 373, 

374, 386, 398, 541, 546, 571, 575, 576, 

607, 608. 690, 840. 
Williams, John, 842. 
Williams, Zachariah, 1066. 
Williams & Co., Thomas, 274. 
Williamsburg, 72, 75, 87, 94, 106, 160, 

172, 175, 243, 280, 38:^, 441, 459, 461, 

463, 468, 575, 576, 583, 609, 615, 618, 

619, 651, 656, 991. 
Willing (Willings), Captain James, 

298, 366, 399, 570, 576, 638, 649, a=>0. 
Willing, The, 280, 349, 354, 367, 391,436, 

568, 575, 577. 
Wilson, Benjamin, 830. 

Digitized by 




Wilson, Edward, 850. 

Wilson, Elizabeth, see Elizabeth Clark. 

Wilson, General, 658. 

Wilson, Hugh, 579. 

Wilson, John, 1061. 

Wilson, Lieutenant Thomas 373, 841. 

Wilston, 759. 

Wilton, Daniel, 1065, 1066. 

Winchester, 68, 111, 654, 656, 712, 932, 

Winnipigoe Indians, 679. 
Winsor, Christopher, 1066. 
Winston, R., 478. 
Winston, Richard, 695, 735. 
Witherspoon, Dr., 949. 
Witt, Robert, 850. 
Wood, Charles, 1066. 
Wood, James, 850. 
Woodstock, 63, 991, 992. 
Woolfolk, George, 895, 1124. 
Workman, Conrad, 1061. 
Worthington, Charles, 151 note. 
Worthington, Edward, 81, 82, 83, 145, 

146, 151, 262, 279, 298, 349, 367, 373, 

374, 386, 437, 571, 575, 577, 579, 698, i 


Worthington, Elizabeth, 151 note. 
Worthington, Marv, 151 note. 
Worthington, Will'iam, 279, 437. 
Worthington 's Fort, 151. 
Wray, Thomas, 1066. 
Wright, William, 1066. 
Wyandot Indians, 259, 791. 
Wythe, George, 89, 90, 91, 99, 102. 

Xenia, 942. 

Yahogania C. H., 715. 
Yates, Isaac, 850, 967. 
York, 111, 652, 657. 
Young, Andrew, 365 note, 686. 
Young, John, 1061. 
Young, Thomas, 1066. 

Zackledge, William, 850. 
Zane, Isaac, 963. 
Zickledge, William, 1119. 
Zimmerman, Frederick, 1066. 
Zockledge, William, 850. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


This book should be returned to 
the Library on or before the last date 
stamped below. 

A fine of five cents a day is incxirred 
by retaining it beyond the specified 

Please return promptly. 





3 2044 097 905 780 

-'^*- fi . *»i , . .